1 Arithmetical Machines devised by Sir Samuel

1  Overview1.1   What is AI?Artificial Intelligence is a way ofmaking a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software thinkintelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.John McCarthy is called the Father ofArtificial Intelligence and as per him Artificial Intelligence is “The science and engineering of makingintelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.1.2   History of AIThe History of AI began in4th century B.

C. whenAristotleinventedsyllogistic logic, the first formal deductive reasoning system.Later in 13th centuryTalkingHeadswere said to have beencreated byRoger BaconandAlbertin the same periodRamon Lullinvented machines for discoveringnon-mathematicaltruths throughcombinatoricsand in 1206 A.D. an Arab inventorAl-Jazaridesigned what is believed to be the firstprogrammable humanoid robot, a boat carrying four mechanical musicians poweredby water flow.

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15th and 16th Century·        In 1456 Gutenberg Bible wasprinted by Johannes Gutenberg using moveable type ·        Clocks, the first modernmeasuring machines, were produced using lathes·        Clockmakers extended theircraft to creating mechanical animals and other novelties. For example, seeDaVinci’s walking lion (1515)17th and 18th Century·        Pascal created the firstmechanical digital calculating machine·        In between 1662-1666Arithmetical Machines devised by Sir Samuel Morland were introduced·        In 18th Centurylarge quantity of Mechanical toys like mechanical duck of Vaucanson and vonKempelen’s phony mechanical chess player were introduced19 Century·        The first programmable machinewith instruction on punched cards was introduced by Joseph – Marie Jacquard·        The story of Frankenstein’smonster was published by Mary Shelley and were made available by projectGutenberg20th CenturyIn 20th Century AI took modern shape and automatedfurther to a new form.·        In 1950’s Early AI programslike Samuel’s checkers program, Newell & Simon’s Logic Theorist,Gelernter’s Geometry Engine were introduced·        In 1956 AI was adopted at theworkshop held at Dartmouth college which was attended by Allen Newell, HerbertSimon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders andleaders of AI research.·        In 1958 John McCarthy (MIT)invented the Lisp language.·        In 1962 First industrial robotcompany, Unimation was founded.

·        In 1967 first Dendral Programby Edward Feigenbaum, Joshua Lederberg, Bruce Buchanan, Georgia Sutherland atStanford was demonstrated to interpret mass spectra on organic chemicalcompounds. First successful knowledge-based program for scientific reasoning.·        In 1980’s LISP machines weredeveloped and marketed·        In 1990’s there were Majoradvances in all areas of AI, with significant demonstrations in machinelearning, intelligent tutoring, case-based reasoning, multi-agent planning,scheduling, uncertain reasoning, data mining, natural language understanding andtranslation, vision, virtual reality, games, and other topics.·        In 2000’s Interactive robotpets (a.

k.a. “smart toys”) become commercially available, realizingthe vision of the 18th cen. novelty toy makers.1.

3   Goals of AI·        Intelligent execution of user requestsin the operating system·        To provide reliability andbetter support to customers·        To Create systems thatunderstand, think, learn, and behave like humans for the purpose of learning,behavior etc.1.4   What Contributes to AI?Artificial intelligence is a science andtechnology based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology,Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering. A major thrust of AI is in thedevelopment of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such asreasoning, learning, and problem solving.Out of the following areas, one ormultiple areas can contribute to build an intelligent system.·        Philosophy·        Computer Science·        Psychology·        Sociology·        Neuron Science·        Math’s·        Biology1.

5   What is AI Technique?AI Technique is a manner to organize anduse the knowledge efficiently in such a way that:·        It should be perceivable by thepeople who provide it.·        It should be easily modifiableto correct errors.·        It should be useful in manysituations though it is incomplete or inaccurate.According to the area of research,differenttypes of techniques are used.

Some of the examples are:Intelligent Data Analysis in Medicine·        Multilayer perceptrons asnonlinear classifiers and estimators·        Gaussian mixture models·        Hidden Markov models·        Kernel methods·        Bayesian networks·        Netalg: Neural Network tool boxfor RCognitive Modelling·        Connectionist models (neuralnetworks)·        Pulsed neural networks·        Neuronal modelling based ondifferential equationsKnowledge-Based Systems·        Temporal data abstraction·        Intelligent information visualization,metaphor graphics·        Integration of informationtechnology with telecommunication1.6   Applications of AIArtificial Intelligence has manyapplication’s in today’s society and plays an important role in our day to daylife in the fields such as Marketing, Finance, Medical, gaming and many other.AI has been dominant in various fields as below:·        GamingAI plays an important role in games suchas chess, poker as it can think of large number of possible moves then humanmind.·        Natural Language ProcessingNatural language processing makes itpossible to interact with computer that understands natural language spoken byhumans.·        Expert SystemsThere are some applications which integratemachines and software to provide explanation and advice to the users.·        Vision SystemsThese systems understand, interpret, andcomprehend visual input on the computer.

·        Speech RecognitionThese systems are capable of hearing andcomprehending the language in term of sentences and their meanings while humantalks to it.·        Handwriting RecognitionThis system reads the text written onpaper or on a screen. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert itinto editable text.·        Intelligent RobotsRobots have the sensors to detect physicaldata from temperature, movement, sound, light, heat etc.

and perform the taskgiven by human.1.7   Programming with and withoutAI?A typical program has three major segmentsinput, processing and output.

The comparison between regular programming and AIprogramming is described in the below table:Table 1: Programming with andwithout AI Segment Regular Programming AI Programming Input In regular programming, input is a sequence of alphanumeric symbols presented and stored as per some given set of previously stipulated rules and that uses a limited set of communication media such as keyboard, mouse, disc, etc. In Artificial Intelligence programming, the input may be a sight, sound, touch, smell or taste. Sight means one dimensional symbol such as typed text, two dimensional objects or three dimensional scenes.

Sound input includes spoken language, music, noise made by objects. Touch includes temperature, smoothness, resistance to pressure. Smell input includes odors emanating from animate and inanimate objects. And taste input includes sweet, sour, salty, bitter foodstuffs and chemicals. Processing In regular programming, processing means manipulation of the stored symbols by a set of previously defined algorithms.

In AI programming, processing includes knowledge representation and pattern matching, search, logic, problem solving and learning. Output In regular programming, output is a sequence of alphanumeric symbols, may be in a given set of colors, that represents the result of the processing and that is placed on such a medium as a CRT screen, paper, or magnetic disk. In AI programming, output can be in the form of printed language and synthesized speech, manipulation of physical objects or locomotion i.e., movement in space.

2  Intelligent SystemsAn intelligent system is a machine withan embedded, Internet-connected computer that has the capacity to gather andanalyze data and communicate with other systems.2.1   What is Intelligence?The ability of a system intelligence is tocalculate, reason, perceive relationships and analogies, learn fromexperience,store and retrieve information from memory, solve problems, comprehendcomplexideas, use natural language fluently, classify, generalize, and adapt newsituations.2.2   Types of IntelligenceThe types of Intelligence are:·        Linguistic Intelligence·        Musical Intelligence·        Logical – MathematicalIntelligence·        Spatial Intelligence·        Intra Personal Intelligence·        Interpersonal Intelligence2.3   What is intelligence composedof?·        Reasoning·        Learning·        Problem Solving·        Perception·        Linguistic Intelligence2.

4   Difference between human andmachine intelligence?Table 2: Difference between humanand machine intelligence Human Intelligence Machine Intelligence Humans perceive by patterns Machines perceive by set of rules and data Humans store and recall information by patterns Machines search by algorithms Humans can figure out the complete object even if something is missing Machines cannot figure out 2.5   Intelligence in our day to daylifeMachine intelligence is used in our dayto day life in various areas such as ·        Post OfficeAutomatic address recognition and sortingof mail·        BanksAutomatic check readers, signatureverification systems and automated loan application classification·        Telephone CompaniesAutomatic voice recognition for directory inquiries·        Credit Card CompaniesAutomated fraud detection·        Computer CompaniesAutomated diagnosis for help-deskapplications3  Research areas of AIThe research area of AI is vast and huge.Some of the common research areas in the domain of AI are:·        Expert Systems·        Neural Networks·        Robotics·        Fuzzy Logic·        Natural Language Processing3.1   Real life applications ofresearch areasThere are large number of applicationswhere AI is helping people in their day to day lives:Expert SystemsAn expert system is used for solvingcomplex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented primarily by if-thenrules rather than by conventional procedural code.Example: Flight tracking systems,Clinical systems.Neural NetworksNeural networks are system ofinterconnected which exchange messages between each other and are used forapproximate functions or it estimates a large number of inputs which aregenerally unknown.

Example: Pattern recognition systems suchas face recognition, character recognition, handwriting recognition.RoboticsRobotics is mainly composed of electricalengineering, mechanical engineering and computer science engineering forconstruction, designing and application of robots.Example: Industrial robots for moving,spraying, painting, precision checking, drilling, cleaning, coating, carvingetc.Fuzzy LogicFuzzy Logic was introduced in 1965.

It isa form of many valued logics in which truth table values of variables may be a realnumber between 0 and 1.Example: Consumer Electronics,Automobiles etc.Natural Language ProcessingIt is a method of communicating with anintelligent system by using natural language such as English. The input andoutput of NLP system is written in text or speech.Example: Google now feature.

3.2   Task Classification of AIThe task classification of AI is into 3classes:1.    Expert Tasks2.

    Mundane Tasks3.    Formal TasksExpert TasksExpert tasks are as follows:·        Financial Analysis·        Medical Diagnosis·        Scientific Analysis·        Engineeringo   Designo   Fault Findingo   ManufacturingMundane TasksMundane tasks are as follows:·        Perception·        Vision·        Speech·        Common Sense Reasoning·        Robot ControlFormal TasksFormal tasks are as follows:·        Games·        Mathematics·        Proving Properties of programse.g. correctness.4  AI IssuesSince AI is developing at a high pace andthere are different opinions among researchers and developers that it might getdifficult for humans to control. Some of the issues and threats are:·        Threat to privacy·        Threat to Human Dignity·        Threat to Safety·        Weaponization·        Unemployment·        Inequality·        Humanity·        Racist Robots5  Terminology and AbbreviationsTable 3: Terminology andAbbreviations Term Meaning AI Artificial Intelligence NLP Natural Language Processing AI An artificial intelligence is a machine that can think the way people think.

Machine Learning Machine learning is a subset of the larger artificial intelligence category. Cognitive Computing It means the same as artificial intelligence Neural Network A computer system inspired by living brains. Algorithm A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer. Data Mining It is all about looking for patterns in a set of data. It identifies correlations and trends that might otherwise go unnoticed.

Natural Language Processing It is an area of artificial intelligence related to understanding and generating speech the way humans usually use it. Turing Test The Turing Test is named for its inventor, Alan Turing, an early computer scientist who theorized extensively about artificial intelligence.

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