1.2 Problem Statement

As environmental safety is now a global concern, a way to limit the environmental impact while additionally presenting high-quality customer service is a crucial difficulty for hotel industry (Han and Yoon, 2015). Butler (2008) factors out that most customers tend to hold bad impression towards green hotel practices because these practices want additional costs to enforce, which affects room prices to be higher and inconvenient for customers.

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Rresearch shows that tourists is probably inclined to stay in green hotel but do no longer want their encounters to be compromised by the green practices. (e.g. bath tubs with low water volume; reuse towels and linens) (Berezan et al., 2014). Despite that, although there are numerous ideas and projects to support the green hotel, the reserve revenues for green hotels neither elevated nor reduced (Chong & Verma, 2013). Even though the number of green hotels continues to increase, studies at the guest’s stay intention is still inadequate. Most of preceding researches in green hotel field had been focused on the consumer’s perception on green hotel (Cometa, 2012); management motivation to adopt the green hotel practices (Kamalul Ariffin, Khalid, & Wahid, 2013); and customer satisfaction on green hotel (Robinot & Giannelloni, 2010); impact of personality traits and marketing strategy (Mohamad et al., 2014).

This study at is vital in view that there is a conflict of benefits among hotels, society and customers in Malaysia. Moreover, from hotel perspective understanding what affects their customer’s stay intention can help them design their business version to be both aggressive and green. There are quite a number of pro-environmental studies have extended TPB with cognitive elements such as environmental awareness and perceived moral obligation (Chan et al., 2014; Kaiser, 2006). The aim is to investigate if the additional variables together with TPB can better explain customers’ intentions to stay green hotels in Malaysia.

1.8 Research Questions
? The research questions (RQ) for this study are:
? Objective 1. What is the amount of economic order of the Aref Contracting Company ?
? Objective 2. Does the company buy in the amount of the economic order?
? Objective 3. What basic inventory models are most common for contractor companies and manufacturing companies?
? Objective 4. What should be the size of the inventory?
? 5. Is there a link between inventory levels and profitability?
1.9 Scope of Research
Inventory management is really a very broad area, but this study is limited to contractor companies, with special reference to the Aref Contractor Company in Jeddah Saudi Arabia.
the Investigations in this project is to what extent the inventory managment have affected the profitability, efficiency e.t.c. Also, attempts are made to analyses
any cost savings . Efforts are also made to relate the level of inventory to the level of production and sales. Finally, inventory costs are related to the levels of profit with the aid of basic statistical tools .
1.10 Significant of the Study
It is important to consider the social and economic commitment to the growth of the country . So that all the ways that will improve the company’s growth ,it must be exploited, so the researcher’s hope is that this study is useful for owner of Aref Contractor Company and others.
This research project would help the management of Aref Contractor Company, to identify the most influential risk of inventory management and production. Furthermore, the study will also help the management of the company, to guide against losses .
1.11 Report Organization
In this course, three chapters will be covered that comprises introduction, literature review, and methodology.
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction
Of course, no one thought of an issue in the same way, but the profit of the companies depends on the good management , an issue that seems to be unanimous among the leaders of the company. This is what happened here, when we try to examine and examine the past and present work that deals with inventory management and the development of an economic quantity model suitable for contractor companies. The subject of inventory management has sparked much debate in public debates, workshops and symposia, at the local, national and international levels, between public institutions and policy makers, organizations and academics. Various efforts have been made through the management of new businesses through projects, incentives, etc. For the organization of workshops in the same field. A study of most scripts in inventory management has some common and interesting features. Many of these writings deal with most of the problems associated with inventory management; others still focus on the best inventory management model.
This literature review was largely based on journals, some ,owner interview and expert opinions on issues relevant to the objectives of this study. It is divided into the following items:
? Historical sketch of inventory problems
? Specification of an inventory system
? Problem of inventory management
? Inventory Management Techniques
? Re-Order Level
? Economic Order Quantity
? Just-In-Time.
? Vendor Managed Inventory
? Activity Based Costing ( ABC )
? The balanced scorecard

spite of the fact that agreeing to Barnes (2008) stock is looked at as a risk beneath the just-in-time (JIT) control framework. He agrees with the way accreparing (Fellows and Rottger (2005) and Shapiro (2009)). Shapiro, (2009) also advises that stock plays a crucial part when it comes to demand 15 planning and as a result, the organization needs to be flexible in its management of its stock when it comes to occasional or regular inventories.
Directors cannot avoid inventory management since it shapes the basis of their in general performance through disposal of uncertainties in their management. For the boards and management of Aref Contractor Company to find out that they are performing over standards, inventory management metric measures should be over board so that they may keep up the management’s certainty (Shapiro, 2009). Subsequently, Just-in-time concept has been found to have a few outlandish hidden cost that increment the cost of doing business in a few cases such as little suppliers to expansive companies .
In any case, the management of stock is important because the firm will be keen to guarantee that its resources and stock are well managed and request estimating is improved to avoid spontaneous acquirement. Stock can double up as stock and resources respectively. Therefore, when an organization improves request estimating, it enables the minimization of operational costs as well as client satisfaction (Hines and Bruce, 2007). When this is often done, it enables an organization plan for the longer term consequently applying different factors that an organization can use for its objective achievement to be specific: request and supply, taken a toll and staff requirements.
2.3 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF INVENTORY PROBLEMS: Although inventory problems are as old as history itself, it has only been since the turn of the century that any attempts has been made to employ analytical techniques in studying these problems. The initial impetus for the use of mathematical methods in inventory analysisseems to have been supplied by the concurrent growth of the contractor company and the various branches of engineering, – especially industrial engineering. The real need for analysis was first recognized in industries that had a combination of production scheduling problems and inventory problems i.e. in situations in which items were produced in lots – the cost of set up being fairly high – and then stored at a factory warehouse (Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R. and Ray, S., 2003).
The inventory system is basically an input-output system. In order to arrive at the best inventory policy i.e. the best decision rules for when and how much to order, it is necessary to have a clear picture of the inventory system.
Figure 1 An input-Output representation of an Inventory System.
The problem of inventory involves the formulation of decision rules that answer two important questions:
1. When to place an order (or configure it for production) to restoreinventory?
2. How much should you ask for (or produce) for each supply? the decision-making rules should aim to meet the expected demand at a minimum or maximum cost of benefits.

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organizations try to progress on the stock management, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Re-order Point (ROP) are critical tools that organizations can use to guarantee that stock supply does not hit a stock out as explained by Gonzalez and Gonzalez (2010). Over time, organizations have been keeping up their stock in a haphazard way which has required a change within the way firms conduct their business. Stock outs have been experienced adversely leading to client dissatisfaction hence; firms are changing their approach to be able to stay important by employing Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Re-order Point (ROP) for client satisfaction.
The derivation of the basic EOQ model (Quantity of economic order) is quite simple in a situation
Figure 2 EQO Equivalents
To determine the economic order quantity given the fixed demand assumption, we can
evaluate the following model:
D = Total annual demand in unit
Q = Economic order quantity in unit
D/Q = Number of orders placed and received during the year
Q/2 = Average inventory
Co = Cost of placing an order
Cc = Carrying cost per unit of inventory during the year
Total inventory cost is defined as the whole of ordering cost and carrying cost. To define total inventory cost in terms of the controllable variable order amount (Q), we must express both types of cost in terms of amount. Total ordering cost can be gotten by multiplying the number of orders D/Q by the cost of placing an order (Co), consequently:
Annual ordering cost = D/Q Co
So also, annual carrying cost can be found by multiplying the carrying cost per unit of inventory (Cc) by the average number of units in stock (Q/2). This expression for average inventory accept a steady rate of demand all through the year.
Annual carrying cost = D/2 Cc
Combining the two components, we get total inventory cost for the period:
TC = D/Q Co + Q/2 Cc
Review that this variable can be controlled by management to yield the least cost for inventory amid a particular time period. From Fig. 2.5.2 we know that optimum solution is that quantity (Q*) that can therefore be gotten by setting the equation for ordering cost equals to the equation for carrying cost and solving for Q: thus:
Annual carrying cost = annual carrying cost
Cc Q/2 = DCo/Q
Cc Q2 = 2DCo
Q2 = 2DCo/Cc
Equation 1
The ideal solution is also obtained by separating the total cost function to get an equation that expresses the rate of change in total cost with respect to changes in quantity. When the first derivative of the total cost function is set equal to zero, the economic order quantity is obtained by solving for Q.
The operation is as follows in three steps:
1. Take the first derivatives of total cost function:
TC = D/Q Co + Q/2 CC
d(TC)/dQ = -DCo/Q2 + Cc/2
2. Set the first derivative equal to zero, and solve for Q:
-DCo/Q2 + Cc/2 = 0
Equation 2
3. Test to determine the solution is a minimum.
d2(TC)/dQ2 = 2DCo/Q3 0
Given the assumption of fixed demand, the equation can be utilized in finding the economic order quantity (Q*), which is equal to the square root of 2 times demand (D) times ordering cost (Co) divided by carrying cost (Cc) For example; assume the following example:
D = 3000 units per annum
Co = N30
CC = N2 per unit per year
To obtain the Economic order quantity, we evaluate the basic equation using the values for demand, ordering cost and carrying cost.
Q = ?(2 × 300 × 30 ÷ 2)
Q = 300 units
The optimum order quantity is 300 units. Observe that a total of ten order will be placed.
D = 3000 = 10
Q* = 300
For a total cost due to ordering of 300. Average inventory will be 150 units.
Q*/2 = 300/2 = 150
an inventory carrying cost will equal N300. Therefore, total inventory cost will be equal to N600.
2.6.3 Just-in-time
Just-in-time (JIT) is a positive performance to the company . Inventory should be managed by using JIM to reduce loses and customer`s satisfaction. Invontory management in organizations that kept too much stock in their warehouse were an wasteful supply chain, whereas those that kept very few stock in their warehouse were exceptionally productive (Lai and Cheng, 2009). Thus, it was found out that keeping direct stock is nice and it empowers an organization work minimal costs of holding costs as well as keep setup cost at bare minimum, increase
2.6.4 Activity Based Costing Analysis
Fellows and Rottger (2005) agree that having stock in your store has an advantage for the organization since clients will be satisfied immediately . With stock in your warehouse, an organization has the advantage of timely delivery . Thus, Aref Contractor Company got to guarantee that they have adequate stock for their operations . One way they can accomplish this is thorough the “Pareto Analysis” also known as Activity Based Costing (ABC) analysis. ABC analysis is where stocks are classified into three categories to be specific : A – stock items that are of high value and material to the organization but low volume such as building and engine vehicles; B – stock items which are of medium volume; C – stock items baring minimal value but are of big volume .
2.6.5 Vendor Managed Inventory
Management of inventory decides the way an organization will pushed itself to tall performance efficiency. A few organizations have resulted to vendor managed inventory (VMI) systems which help the provider to monitor customer’s stock usage. Through this VMI system, clients will avoid stock outs since the suppliers will have already recharged their inventory. The key viewpoint here is communication which should be planned well from the starting of business relations between the supplier and the customer (Frahm, 2003). Vendor managed inventory saves an organization immense finance and time since the supplier will be able to monitor its customer’s stock levels and make a point of replenishing them. As the client and supplier connected, the communication channel has to be clear and quick so that they may avoid instances of stock outs. Where the client expects having an irregular order levels, they should notify the supplier so that they can adjust their production to cater
for the demand. Moreover, we presently have Joint Managed Inventory (JMI) which is an progress level of vendor managed inventory (VMI). It looks for to integrate the supplier more firmly into the customer’s organization by using the point of sale (POS) which permits the supplier to see the real time data of its customer’s stock (Frahm, 2003).
2.6.6 The balanced scorecard
The balanced scorecard has been used to evaluate the quality of inventory management performance measure and its improvement. In any case, the balance scorecard complements financial measures of past performance with measures of drivers of future performance. The objectives and measures for organizational inventory management performance come from four perspectives; financial, client, internal process and learning and development (BPP, 2008). Consequently, Aref Contractor Company Balance scorecard in relation to transport management has been molded to upgrade its transport and requirements owing to the fact that it has multi-discipline functionalities in its operations. The performance management of Aref Contractor Company has been improved and progressed to foster smooth running of the institution over Jeddah ,Saudi Arabia by guaranteeing that clients are treated well (Sutherland, David and Alistair, 2002).
2.7 Theoretical Recommendation
It is expected that the application of Economic Order Amount, Marginal Analysis, and Just-in-Time, will improve Aref Contractor Company performance. As the staff gets it the strengths of having these strategies, at that point the unnecessary costs caused will be avoided. Therefore, the strategies will progress performance within the following ways:
No Inventory Management Techniques How Performance Improvement will be achieved 1 Economic Order Amount Ability to know how much and when to replenish stock 2 Activity Based Costing Analysis The organization is able to account for each inventory according to its classification and this can be achieved through the Pareto analysis . 3 Just-in-Time Requesting stock when they are required thus reducing storage/holding costs
Vendor Managed Inventory Improving on inventory management systems by engaging outsourced suppliers to management inventory observing and replenishment.
Table 1 Theoretical Recommendation.
3.2 Method for Information collection and analysis
The information used for this investigation were collected from primary and secondary sources of information.
The information were collected from the works accountant, production manager, marketing manager, sale official and other people from the chosen company. It was facilitated through questions, perception and oral interview. These
instruments and other means of information collection were found convenient for this study because they helped to induce the view of the literate members of the
The result of existing literatures on stock management helped in~measurablyi n directing the researcher during the study. Other secondary sources of information include:
2.Magazines and Periodicals
3.Reference books and Dictionaries
4.Course reading materials
5.Secondary information also exists within the company
6.Examination of the company’s yearly reports and journals.
3.3 Pilot survey
A pilot overview was carried out to eliminate all ambiguous questions from the study instrument used. The pilot study was similarly carried out since the level of understanding contrasts among the respondents. The sample for this pre-testing was drawn from the company reviewed. The pilot study empowered the researcher to test the respondents’ attitudes to the questions and terms used.
3.4 Sample techniques
For easier collection of information, only Aref Contractor Company was used as a case study, since all others might not be covered as a result of time and financial constraints. The observations and results got from the company were used to generalize and predict what is obtainable in all other contractor companies, particularly within the areas of their stock management.
Majority of the questions within the survey have relevance to the speculation and investigate questions raised earlier. Information from the different questions were categorized concurring to their pertinence to the confirmation of the theory of this research project and realization of the stated goals. The information were analyzed
management techniques in Aref Contractor Company .It was established that Aref Contractor Company has worked for more than ten years meaning they have been developing . However, the Aref Contractor Company should embrace inventory management techniques so that they can gain more profits and they extend all across of Saudi Arabia



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In spectrum sensing, hypothesis testing is widely used to test the sensing result for the presence of PUs to efficiently utilize the spectrum. We first explain binary hypothesis. In Binary hypothesis testing it sense either 0 or 1, 0 represents PU is not available and 1 represent PU available. It is widely used when parameters are known so, it requires also prior knowledge of known parameters. Based on fixed number of samples which means it has fixed sensing time. Binary hypothesis are further divided into two types.
? Neyman-Pearson test

In Neyman Pearson (NP) test, objective is to maximize the detection probability (Pd) than false alarm probability (Pf) which means Pd is always greater than Pf. LRT (likelihood Ratio test) is equivalent to NP test which shown below;

f (y|H1)
NP= __________

f (y|H0)

If NP > ? it represents H1 (PU available), otherwise H0 (PU isn’t available).

? Bayes test

In Bayes test, objective is to minimize the expected cost called Bayes Risk. Used to reduce the sum of all probabilities cost from probabilities of two incorrect decision cases.

Miss detection represented by P (H0 | H1)
False alarm represented by P (H1 | H0)
Probability detection represented by P (H1 | H1)

So, the Fusion Center minimize the Bayes risk by declaring H1 and H0 conditions.

As we mentioned above, Binary hypothesis testing is used when both hypotheses are known. In Composite hypothesis testing, it is widely used when there are unknown parameters in PDF’s. It doesn’t require prior knowledge of unknown parameters which is also called GLRT. The method which is commonly used to find the unknown parameters is by MLE (Maximum likelihood ratio). GLRT methodology is used because of its robustness and it is easy to implement.
? Another test, which is Rao test is typically used to detect the weak PUs at Fusion center. By the help of data fusion type (i.e. soft decision). Rao test is generally same like GLRT but doesn’t require MLE for unknown parameters.

? Another test, is linear test comes under Composite hypothesis testing is Linear test statistics, which is used to finding the unknown PUs as well as unknown channels .

? Third one is Statistic LMP detector is derived, when channel statistics are known. This model provides robustness to the interferences in Primary User signal also in channel gain. Also it is much reliable than NP- based LRT.
As previous hypotheses based on fixed number of samples and fixed sensing time, it is much different than both. Sequential testing is typically used to utilize spectrum by reducing sensing time, and requires variable number of samples. Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is proposed by Wald, which minimizes the sensing time as per detection performance.
In SPRT, samples are taken in sequence and then compared with both thresholds ?0 and ?1.
?0 ?1, FC decides H1
If likelihood ratio < ?0, FC decides H0

When ratio falls between two thresholds, it takes again observations until and unless it achieve final decision. The pros of SPRT is it requires fewer samples, less energy consumption, to achieve same detection performance.

? Based on known parameters
? Fixed samples
? Fixed sensing time
? Sense Either 1 or 0
? Requires prior knowledge
? Easy to implement
? Less expensive

? Based on unknown parameters
? Determine unknown parameter by MLE
? Fixed samples
? Fixed sensing time
? Doesn’t require prior knowledge
? Robust , easy to design
? Reduce sensing time
? Less energy consumption
? Much complex
? Expensive
? Have two thresholds
? Better performance

? In coherent sensing technique, it need prior knowledge of primary user signal to determine whether the signal channel is occupied or not.
? Need reference signal
? Types of coherent sensing technique

• Cyclostationary feature detection
• Matched filter detection

? In non- coherent sensing technique, it doesn’t need any prior knowledge of primary user signal to determine whether the signal channel is occupied or not.
? No need of reference signal
? Types of coherent sensing technique

• Energy detection
• Wavelet detection
• Compressed sensing

1. Backward marketing methods
Marketing strategy refers to the strategy of choosing and occupying the target market determined by enterprises according to their own internal conditions and external competitive conditions. Enterprises formulate marketing strategies with the aim of giving full play to their advantages, enhancing their competitiveness, better adapting to the changing marketing environment, and maximizing economic results with less marketing investment. (Baidu, 2018) STI was failure to keep its website updated, such as, no product details, no price display, no company information and no English version about website etc. STI lacked digital presence and digital marketing, such as, no social media advertising (Facebook, Twitter, Google, etc.) and no Mobile Apps. These would make STI at a disadvantage in the market competition.
2. Lack of excellent marketing team and market segmentation was not obvious
There were some problems in organizational structure, such as, no marketing manager to guide team for decision-making, no focus on Thailand 4.0 etc. The most important was that there was no clear market segmentation in STI, and the sales market only focused on Thailand without considering overseas market, which has no advantage to STI in the competition of the whole insurance industry.
5.3 Recommendations
1. Developing new markets
STI should pay attention to marketing and set up a special marketing department to focus on market research, analyze product data, find methods to enter the relevant market, then to occupy market share gradually, and at last to enter the overseas market.
2. New product development strategy
At the same time, STI should learn to find more potential customers in new markets though developing new products. Enterprise’s product development strategy needs certain technology, capital and cost basis, but in product development, first of all, managers must thoroughly understand the needs of the market, understand the needs of customers, and develop products that meet the needs of customers. And a product development strategy needs a certain degree of innovation, requiring STI to have certain innovation ability, and new product development strategy can improve the competitiveness and adaptability of STI quite well.
Face to Face:
1. Strengthening network marketing mode
STI needs to provide quality customer service and increase sales. The information communication of network marketing is bidirectional interaction and readability of information reading. It has selectivity and convenience in the process. In the process of online marketing, enterprises can effectively target potential customers and target customers, and provide high quality pre-sale and after-sale services.
2. Improving brand awareness and establishing loyal consumer groups
STI can highlight corporate brand publicity through personalized design of web pages, so as to establish a more personalized and humanized corporate image. At the same time, it is helpful for STI to update product information and tap consumers’ desire to consume by using the network to provide customers with relevant product information, such as new product usage information, new functions, new performance, and timely and appropriate replacement of new product information to maintain the enterprise’s online site. The freshness, attraction and affinity of information release can stimulate the potential consumption desire of new and old customers, and guide consumers to purchase products of enterprises, so as to increase the sales of new products.
3. Building a marketing team for market segmentation and positioning
Besides network sales, marketing should be carried out in various ways, such as mobile phone APP, TV advertisement, etc. In addition, it is necessary to build a marketing team to locate the market segmentation and research marketing strategy for STI and on this basis, SWOT model could be used to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the STI and the opportunities and challenges in the external market.
6.0 Accounting (week 5)
6.1 Case Background
Long-term housing banker informed CEO Uan that he needed to see STI’s accountant because he found some irregularities in STI, but the company’s accountant left three months ago and there was no new accountant yet. The head of HR, Ms. Goy, recommended her husband Tom as a new accountant, because she said Tom had a background in accounting. Tom said he would be happy to take up the position and would like to serve as a company accountant for a long time. However, because Tom had no accounting experience, although he has learned accounting knowledge, it is difficult for him to take over the actual work immediately.
Face to Face:
House banker asked CEO Mr. Uan to submit the company’s balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement to view the operation of STI. The banker wanted to meet the CEO and discussed the company’s financial situation with him, but Mr. Uan had no accounting knowledge and he did not know how to answer the banker’s questions at all. Hence, he hoped that the new accountant Tom (Mrs. Goy’s husband) would teach him some accounting knowledge to deal with the banker’s problems. At the same time, Tom had no accounting experience. His balance sheet and profit statement were incorrect. The imbalance sheet was also a big issue in STI.
6.2 Problem identification
No professional accountant
Accountants provide information and basis for the development of enterprises, forecast and analyze the business status of enterprises, and give advice and suggestions for business decisions. However, STI’s former accountant resigned three months ago, and there was no new accountant at present. Ms. Goy recommended her husband Tom as a new accountant, but Tom did not have practical work experience though he own accounting background.
Face to Face:
1. CEO has no basic accounting knowledge
The house banker asked to meet the CEO and discussed the company’s financial situation with him, but Mr. Uan had no accounting knowledge and he did not know how to answer the banker’s questions. He could not understand financial statements, nor could he understand accounting terms. This was very disadvantageous to STI, because only when senior leaders understand basic accounting knowledge could they know the current financial situation of the company and make correct economic decisions.
2. The imbalance sheets
The imbalance sheet was also a big issue in STI. Financial statements are to reveal the financial situation, operating results and cash flow of an enterprise in a certain period comprehensively and systematically, which are beneficial for top managers to understand the accomplishment of various tasks and indicators of their own companies, to evaluate the performance of managers, so as to find problems in time, to adjust the direction of operation, and to formulate measures to improve the management level and to improve the economy. It also provides the basis for economic forecasting and decision making. The imbalance sheet in STI would lead managers to fail to understand the financial situation of their enterprise, which has a negative effect on the development of STI.
6.3 Recommendations
Strengthening HRM and recruiting excellent professional accountants right away
Adjust the organizational structure of STI, strengthen the management of human resources department, pay attention to employee recruitment and training. Once employees leave, HR department should be able to find qualified replacement staff immediately. Ms. Goy, HR Director, should pay more attention to staff turnover, recruitment and training. She needed to keep abreast of STI’s human resources.
Face to Face:
There were two ways of solutions, the one was short-term solution and the other was long-term solution.
As for short-term solution:
1. Prepare the correct financial statements, such as balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, etc. because the correct financial statements could help top leaders understand the current financial situation of STI and know how many assets and liabilities STI has, so that they could make wiser decisions.
2. Ask Tom to help CEO Uan quickly understand the most basic financial knowledge and prepare for meetings with the house banker. If possible, postpone the meeting.
3. STI needed to immediately find a professional accountant from accounting firm to train Tom so that Tom could better understand the actual financial management.
As for long-term solution:
1. It was necessary for STI to hire senior financial experts to build an excellent professional financial team to handle STI’s current and future budget, procurement, investment, financing, capital operation and other financial affairs.
2. The recruited accountants should be meritocracy rather than cronyism in order to avoid encountering family conflicts which would result in corruption and other issues.
3. Set up a supervision department to supervise financial issues and prevent conflicts of interest.
7.0 Finance (week 6)
7.1 Case Background
Online: Introduce to Financial Markets
STI financial manager Ms. Money Penny said COO Dr. Pok asked her to invest a lot of money in Bitcoin because he believed that Bitcoin had benefited a lot in recent years. But for her, investment cannot be blind, it needed to consider potential risks and the development of financial market. She hoped that consultants could help her persuade COO to carefully consider investment decisions and do not blindly invest in order to make money.
Face to Face: Financing and Investing
As a financial manager, Mrs. Money Penny has never played her role since the death of her former CEO. The new CEO was not aware of STI’s current financial situation, Mr. Uan and Dr. Pok did not attach importance to the financial department, nor did they ever require companies to prepare financial statements and predict business activities, which led to Mrs. Money Penny’s intention of finding a new job.
7.2 Problem identification
Blind investment
The upper managers did not trust the financial manager Mrs. Money Penny and did not accept her opinion about investment decisions. At the same time, COO Dr. Pok desired to invest blindly in bitcoin without prediction and planning, which would cause unpredictable economic losses to STI.
Face to Face:
1. The top leaders never check the company’s financial statements, nor do they attach importance to the opinions of the financial department.
2. Mrs. Money Penny, the financial manager, has never played her role since the death of her former CEO and she decided to hunt for a new job.
3. STI has no real investment plan in place.
7.3 Recommendations
In term of bitcoin investment, STI should consider the current situation of the company regarding its accounting & finance department which is not well set up, no report or serious financial plan has been developed yet. The recommendation is to focus first on having a performing department with the right people in the right positions. Once change implementations are executed and the financial situation of STI is under control, further discussions about specific investments can be faced.
Face to Face:
1. Top managers should pay more attention to financial manager and set up a proper accounting team to support the financial manager. The importance of financial manager to the company is urgently known by CEO, COO and HR. It is important to have recordkeeping before moving further on with complex analysis.
2. STI needs to create a Financial Planning and Analysis (FP&A) team for budgeting, forecasting, and analysis, which will be used to support the most important corporate decisions. According to Principles of Best Practice FP&A (Lawrence Serven, 2017), it is significant that effective FP& A will have a positive impact on the company and it also shows the benefits of good practices.
3. To hire a professional finance firm to be STI consultant in the case if top managers insist on distrust Mrs. Penny or She left STI.
4. In terms of Mrs. Penny, she could make all financial statements and information transparency so that other department and employees could be able to understand some financial information and make appropriate budgets and decisions based on these data.
5. STI could adopt new financial technologies, such as using artificial intelligence to help finance department conduct financial analysis and forecasting, and assess risks in order to make more informed financial decisions.

The problem our thesis work will solve is to reduce backlash in induction motor. Backlash is described as a mechanical form of dead band that can lead to error on hole location, if the motion required to machine the holes causes a reversal in axis direction it also lead to loses of motion between input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate center in equipment such as machines tools etc. The main problem electrically are vibrations from motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.
An induction motor is a kind of an AC machine in which alternating current is supplied to the stator directly and to the rotor by induction from the stator. Induction motor can appear in a single phase or a poly phase. (Toufouti, et al, 2013).
In construction, the motor has a stator which is the stationary portion consisting of a frame that houses the magnetically active angular cylindrical structure called the stator lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with a three phase winding sets embedded in evenly spaced internal slots.
The rotor which is the rotatory parts of a motor is made up of a shaft and cylindrical structure called the rotor lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with evenly spaced slots located around the periphery to accept the conductors of the rotor winding (Ndubisi, 2006).
The rotor can be a wound type or squirrel cage type.
in a poly phase motor, the three phase windings are displaced from each other by 120 electrical degrees in space around the air-gap circumference when excited from a balanced poly phase source, those windings (stator winding) will produce a magnetic field in the air-gap rotating at synchronous speed as determine by the number of stator poles and the applied stator frequency (Bimal, 2011).
In the controlling of electrical motor; the introduction of micro-controllers and high switching frequency semiconductor devices, variable speed actuators where dominated by DC motors.
Today, using modern high switching frequency power converters controlled by micro-controllers, the frequency phase and magnitude of the input to an AC motor can be changed and hence the motor’s speed and torque can be controlled. AC motors combined with their drives have replaced DC motors in industrial applications because they are cheaper, better reliability, less in weight, and lower maintenance requirement. Squirrel cage induction motors are most generally used than all the rest of the electric motors as they have all the advantages of AC motors and they are easy to build.
The main advantage is that motors do not require an electrical connection between stationary and rotating portion of the motor. Therefore, they do not need any mechanical commutators to the fact that they are maintenance free motors. The motors also have lesser weight and inertia, high efficiency and high over load capability. Therefore, they are cheaper and more robust, and less proves to any failure at high speeds.
Furthermore, the motor can be used to work in explosive environments because no sparks are produced.
Taking into account all the advantages outlined above, induction motors must be considered as the perfect electrical to mechanical energy converter. However, mechanical energy is more than often required at variable speeds, where the speed control system is not a trivial matter. The effective way of producing an infinitely variable motor speed drive is to supply the motor with three phase voltage of variable amplitude.
A variable frequency is required because the rotor speed depends on the speed of the rotating magnetic field provided by the stator. A variable voltage is required because the motor impedance reduces at low frequencies and the current has to be limited by means of reducing the supply voltage. (Schauder, 2013).
Before the days of power electronics, a limited speed control of the motors was achieved by switching the three stator windings from delta connection to star connection, allowing the voltage at the motor windings to be reduced. Induction motors also available with more than three stator windings to allow a change of the number of pole pairs.
However, a motor with several windings is very costly because more than three connections to the motor are needed and only certain discrete speeds are available. Another method of speed control can be realized by means of a wound rotor induction motor, where the rotor winding ends are brought out to slip rings (Malik, 2013). However, this method obviously removes the main aim of induction motors and it also introduces additional losses by connecting resistor or reactance in series with the stator windings of the motors, poor performance is achieved.
With the enormous advances in converters technology and the development of complex and robust control algorithms, considerable research effort is devoted for developing optimal techniques of speed control for the machines. The motor control has traditionally been achieved using field oriented control (FOC). This method involves the transformation of stator currents in a such manner that is in line with one of the stator fluxes. The torque and flux producing components of the stator currents are decoupled, such that the component of the stator current controlling the rotor flux magnitude and the component controls the output torque will differ (Kazmier and Giuseppe, 2013).
The implementation of this system however is complicated. The FOC is also well known to be highly sensitive to parameter variations. It also based on accurate parameter identification to obtain the needed performance.
Another motor control techniques is the sensor less vector control. This control method is only for both high and low speed range. Using the method, the stator terminal voltages and currents estimate the rotor angular speed, slip angular speed and the rotor flux. In this case, around zero speed, the slip angular velocity estimation becomes very difficult.
Motivation for the work
When we were on training in machine in our office, we are told gave us a drawing to produce a machine shaft. During the process, when we feed in a cut of 10mm to the machine, it would cut 9.5mm and when we wanted to drill a hole at the center of the job, it would drilled it off centered, we called on our supervisor after we have wasted much time, power and materials. Surprisingly, after his supervision, he told us that backlash in the machine is responsible for that and he instructed us to use another machine which we did and got what we need immediately. Therefore, that ugly experience motivated us to research on how to reduce high ripple torque in induction motor which is the main causes of vibrations that lead to the backlash in the industrial machine.

• The statement of the human problem our research work will solve is to reduce backlash in industrial machine.
• Explanation of the problem

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Backlash can be defined as the maximum distance or angle through which any part of a mechanical system may be moved in one direction without applying appreciable force or motion to the next part in mechanical sequence and is a mechanical form of dead band. More so, it is any non-movement that occurs during axis reversals. For instance, when x – axis is commanded to move one inch in the positive direction, immediately, after this x – axis movement, these x-axis is also commanded to move one inch in the negative direction if any backlash exists in the x-axis, then it will not immediately start moving in the negative direction and the motion departure will not be precisely one inch.
So, it can cause positioning error on holes location, if the motion required to drill the holes causes a reversal in axis direction, it also causes loses ofmotion between reducer input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate positioning in equipment such as machines tools etc.
The main cause of this problem electrically is vibrations from electric motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.

• Benefits of solving the problem
1. High quality products will be produce.
2. Productivity will increase because adjustment and readjustment of machine feeding handle or feeding screw to eliminate backlash have been reduced.
3. Operational cost will reduced.
4. Greater efficiency will be guaranteed.
5. Greater accuracy and precision of product will be guaranteed.
6. Wasting of materials will be highly reduced.
1. To develop a model that will control the error to achieve stability using DTC and fuzzy logic with duty ratio.
2. To determine the error in the torque of the machine that causes vibration which lead to backlash that result in production of less standard products.
3. To determine the position of the stator flux linkage space vector in the poles of the induction motor.
4. To determine the stator linkage flux error in the induction motor that also causes vibration.
5. To simulate the model above in the Simulink environment and validate the result.

This project work is limited to the use of fuzzy logic controller with duty ratio to replace the torque and stator flux hysteresis controllers in the conventional DTC techniques. The controllers have three variable inputs, the stator flux error, electromagnetic torque error and position of stator flux linkage vector. The inference method used was the Mamdam fuzzy logic inference system. The deffuzzification method adopted in this work is the maximum criteria method.

The importance of this work in industry where induction motor drives are mainly in application cannot be over emphasis.
As earlier noted, induction motors because of their ruggedness simple mechanical structure and easy maintenance; electrical drives in industries are mostly based on them.
Also, a wide range of induction motor applications require variable speed, therefore induction motor speed, if not accurately estimated will affect the efficiency of the overall industrial processes. Equally, the harmonic losses if not put in check will shorten the life span and efficiency of the motor inverter.
Based on the above, it is aimed at reducing the principle causes of the inefficiency in the DTC induction motor and improves the performance of the system.
The work is organized into five chapters. Various control techniques were discussed in chapter two, in chapter three, we discusses the methodology, design and implementation of the direct torque control of induction motor using fuzzy logic with duty ratio controller.
Chapter four discusses data collection, analysis and the simulated results showing the system using conventional method of control and the proposed fuzzy logic with duty ratio method of control under applied load torque conditions.
Conclusion, recommendations and suggestion for further work are mentioned in chapter five.


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