1.2 The relevant policy and age related expectations of learners relevant to literacy development in the setting.
When working with children in a school setting you need to have access to the schools English policy, this is an outline of the expectations for reading, writing, spoken, spelling, punctuation and grammar for each level and each group year. They are taught to speak and write fluently so they can communicate well with others. The aims for a child to be able to read fluently so they can express their emotions when reading and to feed their imagination. Reading also helps the child to gather knowledge and expand on what they already know.
The national curriculum for English for both key stage 1 and 2 aims towards helping the child fulfil their potential.
Reading
• Read all 40 + phonemes :- ee, air, ar, ow, oo.
• Use blending sounds :- cat, nap, pin, tap.
• Recognise phonics rules and read them correctly.
• Read words known as GPCS and plurals.
• Read fluently at their own level.
• Listen and discuss poems, stories, non fiction.
• Re tell stories and join in with familiar phrases in books.
• Learn poems and texts off by heart.
• Self correct their reading.
• Predict the outcomes.
• Join in discussions and explain their own understanding of what they read or heard.
• Decoding words until it has become embedded and reading is fluent.
• Reading accurately by blending.
• Read words containing common suffixes.

Writing
• Spell the days of the week.
• Spell words that contain 40 + phonemes.
• Name in order the letters of the alphabet.
• Add suffixes and prefixes.
• Write from memory simple sentences that include words using GPCS.
• Learn to spell common exception words.
• Use suffixes to spell longer words.

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Handwriting
• Sit correctly at the table and hold pencil correctly.
• Write lower case letters staring and finishing in the right place.
• Write digits 1-9.
• Understand which letters belong to which family.
• Write in sentences.
• Read aloud what they have wrote.
• Leaving finger spaces.
• Writing joined up.
• Punctuate sentences.
• Use capitals for names, places, days of the week.
• Write about real life.
• Write poetry.
• Plan what they want to write

1.1 Explain what is meant by (UNIT 10)
A Diversity
Any differences between individuals and groups of people this can be a difference of cultural back ground, were a person comes from their nationality, colour of their skin, peoples religious beliefs what social class they belong to in society, also their preferred sexual orientation. Ability’s and disabilities.
Diversity to me is the differences between individuals which makes people unique.
B Equality
We should promote the rights of everyone as individuals, we all have the right to be treated with respect and to be treated fairly and given the opportunity to have choice as an individual.
C Inclusion
To promote a deliberate shift in culture to ensure that all individual feels respected and valued, always promoting access to opportunities that are available to everyone, always supporting people to participate in activities or in a social environment regardless of their abilities. Always identifying, understanding and breaking down barriers so that participation is sought.

1.2 Describe the potential effects of discrimination

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There are lots of different types of discrimination here are a few example’s

• Direct discrimination
• Indirect discrimination
• Victimization
• Harassment
• Sexual harassment

Effects of discrimination can impact an individual’s emotional wellbeing, physical appearance, this can also impact on an individual’s emotional or mental wellbeing which can be really hard to deal with.
This can impact on a person feeling anxious, sad, guilty, empty or depressed. The long term effects of discrimination can also effect Mental or emotional state which can gradually affect your physical health.

The States of Jersey Discrimination (Jersey) Law came into force on 1st September 2014. The first protected characteristic was race
The Law defines the protected characteristics, the types of discrimination that are prohibited in the workplace and the responsibility of employers and employees.

The Law defines the protected characteristics, the types of discrimination that are prohibited in the workplace and the responsibility of employers and employees

The protected characteristics were extended to sex, sexual orientation, gender reassignment and maternity & pregnancy from 1st September 2015
As of 1st September 2016 they have been extended to age, including recruitment, employment, retirement and goods & services provided to customers

From September 2018 they will be extended to cover disability (a long term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment/disfigurement which can have an adverse effect on their ability to engage in an activity)

Sources of further information

Government Equalities Office (GEO)
www.equalities.gov.uk
Equal opportunities in employment (CIPD)
www.cipd.co.uk/about/jobs/eqop.htm
Jersey Advisory & Conciliation Service (JACS)
www.jacs.org.je
Jersey Community Relations Trust (JCRT)
www.jerseycommunityrelations.org
States of Jersey (2017) Equality and Diversity
Policy
www.hssnet/soj/employees/termsandconditions

1.3 Explain how inclusive practice promotes equality and supports diversity
Inclusive practise is when you promote an individual’s right to give them access to equal opportunities, ensuring that this happens in any setting will also help promote diversity. When including an individual this is to provide opportunities to use all of our services and facilities that are available. This gives the individual the opportunity to make their own choices in the activities they are interested in.
2 Be able to work in an inclusive way
2.1 Explain how legislation and codes of practice relating to equality, diversity and discrimination apply to own work role

As an RCCO working for the HSS Jersey, we have a number of policies and procedures on equality, diversity, inclusion and discrimination, we also have our own code of conduct that we must follow and abide by. This is and integral part of our role as a RCCO making sure that we improve the quality of services that individuals receive in a childcare setting.

3 Be able to promote diversity, equality and inclusion
3.3 Describe how to challenge discrimination in a way that promotes change
Working in any care setting it is about caring for our service users, it is up to everyone to respect and value each other as colleagues. This is one of our priorities as well as improving the patient experience and care. It is everyone’s right, whether you are a member of staff, a service user or a member of the public, to be treated as an individual and treated with respect.
At any time if any young person or service user makes any racist or discriminate comments then we would challenge and address this behaviour to understand what has been said as we do not tolerate this type of behaviour.
We ensure that our residents undertake regular key working sessions and supervisions for staff so that we can work on and challenge any types of discrimination and discuss the reasons why certain behaviours/practises are in place.
Making a record and evidencing this in individuals care plans to demonstrate how change can be made which should in theory help prevent discrimination in the future. If for any reason you observe any types of discrimination It is good practise to organise a team meeting or training sessions to show examples of what discrimination looks like to show staff ways that they can change their work to prevent and to understand discrimination in the workplace.

1.1

There is no single way to interpret leadership and while there are many established theories and methods on the subject, a leader needs to react to influences in the workplace, understand their own approach and skills, acknowledge the positives and negatives of each leadership method and implement this into.

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Factors that affect leadership

Part of my role involves project management, and having to step in to provide technical / design support if needed. As part of this ongoing process, it is important to know how much direction and support delegated staff require.

Using Blanchard and Hersey’s Four Leadership Styles as an example in conjunction with a design project different stages of that project may require implementing all four styles.

S1 Direct –
at the implementation of a new task, subordinates may require high direction in terms of what is requires, milestones and deadlines, taking into account the need for external purchasing / printing and what the point of the work actually is. This situation may for, example, also arise close to a deadline if something has fallen behind or gone wrong and a leader needs to made strong decisions for the best course of action.

S2: Coach – based on S1, the leader will be in communication with their staff to determine factors such as if the subordinates understand the relevance of the work and what the objective is, if the project can be completed in agreed timescales, if staff have relevant skills to implement and what a successful outcome is.

S3: Support – As the project is underway the leader maintains active communications with staff if there are new decisions to be made or support to be provided. For example the project may have to adapt due to unforeseen circumstances, but the leader is a position to discuss what the best course of action is instead of using purely their own judgement

S4: Delegation – When the project is underway and the leader has assigned specific tasks where appropriate, they can be in a position to entrust responsibility to their staff. The leader will need progress updates that will affect the decision to apply S1, S2 or S3 styles if needed, for example if a project is being held up I may have to provide design support or enter challenging discussions with the party causing the issue.

1.2
The individuals within a team will have their own practical and technical skills, but in addition with have differing personal characters, beliefs and values. Some may require more coaching than others, some may

Based on 1.1 a more authoritative / directoral approach can be of great benefit when applied at the correct moment, such as at the very outset of a design project, when handling unforeseen issues, or in the build up to a print deadline if the leader needs to use their authority to handle problems, but used at the wrong time or for too long will make subordinates feel their opinions are not valued, they are just being dictated to and the leader is too involved in every action (becoming a micro manager) . This would be S1 of the Blanchard / Hersey model.

Participation makes staff feel more valued in that after the initial directional decisions have been made, they can voice their opinions, highlight any issues that may have been missed, or point out if they need further skills to complete a task. It is also an opportunity for the leader to see if any staff members display any leadership abilities which may be of use in the future. The danger of this area is that it can go on for too long or risks staff being side tracked from the matter at hand. A good leader will know when to allow everyone to have their say in a reasonable time period, and look out for individuals who may not be as responsive as others in the group.

Based on the authoritative and participative processes, delegation sees the leader assigning the right tasks to the correct person, making use of specific practical skills and personal characters to handle certain parts of a project. This differs to allocation is that less thought is given to the specific abilities of the person the task is allocated to.

2.1

After discussions with colleagues at levels above and below myself and in line with the Leadership Style Questionnaire based on the John Adair Model, there was a distinct leaning towards being a ‘Hard Taskmaster’ and a very low focus towards the needs of the individual. I recognise in myself this from:

Working to strict schedules – having worked for five years in a publishing firm with production schedules determined 12 months in advance,

My employer’s structure – A public sector body that is going through a transition period to eliminate a lot of the working mentality associated with that area

And:

Working independently – in my current role, until March 2017 I had been the sole designer for three years.

As a result, working to the practicalities of a project is of high importance to my own principles and at times I feel unscheduled work or late request are a burden. As a public body my employer also has extensive methods of recording work and processes for legal reasons, meaning everything must be clearly recorded. I also found it hard to delegate tasks when I first had a subordinate, as I felt I had to be responsible for everything.

My own manager is supporting me in trying to balance my leadership approach to the task, team and individual, while being an effective leader. This is through ways such as supplying reading material (e.g. The One Minute Manager,,,,,) and approaches to take in how to communicate with subordinates; how to check in on them without interfering, assessing development paths for those individuals and how

My manager has 2 line managers including myself under her, and from the a total a team of 12 in a department of around 25. The team works intimately on a daily basis, we have regular work updates and social outgoings

2.2

Going forward, I am now more aware of having to consider the needs, motivations and character of the individual to a greater extent. I am very satisfied with my approach to tasks at hand and want to continue this in conjunction with having a team focus.

Regarding balancing management for individuals, we do have the foundations in terms of regular meetings as mentioned but these are fairly corporate in their structure and may miss obvious signs from the individual; it will be useful to look at less formal methods to compliment this, particularly as I work with creatives who may respond better to such methods. We will look at evaluating performaces

I consider speaking to my wider team in meetings – presenting concepts, giving updates etc. – as satisfactory; a background in presenting ideas and designs has given me confidence in this area. However, these are situations I am in control of; in the future I will be more aware of obvious signs and concerns from individuals that are

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

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1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama; Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare ; Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama& Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare & Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama; Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare ; Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The human problem our thesis work will solve is to reduce backlash in induction motor. Backlash been described as a mechanical form of dead band that can lead to error on hole location, if the motion required to machine the holes causes a reversal in axis direction it also causes loses of motion between reducer input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate positioning in equipment such as instruments, machines tools etc. The main problem electrically are vibrations from motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.
An induction motor is a kind of an AC machine in which alternating current is supplied to the stator directly and to the rotor by induction from the stator. Induction motor can appear in a single phase or a poly phase. (Toufouti, et al, 2013).
In construction, the motor has a stator which is the stationary portion consisting of a frame that houses the magnetically active angular cylindrical structure called the stator lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with a three phase winding sets embedded in evenly spaced internal slots.
The rotor which is the rotatory parts of a motor is made up of a shaft and cylindrical structure called the rotor lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with evenly spaced slots located around the periphery to accept the conductors of the rotor winding (Ndubisi, 2006).
The rotor can be a wound type or squirrel cage type.
in a poly phase motor, the three phase windings are displaced from each other by 120 electrical degrees in space around the air-gap circumference when excited from a balanced poly phase source, those windings (stator winding) will produce a magnetic field in the air-gap rotating at synchronous speed as determine by the number of stator poles and the applied stator frequency (Bimal, 2011).
In the controlling of electrical motor; the introduction of micro-controllers and high switching frequency semiconductor devices, variable speed actuators where dominated by DC motors.
Today, using modern high switching frequency power converters controlled by micro-controllers, the frequency phase and magnitude of the input to an AC motor can be changed and hence the motor’s speed and torque can be controlled. AC motors combined with their drives have replaced DC motors in industrial applications because they are cheaper, better reliability, less in weight, and lower maintenance requirement. Squirrel cage induction motors are most generally used than all the rest of the electric motors as they have all the advantages of AC motors and they are easy to build.
The main advantage is that motors do not require an electrical connection between stationary and rotating portion of the motor. Therefore, they do not need any mechanical commutators to the fact that they are maintenance free motors. The motors also have lesser weight and inertia, high efficiency and high over load capability. Therefore, they are cheaper and more robust, and less proves to any failure at high speeds.
Furthermore, the motor can be used to work in explosive environments because no sparks are produced.
Taking into account all the advantages outlined above, induction motors must be considered as the perfect electrical to mechanical energy converter. However, mechanical energy is more than often required at variable speeds, where the speed control system is not a trivial matter. The effective way of producing an infinitely variable motor speed drive is to supply the induction motor with three phase voltage of variable amplitude.
A variable frequency is required because the rotor speed depends on the speed of the rotating magnetic field provided by the stator. A variable voltage is required because the motor impedance reduces at low frequencies and the current has to be limited by means of reducing the supply voltage. (Schauder, 2013).
Before the days of power electronics, a limited speed control of the motors was achieved by switching the three stator windings from delta connection to star connection, allowing the voltage at the motor windings to be reduced. Induction motors also available with more than three stator windings to allow a change of the number of pole pairs.
However, a motor with several windings is very costly because more than three connections to the motor are needed and only certain discrete speeds are available. Another method of speed control can be realized by means of a wound rotor induction motor, where the rotor winding ends are brought out to slip rings (Malik, 2013). However, this method obviously removes the main aim of induction motors and it also introduces additional losses by connecting resistor or reactance in series with the stator windings of the induction motors, poor performance is achieved.
With the enormous advances in converters technology and the development of complex and robust control algorithms, considerable research effort is devoted for developing optimal techniques of speed control for the machines. The motor control has traditionally been achieved using field oriented control (FOC). This method involves the transformation of stator currents in a synchronous manner that is in line with one of the stator fluxes. The torque and flux producing components of the stator currents are decoupled, such that the component of the stator current controlling the rotor flux magnitude and the component controls the output torque will differ (Kazmier and Giuseppe, 2013).
The implementation of this system however is complicated. The FOC is also well known to be highly sensitive to parameter variations. It also based on accurate parameter identification to obtain the needed performance.
Another motor control techniques is the sensor less vector control. This control method is only for both high and low speed range. Using the method, the stator terminal voltages and currents estimate the rotor angular speed, slip angular speed and the rotor flux. In this case, around zero speed, the slip angular velocity estimation becomes very difficult.
In the mid 1980’s, Takahashi and Noguchi introduced another induction motor control technique called direct torque control (DTC) for low and medium power application (Lamchichi, 2014). In this method, stator voltage vector is selected according to the differences between the reference and actual torque and stator flux linkage. DTC has a relatively simple control structure but gives maximum result as well as the field oriented control (FOC), technique. It is also known that DTC drives is low sensitive to parameters variations and gives a high dynamic performances like fastest response of torque and flux than classical vector control. This method allows a decoupled control of flux and torque without using speed or position sensors, co-ordinate transformation, pulse width modulation (PWM) technique and current regulators. This type of command involves non-linear controller type of hysteresis, for both stator flux magnitude and electromagnetic torque.
But due to the principle of operation of these controllers which is based on the Boolean logic, none of the inverter switching vectors produced is able to generate the desired changes in torque and flux. However, torque and flux ripples composed a real problem in direct torque control induction motor drive (Faliha and Rachid, 2015).

Motivation for the work
When we were on training in machine in our office, we are told gave us a drawing to produce a machine shaft. During the process, when we feed in a cut of 10mm to the machine, it would cut 9.5mm and when we wanted to drill a hole at the center of the job, it would drilled it off centered, we called on our supervisor after we have wasted much time, power and materials. Surprisingly, after his supervision, he told us that backlash in the machine is responsible for that and he instructed us to use another machine which we did and got what we need immediately. Therefore, that ugly experience motivated us to research on how to reduce high ripple torque in induction motor which is the main causes of vibrations that lead to the backlash in the industrial machine.

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1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
• The statement of the human problem our research work will solve is to reduce backlash in industrial machine.
• Explanation of the problem

BACKLASH
Backlash can be defined as the maximum distance or angle through which any part of a mechanical system may be moved in one direction without applying appreciable force or motion to the next part in mechanical sequence and is a mechanical form of dead band. More so, it is any non-movement that occurs during axis reversals. For instance, when x – axis is commanded to move one inch in the positive direction, immediately, after this x – axis movement, these x-axis is also commanded to move one inch in the negative direction if any backlash exists in the x-axis, then it will not immediately start moving in the negative direction and the motion departure will not be precisely one inch.
So, it can cause positioning error on holes location, if the motion required to drill the holes causes a reversal in axis direction, it also causes loses ofmotion between reducer input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate positioning in equipment such as machines tools etc.
The main cause of this problem electrically is vibrations from electric motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.

• Benefits of solving the problem
1. High quality products will be produce.
2. Productivity will increase because adjustment and readjustment of machine feeding handle or feeding screw to eliminate backlash have been reduced.
3. Operational cost will reduced.
4. Greater efficiency will be guaranteed.
5. Greater accuracy and precision of product will be guaranteed.
6. Wasting of materials will be highly reduced.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1. To develop a model that will control the error to achieve stability using DTC and fuzzy logic with duty ratio.
2. To determine the error in the torque of the machine that causes vibration which lead to backlash that result in production of less standard products.
3. To determine the position of the stator flux linkage space vector in the poles of the induction motor.
4. To determine the stator linkage flux error in the induction motor that also causes vibration.
5. To simulate the model above in the Simulink environment and validate the result.

1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE WORK
This project work is limited to the use of fuzzy logic controller with duty ratio to replace the torque and stator flux hysteresis controllers in the conventional DTC techniques. The controllers have three variable inputs, the stator flux error, electromagnetic torque error and position of stator flux linkage vector. The inference method used was the Mamdam fuzzy logic inference system. The deffuzzification method adopted in this work is the maximum criteria method.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORK
The importance of this work in industry where induction motor drives are mainly in application cannot be over emphasis.
As earlier noted, induction motors because of their ruggedness simple mechanical structure and easy maintenance; electrical drives in industries are mostly based on them.
Also, a wide range of induction motor applications require variable speed, therefore induction motor speed, if not accurately estimated will affect the efficiency of the overall industrial processes. Equally, the harmonic losses if not put in check will shorten the life span and efficiency of the motor inverter.
Based on the above, it is aimed at reducing the principle causes of the inefficiency in the DTC induction motor and improves the performance of the system.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK
The work is organized into five chapters. Various control techniques were discussed in chapter two, in chapter three, we discusses the methodology, design and implementation of the direct torque control of induction motor using fuzzy logic with duty ratio controller.
Chapter four discusses data collection, analysis and the simulated results showing the system using conventional method of control and the proposed fuzzy logic with duty ratio method of control under applied load torque conditions.
Conclusion, recommendations and suggestion for further work are mentioned in chapter five.
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1. Hillary Kundishora : To What Extent Does Economic Strategy and Planning Reflects Kleptocracy-? – http://zimfinalpush7.blogspot.com/2007/12/to-what-extent-does-economic-strategy_1600.html
2. Donald L. Niewyk, “The Jews in Weimar Germany” /2000/
p.g-13(Transaction books.com)

3. Brendon Piers (2000), The Dark Valley: a panorama of the 1930s.

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4. http://www.ask.com: How Does Hitler Take Advantage of the Great Depression?

5. University of Deusto Bilbao, Ethnic Diversity in Europe: Challenges to the Nation State /by David Turton Julia González 2000 p. 12
6. Stratfor/ European Crisis Fertile Ground for Nationalist Parties/ November 7, 2011 | 1250 GMT

7. Reuters/ interview with Jose Manuel Borroso/By Luke Baker and Stephen Adler BRUSSELS | Wed Oct 30, 2013 12:07pm EDT http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/30/us-eu-parliament-elections-idUSBRE99T0YZ20131030

8. Source: Internet Site Pollwatch http://www.electio2014.eu/fr/pollsandscenarios/polls#country

9. Source: http//www.results-elections2014.eu/en/election-results-2014.html

10. The Washington Post, by Cas Mudde 30.05.2014 avaliable at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/05/30/the-far-right-in-the-2014-european-elections-of-earthquakes-cartels-and-designer-fascists

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