1. Introduction and aim of the work
Liver is one of the most important organs of the human body which performs many body functions essential to maintain homeostasis in the organism. Disruption of the hepatic functions is commonly takes place due to viral hepatitis, parasitic infection and intoxication with hepatotoxinsCITATION Lef l 1033 (Lefkowitch, 2011).

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a substantial health problem worldwide and a serious cause of liver inflammation, cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. CITATION MAn11 l 1033 (Angelico, 2011) Globally, not only about 170 million individuals are chronically infected with the virus and are at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but also a number exceeds 350.000 patients pass away annually because of the virus.CITATION Eve99 l 2057 (Shepard, Finelli, & Alter, 2005) CITATION Moh13 l 2057 (Mohd, Groeger, Flaxman, & Wiersma, 2013).
CITATION Ban11 l 2057 (Bansal & Friedman, 2011) defined liver fibrogenesis as the natural dynamic wound healing response to a hepatic injury  resulting from a chronic non-resolved inflammation accompanied with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including collagen to form a scar tissue in order to encapsulate the damaged area. Progressive liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension and often requires liver transplantation (Friedman, S.L. 2003).
Evaluation of the degree of hepatic fibrosis (i.e. staging) is essential for several reasons: (1) to determine the prognosis of the chronic liver disease, (2) to select patients for specific anti-fibrotic treatment strategy, and (3) for monitoring the success of the treatment process. Liver biopsy specimens represent the most valuable material for the staging of hepatic fibrosis as well as the degree of necroinflammation. Despite that, it has some technical limitations related to sampling and interpretation with a significant risk. For this reason, there was an urgent need to develop simple and reliable noninvasive biomarkers to detect the progress of disease instead.
Tenascins symbolize one of the groups of ECM glycoproteins in vertebrates including four family members: tenascin-C, tenascin-X, tenascin-R, and tenascin-W,CITATION Chi04 l 2057 (Chiquet-Ehrismann & Tucker, 2011). Tenascin-C (TN-C) is a large hexameric glycoprotein that is potentially expressed during embryonic development as well as tissue remodeling and in pathological conditions, tumorigenesis, and metastasis in adults. Previous studies strongly suggested that there is a correlation between TN-C expression and liver fibrogenesis. It was reported that TN-C induces inflammatory response at the site of infection accompanied with cytokine up-regulation, enhances hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) accumulation, and induces transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) expression. CITATION ElK071 l 2057 (El-Karef, et al., 2007)Aim of the Work
The aim of the present study is to evaluate TN-C and TGF-? levels in sera of HCV patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Their correlation with the severity of the disease will be discussed and the possible involvement of oxidative stress in their action will be investigated in order to evaluate TN-C whether it can be used as a reliable marker in assessing the prognosis of the disease or not.

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1. What are the basic components of the neuron, and what are their functions?
The basic components of the neurons are the cell body, dendrites, and axons.
? The cell body has structures that can manufacture proteins and process nutrients. It provides energy the neurons need to function. It is also called the soma.
? The dendrites come from the Greek word meaning “tree”. They are short, branching fibers that extend from cell bodies of most neurons.
? The axons are an elongated tube that extends from the cell body in most neurons.

2. How is information communicated at the synapse?
Information communicated at the synapse by using the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron. Presynaptic neurons are message- sending neurons. The postsynaptic neurons are the message-receiving neurons. Even though both neurons are messengers, they are separated by tiny, fluid-filled space.

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3. How is information transmitted in the endocrine system, and what are its major structures?
Information is transmitted in the endocrine system by using hormones by run in the bloodstream. The major structures that hormones can do are they promote or inhibit the generation of nerve impulses. They can also have the same molecules that are used in both endocrine system and the nervous system.

4. What are functional and structural plasticity?
The functional plasticity is the brain’s ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas. This means that if a person is damaged from the brain, stroke, or accident victims relearn speaking, walking, reading etc. again. The structural plasticity is the brain’s ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environment influences. (Hockenbury, 63).

5. What is neurogenesis, and what is the evidence for its occurrence in the adult human brain?
Neurogenesis is the development of new neurons. The evidence that this occurs in adult human brains started with Peter Eriksson, Fred Gage, and their colleagues. After conducting an experiment on five cancer patients where they give them a drug that is used to determine if cancer cells are spreading. After several hours when the patients had died, they did determine that they each had hundreds of new neurons.

6. How do the functions of the right and left cerebral hemispheres differ?
The right hemisphere deals with the left side of the body while the left hemisphere deals with the right side of the body. The left side also controls language and in most people, it is the dominant hemisphere. The two hemispheres keep in touch through corpus callosum.

1. Analyze the logistics service and cost constraints imposed on BKI by the chain store’s request.
Answer: The logistics service and of BKI by the small chain stores request following analysis have been made for reducing the cycle time:

• Complied with the customer’s RFID (radio frequency identification) initiatives that use radio waves to identify people or objects carrying encoded microchips. RFID can help by finding products easily, reduce the possibility of losses and helps to plan product locations.

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• The provision of advance shipping notification where (ASN) means notification of pending deliveries, similar to packing list. It provides information on bill of lading, whereas its major goal is to provide information to the destination’s receiving operations well in advance of delivery.

• Improvement of inventory visibility because this will helpful for maintaining the reliability and certainty for shopping online. This proves to be very powerful tool for the retailers as well, also it helps retailers by reducing the shipping costs.
Cost constraints and measures taken by Mr. JR by the director of BKI’s logistics are as follows:

• There will be increase in order processing and freight cost
• Team of the logistics should have to process smaller, case quantity order for each particular store of pallet quantity orders from regional distribution center (RDC).
• Usage of costlier less than truckload service and deliver it to the stores.

2. What is your opinion of Joe Rutner’s proposal for establishing a series of company- owned RDCs?

Although the proposed system could benefit but In our opinion we disagree with the opinion of Joe Rutners proposal for establishment of RDC, it is because of:

1) As Rutner has suggested the decentralised inventory positioning strategy may benefit to eliminate customer delivery cost and order cycle time. As the product is positioned nearer to the demand points it can be frequently dispatched to match the customer needs. Although we believe the expenses of such a system outlooked the benefits in BKI’s case.

2) Higher facilitated stocking products can rise to more handling cost, the product damage risk, an additional expense of operating and leasing the facility. In addition, by holding its own level of safety stock may rises the average inventory level.

3) The main reason for our disagreement is that Rutner proposal falls in the given extract from the case “the company is straining to produce enough product to meet retailer demand”

4) If BKI is trying to obtain enough product the last alternative they can have is to move forward decentralised distribution system. This will them to predict and stable the levels of stock at various locations, regardless resulting in surpluses in some regions and shortages in another.

5) We can support the decentralised approach only if it is able to produce enough product to maintain satisfying levels of safety stocks at all locations, but obviously this is not the case

6) The limitations for the current centralised system is the long distance to the customer which can lead to blaming for the long cycle times. However, we can realise the opportunity from centralisation including the greater control over inventory and less demand variability due to division of risk.

3.If BKI moves forward with the RDC plan, what facility ownership structure do you recommend? Why?

According to our findings in this case are follows:

If the Bath king industries are planning to move forward with RDC plan we would suggest them with Contract Warehousing. At first, we suggest organisation should be more flexible in their operations. Orders from the retailers can change any time in future. By contract warehouse there won’t be a problem in future whether order request changes. the organisation could manage if orders increase or decrease because they won’t be affected with the lease and ownership problems.

Secondly it is said that the company itself faces a strain in the production so they could also buy services. They can invite other companies for distribution services this could help to maintain larger degree and flexibility. This could also help to improve their current condition.

Thirdly, operating expenses are low for the bathking industry if they choose contract warehousing because there won’t be taxes, insurances or related expenses. This will be resulting in the overall cost of the company. The company could save more amount of money and also, they could also invest money in expanding or business-related activities.

We can also consider sole proprietorship because products can be allocated and can be delivered easily. Each store would take orders separately and that order would be processed and delivered. But it can cost company a huge amount for setting up and to find good location or accessible is difficult in these days.

To Conclude we would suggest the Bath King Industries should move with Contract Warehousing because it could save the cost and time. It is said that Bathking Industries are straining to produce products so contract warehousing is best to choose.

4. Develop a process map depicting the product and information flows in Rutner’s proposal.

The process of information flows according to Rutner’s proposal includes:

First and foremost, one is to Startup a six facility RDC network and the next is to find a distribution center whereas it should have high demand and well accessible region. While working with orders, the orders should be fulfilled within limited period of time because if orders are fulfilled quickly it helps to attain good reputation to the firm and next is to add some value services to it and enabling facilities like and pallet cross docking. The industry should always maintain a minimum level of safety stock in order to prevent the stockout also they should decrease companies overall inventory.

1. Introduction

Over the past decades, organizations have become more interconnected, cross border linkages have emerged and advanced technologies have become inevitable in order to remain competitive. When the act of globalization has begun, more and more companies tried to operate internationally and opened subsidiaries in other countries than their domestic one. At the same time, those companies have also transferred some sort of power to the management of their subsidiaries. In order to survive in today´s growing and dynamic business world multinational firms are required to maintain trust and control over its management in subsidiaries. Yet, in the recent past there have been many issues of control and trust. A multitude of factors outside and inside the enterprise can damage the application of management control. Especially, social, economic, political, geographical and cultural differences across national borders have shown that they have a serious impact on the efficiency of management control in the past.

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The aim of this report is to investigate what are the requirements of MNE´s to maintain control and how do MNE´s may implement their own policies without incurring disadvantages for its subsidiaries. First, the report will explain what multinational firms are about. The report continues by explaining the relationship between control and trust with multinational companies. Next, the report will specifically address management control issues in the Chinese environment. Finally, the report will provide several solutions and outlooks while referring to the problem statement.

2. Multinational Enterprises (MNE´s)

Multinational corporations are a powerful facilitator of transfer of cash flows, technology and managerial know how. Multinational firms do operate with subsidiaries in different countries. They are delegated by their headquarters in their domestic country. Furthermore, these countries bear several distinctions with regard to its culture, economic, social and political situation. The headquarters and subsidiaries of MNE´s have to cope with locals, such as consumers or suppliers.

In general, an MNE is defined by its complex structures. More and more multinational firms are changing its coordination strategy from a pure international player towards a multinational, global and transnational enterprise (Yan, Lecture 2018). Management can visit multinational firms more frequently. Therefore, control and trust is easy to integrate. Yet, MNE´s that follow a globalization or transnational strategy face the problem that it becomes more complex and difficult to visit its subsidiaries and monitor them. Next to these strategies, MNE´s have to be aware of cultural distinctions between the host country and the domestic country. For example, the Asian market is not comparable to the European market. Many European firms made fatal mistakes when entering the Asian market as they did not incorporate the local tastes. Another relevant consideration is the entry strategy. While opening subsidiaries overseas, headquarters have the responsibility of control and trust. MNE´s can set up wholly owned subsidiaries or engage into partnering by, for instance, establishing a joint venture. As MNE´s do operate in different countries with different habits, they also have to adjust their control and trust ability towards the characteristics of the particular host country. Especially partnerships add complexity. Generally speaking, MNE´s have two options when setting up subsidiaries. Either they can adjust their practices to local needs or they stick to their original practices from their home country.

3. Control in Multinational Enterprises

There are numerous definitions of control in multinational enterprises. However, control in multinational companies can be characterized as practices, rules and values that are dictated in order to monitor management/ employee behavior (Malmi & Brown, 2008). Furthermore, control systems are “means of gathering and using information to aid and coordinate the planning and control decisions throughout an organization” (Horngren et al. 2012). In general, one can say that there is a relationship between the coordination strategy and the level of control of subsidiaries. First of all, global multinational firms try to reach global consistency. Therefore, the headquarter has the responsibility to control and coordinate its subsidiaries. In turn, the subsidiaries are very much dependent on the headquarters policies. Hence, control of local subsidiaries in host countries is limited. Secondly, firms that pursue an international and multinational strategy do neither follow global consistency nor local adaptiveness. Within the international MNE the headquarter transfers knowledge and coordinates the subsidiaries, yet, subsidiaries can exhibit some sort of autonomy, meaning full control is not guaranteed. Thirdly, MNE´s that pursue a transnational strategy try to tackle both global efficiency while responding to local tastes. The idea is to build a horizontal organizational structure instead of a coordinated hierarchal structure. Headquarters and local subsidiaries are very interdependent and act on the same level. Even though this strategy is most promising it is difficult to implement (Abdullah & Khalid, 2011)

Control is key to achieve the goals set up by the overall MNE. Furthermore, one can differentiate between different types of control. Chow et al. state that there are three general types of control. First of all, output control describes the adherence to certain objectives by the parent company. Secondly, process control which states that employees must stick to pre-specified processes. Finally, there is some sort of social control, incorporating the formal as well as the informal relations within the MNE.

Control is of utmost importance in order to achieve global competitive advantage. Often subsidiaries do not align with the standardization strategy of the parent company and do not achieve certain goals. However, sometimes parent companies do control too much meaning that local needs are not tackled and local employees are not regarded as important. Apart from the coordination strategy or the different types of control, literally all multinational companies inhibit some issues of control. It is obvious to identify a main factor for these issues: distinction between home and host country due to several differences between society, culture, economy and politics.

3.1 China as an Example of Too Much Control

China opened its markets in the 90s and served as a lucrative new market for foreign investors. Yet, China has embedded some sort of hurdles regarding its social, political and economical environment. This leads to complex structures. China itself is separated into one tier, two tier and three tier regions. These regions inhibit large discrepancies. However, the growth rates were gigantic which attracted many foreign investors. While opening new subsidiaries in China, a lot of multinational corporations ended up in issues regarding their control, yet, not because there was no control but rather because there was too much control. The reason for that were expatriates which were assigned to transfer technology and knowledge but also to monitor and to coordinate. Especially Japanese companies, such as Fujitso or Mitsubishih put a large number of expatriates in charge to facilitate the exchange of control status between headquarter and subsidiary. However, there are tremendous differences in the culture. Japan and Germany, for instance, are according to Hofstede a very coordinated country. This can also be seen in a multitude of firms. As these firms tried to standardize and establish the same control systems as in their home country, issues arose. Leung et al. describes two major fields of problems. First of all, local employees feel uncomfortable and disappointed under the high level of control as they have no autonomy and are excluded in the decision making process. Secondly, foreign multinational enterprises have become more and more inflexible to respond to the local needs from both, its customers and its employees. The reason for that is that this clear subordinate-superior relationship is controversial and does not provide the needed middle man that yields joint decisions (Leung et al., 1999).

5. Requirements to Maintain Control

As outlined in the sections before, the right mix for control is clearly a huge challenge for multinational firms. Control is key to achieve the goals set up by the overall MNE. Therefore, one can differentiate between different types of control. These mechanisms can and should be implemented by expatriates in order to have the perfect bridge between subsidiary and headquarter.

In general, there are certain requirements a multinational should retain or implement in order to maintain control. In order to remain output control, MNEs can implement three actions, namely incentives/perks, reporting and budget controls. This type of control is not really specifically attributed to a certain host country as output control is depending on the targets of the parent company. You can measure output control with both financial and non financial targets.
First, MNE´s can introduce incentives. Incentives have the goal to motivate employees in subsidiaries to deliver positive results. By that, the headquarter ensures and controls that the management in subsidiaries sticks to financial and non-financial goals of the parent company.
Secondly, through reporting the parent company can get information access and see how well the subsidiary performs. Reporting, however, requires time and expertise. It is likely that this is a task for expatriates. Yet, reporting is still very powerful as it can be tracked back and serves as an information transfer. Thirdly, the parent company can implement budgeting plans. By that, the management of subsidiaries does not have the ability to overspend. Furthermore, it gives a great forecast of what managers should and should not spend. In case of special spending, the management can still communicate with the parent company to enlarge the budgeting policy (Dossi & Patelli, 2010).

In order to remain process control, multinational companies can try to implement rules and procedure manuals, clear rights of decision and finally a transnational strategy.
First of all, MNEs can give their local employees procedure manuals and propose rules. It is important to remember that there might be differences in the culture. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that the manual can be read by everyone, meaning the manuals and rules should be translated into the particular language. The managers of subsidiaries should be responsible to ensure that every local employee is coherent with the rules. Clear rules and a clear outline of procedures can leverage the efficiency of the firm and give some sort of control about the organizational processes.
Secondly, the parent company should be able to define decision rights. Of course, the parent company wants to ensure that goals of the subsidiary are aligned with corporate goals. However, as the example in China has shown, it can be very demotivating to be controlled 24/7. Therefore, companies should give managers of subsidiaries at least control over the working capital and the daily operations. Managers in foreign subsidiaries are way more flexible to respond to local market needs. Furthermore, too many expatriates sent by the parent company can be dysfunctional as well since they are not aware of the specific local needs. It is of highest importance to give away some authority to maintain control as otherwise the firm will not control anything as employees will leave.
Finally, the multinational companies should really try to become a transnational firm. For sure, this is a difficult task and only the real global players can achieve transnational structures. However, the strategy is incredibly effective with regard to implementing both globalization/ centralization and localization. By that the firm can implement its own policies without incurring any disadvantages for itself (Kranias, 2000)

In order to remain social control, multinational companies can hire and train expatriates from the parent company or can offer workshops for local management.
First of all, expatriates come from the parent company and can convey the mission and vision to the subsidiary. Furthermore, expatriates can facilitate the information transfer by monitoring and complying to other control processes. Yet, it becomes more and more important that expatriates should not be seen as a superior person. They should understand the culture of the foreign subsidiary and starting informal talks to local employees.
Secondly, workshop sessions can be the key towards managing control as it provides a keen way to spread corporate values (Hoque & Chia, 2012)

1. Introduction
Reading is always the core of English learning. Through reading, students may expand their vocabulary, learn some grammatical rules, and find out more about western cultures. Traditional English teaching methods in China always focus on the word, phrase and sentence. Students feel hard to understand the text as a whole with these methods. Nowadays, more and more English teachers in Chinese high schools have become aware of this issue and are seeking a new teaching method to overcome it.
According to many foreign linguists, such as Cook, McCarthy and Carter, etc. they believe that Discourse Analysis provides a new perspective to teach English reading in the ESL classroom. The related theories, such as Cohesion and Thematic Progress, are supposed to be beneficial for students’ comprehension abilities. Based on my learning experience in China, in this essay, I put forward a new idea that English teachers could apply Discourse Analysis in English teaching in China.
This paper first discusses the essence of reading and the different models of reading process. Then, it analyzes the current situation and problem of reading instruction in Chinese high schools. The third section reviews the definition of Discourse Analysis and its main contents: cohesion and thematic progress. The last section detailed illustrates how to use the Discourse Analysis method for teaching reading. I hope that this paper could help English teachers to teach reading more effectively and students to enhance their reading abilities more quickly.
2. Theoretical background
2.1 Reading
2.1.1 What is reading? The Schema Theory Model
Reading is always the core of the language learning. Through reading, students can acquire more vocabulary and grammar knowledge, improve their writing skills and widen their knowledge base of foreign countries and cultures. In order to improve students’ reading abilities, we should firstly know how our minds work when we are reading.
For the past decade, ESL reading theory has been greatly influenced by the psycholinguistic model of reading. “Goodman has described reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game in which the reader reconstructs, as best as they can, a message which has been encoded by a writer” (Carrell & Eisterhold, 1987:219). In other words, reading is an interactive process between readers and texts. Therefore, the reader’s previously acquired knowledge plays an important role when he is reading, which has been formalized as the Schema Theory. The text does not carry meaning itself, but provides the direction for readers to recall the knowledge already stored in their memories or to construct the meaning based on their prior knowledge. This previously acquired knowledge is called the reader’s background knowledge and the structure of background knowledge is called schemata (Finocchiaro, 1989:113).
According to this theory, in order to fully understand the discourse, the new information in the text must be compatible with the background knowledge to some extent, which results in two basic models of information processing: bottom-up processing and top-down processing. I will discuss these two models in detail in the next section.

1. Since the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century, coal has had a significant impact on the world’s energy supply. To this day, coal is still one of the leading energy sources among all the non-renewable resources. India too, has had a long history of commercial coal mining spanning over 240 years. Started in 1774 by East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the western bank of river Damodar, the Indian Coal Industry has consistently evolved over the ages. With the enactment of the Coal Mines Act, 1973, all coal mines in India were nationalized, which otherwise, had primarily been a private sector enterprise. Subsequently, Coal India Limited (CIL) was constituted as a new public-sector company on 01 Nov 75, to enable better organizational and operational efficiency in coal sector. CIL is now the world’s largest coal-producing company, which produced 554.14 Million Tons (MT) in 2016 – 17, contributing to 84% of the country’s entire coal output. However, the monopoly over commercial mining that state-owned Coal India enjoyed since nationalisation in 1973, was broken by the government in Feb 18, by permitting private firms to enter the commercial coal mining industry.

2. Right from its genesis, commercial coal mining has always been dictated by the needs of the domestic consumption. Last year, India was the second largest coal consumer in the world after China, with a share of 11% in the global coal consumption. With the 5th largest proven coal reserves in the world after US, Russia, Australia ; China, selection of coal as the dominant fuel in the country’s energy mix is obvious.

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3. In contrast to the Coal Industry, the first commercial discovery of oil and natural gas in India was made in 1889 in Digboi, Assam. However, the Natural Gas Industry gained significance only in the 1970s, after the discovery of large reserves in the South Basin fields by Oil and Natural Gas Cooperation Limited (ONGC). Subsequently, the state-owned Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) was created in 1984, to promote gas use and develop midstream and downstream gas infrastructure.

4. While natural gas has historically been a part of India’s energy mix, it has never played a prominent role till date, due to lesser reserves in comparison and relatively easier availability of coal. However, the demand for natural gas is expected to rise due to the increasing need in energy production and the lesser environmental effects it has compared to other fossil fuels.

5. The largest consumers of coal in India are electricity generation, steel, cement and sponge iron industries, whereas natural gas finds its primary usage in fertiliser industries, power plants, city gas distribution and also sponge iron industries. In 2016, coal formed 57% of the primary energy consumption in the country, followed by oil and gas at 29% and 6% respectively. With most of the electricity in India being thermally generated in these power stations in comparison to nuclear and renewable, there is undoubtedly a very high dependency on these two fossil fuels for power generation. As per the report of the Central Electricity Authority, coal (60.13%) and natural gas (7.95%) have a aggregate share of 68.08% in the total installed power station capacity in India as on Mar 17.

6. India is in the early stages of a major transformation, bringing new opportunities to its 1.3 billion people and moving the country to centre stage in many areas of international affairs. The energy sector is expanding quickly but is set to face further challenges due to its dependency on fossil fuels and also the execution of envisaged projects towards shifting to renewable sources of energy. Both coal and natural gas will continue playing a critical role in the near future, towards ensuring energy security of the country. However, being responsible for 7% of the global CO2 emissions (3rd highest after China ; US), the policy makers have to keep in mind that the country is now globally accountable towards minimising the adverse environmental impact of increased CO2 emissions, after ratifying the Paris Agreement on climate change in Oct 16.


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