1.1. Background of the Study
Corruption is one of the key underlying factors that seriously undermines the quality of economic governance in both developing and developed countries According to the study undertaken by Transparency International’s(2016), of the 176 countries on Corruption Perceptions Index 2016, the vast majority (69 per cent) scored below 50 out of 100, where 0 is perceived to be extremely corrupt and 100 is perceived to be completely clean, exposing how significant and pervasive corruption is around the world. This year more countries declined in the index than improved, a worrying set-back highlighting that progress in many countries remains fragile.
As cited in Eric M. Uslaner(2014), In the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index from Transparency International (TI), measuring elites’ evaluations of the honesty (or dishonesty) of political and economic institutions in their countries, 131 of the 178 nations fell below the midpoint on the 10 point of the index, with higher scores representing low corruption. Only 23 nations had scores (7 or higher) indicating that their governments are basically honest. Furthermore, In the Global Corruption Barometer for 2013, public opinion surveys in 107 countries conducted by TI, a majority did not see corruption as a major problem in only one country, Denmark (ibid).
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Ethiopia is not an exception. There are high levels of corruption in Ethiopia, although less high than in comparable regional countries. According to the survey of Transparency International 2016 that was undertaken in 176 countries on the Ethiopia ranked 108 with the score of 34, below the average point of 50. Examples of corruption include facilitation payments and bribes being necessary to keep land leased from the state or in order to obtain government contracts. Companies face high risks of corruption in Ethiopia’s public services provision. Petty corruption and the solicitation of bribes in return for the processing of documents are particularly common forms of corruption in the public services sector (HRR 2016, FitW 2017).
Especially, the problem is more glaring, systematic, rampant and chronic in the urban areas. The government also admit that, while the political economy of rent seeking and the ensuing corruption is destroyed and denied its upper hand in the countryside, in the urban areas it have an upper hand at a level of posing threat for the existence of the society and the system as a whole.
In tackling the problem the government has been taking different measures. Among the strategies under the focus of the government were institutionalizing the anti-corruption campaign by establishing independent government organs at Federal (Proclamation No. 235/2001) and Regional levels, as well as Sub-Regional branches as necessary to enable co-ordination of the work. The anti-corruption and ethics sector established at different level were assumed to utilize both preventive and reactive measures to tackle the problem. Every government sector, including the Municipalities were expected to mainstream the problem based on the framework of the anti-corruption mechanisms under the supervision of Regional Anti-Corruption and Ethics Bureau.
1.2. Research Question
Urbanization is fast in Ethiopia as the phenomena in the developing countries. Migration of population from the rural areas has been changing the demography of urban centers. This trend will also continue in the future as the economic transformation undertaken in the country may reinforce the process. However, most of the urban centers were not well prepared to handle the existed residents and absorb the incoming population in a way impacting positively for the growth of the urban.
Urban centers had been prone to corruption as seen in the past few years. There were reports that almost all public sectors in the towns were not free from the problem. Services were commoditized where it looks as if taken for granted in facilitation of decisions. As the practice were deepened and became naked, then accessibility to decisions and services made differences between ”the haves and the have not”. Most of the services delivered by the public office depended on what and how much one have. Provision of social services and infrastructure are low in quantity and quality. Public complains and grievances were high as a result.
The town had been fraught with leadership turnover from the measures taken on the individuals responsible for acts of corruption. The party in power and the government had not been refrained to remove leaders from their position after every political and performance evaluation for the mal-governance and inadequate service delivery collected from the community during consultation and meetings.
However, the problem of corruption is still a threat and bottleneck in the public service. There are complains among the residents in the governance and provision of services, infrastructures. Belief are widespread as ”only change of men, not change of governance”, exist, which pessimism reigns in opinions of most of the urban dwellers.
Adama town is the second urban centre following the primate and Capital city of Ethiopia and also the largest in the Oromia Regional State. The city with high commercial center and transportation route, significant economic mobility existed. The town was also increased in the number of population and size in the last ten years. As the town had a great potential for future growth and might share the burden and pressures of population migration that rest on the Capital city, the problem of corruption that has been the syndrome of most of the urban Ethiopia might hinder its role. Therefore, the issue needs great attention, as the government took as a core agenda of intervention while the balance sheet still shows negative in the urban centers as whole.
The research tried to answer the following questions;
• What were the interventions measures utilized and to what level did implemented on the ground to tackle corruptions in the town?
• To what level did the interventions were effective in addressing the problem of corruption?
Through addressing the above questions, the study determined the effectiveness of anti-corruption intervention mechanisms in the town and forwarded possible suggestion based on its merit.
1.3. Significance of the Study
The research has a number of significance. First of all, the research contribute much in suggesting ways in which the anti-corruption measures could be implemented for maximum outcomes for the practitioners and leaders of the town in preventing corruption. The study also indicated priority areas during implementation. Furthermore, the study might help as a stepping board for further investigation on the issue.
2.1. What is corruption?
Defining corruption has been problematic as equally as mitigating its practice. Differences were mostly on the focuses of the issue and the range of actions included in the acts of corruption. Therefore it is important to see various propositions to capture the concept and draw working definition for the purpose of this writing.
As Johann Graflambsdorff (2007) put Corruption is commonly defined as the misuse of public power for private benefit. The term ”private benefit” relates to receiving money or valuable assets, but it may also encompass increases in power or status. Receiving promises for future favors or benefits for relatives and friends may also be considered a private benefit. With regard to favors for relatives and friends, the terms nepotism and favoritism are also common.
World Bank (1997) definition of corruption as cited in (Jorge Martinez-Vazquez et.al.,2007) stated that corruption is ”The abuse of public office for private gain.” Public office is abused for private gain when an official accepts, solicits, or exhorts a bribe. It is also abused when private agents actively offer bribes to circumvent public policies and processes for competitive advantage and profit. Public office can also be abused for personal benefit even if no bribery occurs, through patronage and nepotism, the theft of state assets, or the diversion of state revenues.
Anwar Shah,(2007) also lamented that Corruption is defined as the exercise of official powers against public interest or the abuse of public office for private gains. Public sector corruption is a symptom of failed governance. Governance is defined as the norms, traditions, and institutions by which power and authority in a country are exercised.
Xiaobo Lil (2000) working definition of corruption after assessing the China and its CPC corruption problems and characteristics, as all forms of behavior that deviate from the prescribed norms of a regime, in which individuals or groups exploit the formal organization instead of working for it, and in which personal roles take precedence over organizational roles. The behavior itself, as conducted by public agents, may not be for private purposes. Official deviance so defined includes both corrupt conduct and non-corrupt misconduct.
Musa Idris(2011), in his study corruption as the abuse of public office, trust, or authority by conferring undue benefits (economic, political, administrative and social) on oneself or a third party contrary to statutory provisions and code of ethics for public servants such as offering and or collecting bribes, inflation of contract sum, over invoicing of supplies, tampering with payment vouchers, nepotism, unofficial use of public assets, electoral malpractices etc.
Official definition of corruption in Ethiopia in the Proclamation of anti-corruption, number 363/2005, article 2/13-14 stated corruption as undue advantage” means an improper benefit or a benefit obtained through inappropriate means; which includes a range of acts such as any interest or right in money or in another valuable item or property; any appointment, employment or contract; paying, relieving. or making free from loan. obligation or any other liability fully or partially; any service or favor intended to relieve from any actual or potential civil, administrative or criminal suit and liabilities or incapacities resulting there from; any discharge or abstention from exercising a right or an obligation; any other interest or service other than cannot be expressed in monetary terms; providing any of the benefits of the above with the intent or making promises for such purposes.
From the above definitions it could be inferred that corruption is the abuse of power by those vested with the authority of government, be of individual or a group of leaders or civil servants for private gains and prioritizing self advantage against the interest of the citizen or public by distorting formal rules and regulation, which works at the expense of others proper rights. Such acts could be expressed in different forms with various ranges.
2.2. Types of Corruption
Different types of corruption were identified by Jean-François Arvis, Ronald E. Berenbeim, (2003); Adam Graycar Tim Prenzler,(2013),
Corruption By Nature
• Paying for benefits:-for example, to influence bidding results, buy an administrative decision,
or shape a judicial decision
• Paying to avoid costs:-for example, to ensure that something that is due is done on time.
Corruption By Level
Petty corruption, which in its mildest form is similar to tips. Much corrupt activity involves relatively small amounts of money changing hands to obtain some basic service or a permit, or to prevent something like a small fine or a parking or speeding ticket. It also covers lots of contracts and purchases in municipal activities, aid programs, bribes for medical or educational services, purchase of textbooks in educational programs. Although the consequences can be severe, this type of corruption is often termed petty corruption.
Grand corruption in this form of corruption involves those at the highest level of governments, who loots the Treasury and improperly and dishonestly manipulates and controls the institutions of power. The practice reflected in government business: public works, public procurement, licenses, or in relation with privatization.
2.3. Causes of Corruption
According to Kempe R. Hope(2000) the first factor contributing to corruption in Africa is that of the total exercise by the ruling elite of all power attached to national sovereignty. This exercise of state power has led to the supremacy of the state over civil society and, in turn, to the ascendancy of the patrimonial state with its characteristic stranglehold on the economic and political levers of power, through which corruption thrives for. It is through this stranglehold that all decision-making occurs and patronage is dispensed.
Individual explanations associate corruption with individuals who, provided with enough opportunities, will act corruptly. Individual explanations reduce the phenomenon to individual personalities. Social and institutional explanations, on the other hand, seek the causes of corruption in cultural institutions, poverty, temptation, imperfect system of laws, and political change.
2.4. Consequences of Corruption
There are arguments that corruption facilitates growth as decision making process become active when there is kickback for decision makers in service delivery in return. As Sten Widmalm(2008) put, corruption can lubricate the economic machinery; things get done faster whereas businesses using the proper channels are burdened with ‘red tape’, complicated rules, and so on. And, sometimes, it can even work to the advantage of citizens who seek at least a minimal amount of influence. However, most agreed on the detrimental effect of corruption on social, economic, security and welfare of the society as a whole.
The transaction costs of illegal exchanges are important for maintaining secrecy. Because corrupt contracts confer no property rights, the corrupt party may not provide the service, ask for more money or provide the service to a competitor. With no third party to which agents can appeal in the event of a dispute, such contracts are risky, especially if no further transactions are expected or very high amounts are involved By increasing uncertainty and the costs of legal transactions, corruption reduces investment and therefore growth.
George B.N. Ayitte(2000) emphasized that in a corrupt system, contractors and suppliers fail to deliver. Who you are and how big a kickback you offer matters more than how well or efficiently you perform a job. Poor allocation of public resources results when governments award contracts to corrupt firms, which recover in the estimates they submit the costs of bribes they pay. When this occurs, political and economic collusion between public servants and archaic or rent-seeking cliques will hamper innovation. Furthermore, Ian Senior(2006) also put that when bribes are needed to gain contracts the price paid by the winning contractor exceeds the value of the work that would be done in an uncorrupt market. The balance is paid to the corruptee or retained as excess profit by the corruptor. If an asset has been created through a corruptly awarded contract, a higher return is needed. As a result corruption lowers the quality of services provided and goods bought by administrations which hampers the provision of quality and quantity of infrastructures.
Corruption distorts the allocative role of government because it tilts the composition of public spending towards projects that make it easier to collect on bribes, at the expense of priority programs. Interminable and inappropriate “white elephant” projects will proliferate. In major international transactions a preference arises for purchasing custom-built, high-tech equipment, because controls become difficult with no market prices against which to compare costs (Winston, 1979). Corruption also increases public deficits, as contracts are not let to the lowest bidders and the frequent insertion of additional clauses inflates the initial project costs. Mauro (1997) shows that corruption steers public expenditure towards areas that will facilitate corrupt
transactions – typically, spending on defense rather than on education.
Corruption distorts the redistributive role of the state, facilitates fraud and breeds tax evasion. Because it reduces government revenues, it places an increasingly heavier burden on a steadily decreasing number of taxpayers. This raises incentives to turn to the informal sector and starts a vicious circle. It also totally distorts programs to combat poverty. It renders international aid much less effective by diverting growing amounts from their intended purposes, such as infrastructure, programs to combat poverty or reconstruction from earthquakes and civil wars.
In systems where rent seeking proves more lucrative than productive work, talent will be misallocated and the elite will turn to non-productive work, with adverse consequences for the social surplus and growth.
According to Institute of Peace and Corruption (2015), higher levels of corruption within the police and judiciary create inefficiencies by disabling sound legal frameworks and formal and informal codes of conduct. This leads to increased levels of crime and violence within society. Corruption of the enforcement apparatus (army, police and the courts) allows organized crime to extend its predatory activities of the private sector. It can even enable a symbiosis between organized crime and politicians that further encourages the abuse of power.
2.5. Anti-Corruption Measures
Most countries forbidden corruption and took different approaches to tackle the problem. While some emphasize on the root problem to dried out the source or one could say prevention, others emphasize on the reactive ways of tackling the issue. As the findings of research by OECD,(1999) shows;
”When asked to identify their most effective mechanisms against corruption, most countries cited more than one type of mechanism as the most effective. Only two countries considered that one type of mechanism should be preferred to all others (the Czech Republic and Korea both regarded law enforcement and investigation as the most effective). Indeed, Ireland responded that “No one mechanism should be singled out as more important than any other”. This view was supported by Hungary and Poland, who specifically referred to the importance of employing a range of integrated measures. Japan also addressed the strategic aspect, emphasizing the importance of measures being applied in a comprehensive and consistent manner.”
Here are some of the measures covered for the purpose of the study.
The objective of regulatory policy is to ensure that regulations support economic growth and development as well as the achievement of broader societal objectives such as social welfare, environmental sustainability, and the respect of the rule of law. It addresses the permanent need to ensure that regulations and regulatory frameworks are justified, of high quality and achieve policy objectives. Regulatory policy helps policy makers reach informed decisions about what to regulate, whom to regulate, and how to regulate. As an integral part of effective public governance and the foundation for building integrity, regulatory policy helps to shape the relationship between the state, citizens and businesses.
Public Sector Integrity Systems
Integrity is a core pillar of good public governance. It ensures government policies are responsive, fair and contribute to the public’s best interests. It legitimizes institutions, increasing compliance and building trust in government. This includes effective legislative and institutional frameworks, adequate resources and support that will enable public sector organizations to take on the responsibility for managing the integrity system.
A culture of integrity in government is based, in part, on values. Over-elaborate formal regulations and procedures however may be counterproductive, with the potential to raise unnecessary administrative costs, institutionalize distrust, and reduce ethical reasoning to a culture of just following rules and procedures.
An effective public sector integrity system is not only values-based, but also compliance-based. To that end, the recommendations implore member countries to ensure that the integrity system is underpinned by sound accountability and transparency mechanisms. Strong controls, such as audits, risk mapping and disciplinary measures are necessary elements to ensure compliance with the integrity system
Empowering Civil Society
Adam Graycar and Tim Prenzler(2013) preventing public corruption requires an effort from all members of society at large. For these reasons, the Convention calls on countries to promote actively the involvement of non-governmental and community-based organizations, as well as other elements of civil society, and to raise public awareness of corruption and what can be done about it
As OECD(2017) stated civil society plays a key role in influencing and monitoring government and particularly in fighting corruption. Capable, independent and vocal civil society organizations can study and advocate for improved integrity and anti-corruption policies, monitor their implementation and inform citizens of strengths and weaknesses. Second, civil society play an essential “watch-dog” role, exposing and denouncing corruption and applying pressure for formal investigations and the application of sanctions. Sten Widmalm(2008) supports this argument for the role of citizens in fighting corruption, when they express a strong preference for a non-corrupt public administration and can naturally work for anti-corruption struggle if they have the power to coordinate their efforts.
The effective participation of civil society in the fight against corruption depends on four key factors. First, the existence of a legal framework that enables civil society organizations to participate in the all aspects of society without political and legal (including funding) restrictions is crucial. Second, strengthening the relationship between state and its citizens in the fight against corruption will improve the quality of policies by integrating different points of views, and enhancing public trust in the government and its actions. The extent to which CSOs actively engage in the fight against corruption is the third key factor. Lastly, CSOs must also demonstrate a strong commitment to integrity within their own organizations (OECD, 2017).
According to OECD (2017), the protection of employees who disclose wrongdoing in the context of their workplace (“whistleblowers”) is at the core of an organization’s integrity framework. Indeed, employees who report wrongdoing may be subject to intimidation, harassment, dismissal and violence by their colleagues or superiors.
Ian Senior(2006) also stated that it is hard to imagine that anyone enjoys whistle-blowing. It may lead to the loss of promotion prospects, the loss of a job or ostracism within the workplace For any whistle-blower it is essential to name names and to have hard evidence to support claims. This entails, in effect, spying on colleagues. Further, the whistle-blower must expect that those whom he accuses of corruption will not only deny it but will produce counter-charges against him. He runs a double risk: failing to prove his case and ruining his career.
Provisions must be in place, therefore, to incentivize whistleblowers including: legal protection from retaliation, clear guidance on reporting procedures, and visible support and positive reinforcement from the organizational hierarchy. Such protections are recognized as an essential element for safeguarding the public interest, promoting a culture of public accountability, and in many countries is proving crucial in the reporting of misconduct, fraud and corruption (OECD,2017)
Corrupting of public officials undermines integrity of the public administration, affects social and economic development of the country and erodes trust in public institutions. Criminalization is one of the main tools to combat such serious wrongdoing as public corruption. Criminal law is effective in punishing corrupt behavior and deterring future offences. Therefore, the criminal liability for bribery is a necessary element of any comprehensive anti-corruption framework (ibid).
2.6. Anti-Corruption Mechanisms in Ethiopia
Ethiopia institutionalized anti-corruption struggle in addressing the problem through the establishment of Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission by the Proclamation No. 235/2001. In the Proclamation different mandates were given to the Commission to fight corruption in the government sectors. The Commission as stated in the Proclamation No. 235/2001, Article 6, have the following objectives;
I. strive to create an aware society where corruption will not be condoned or tolerated
II. by promoting ethics and anti-corruption education;
III. to prevent corruption offences and other improprieties;
IV. to strive to create and promote integrity in public service by detecting, investigating and prosecuting alleged or suspected cases of corruption offences and other improprieties;
V. to cause the preparation and follow up the implementation of codes of ethics for public officials and public servants; and to assist others, upon request, in establishing their own codes of ethics.
Furthermore, in the Proclamation No. 235/2001 of article 7, the Commission was mandated with both preventive and detective-prosecuting measures to minimize the problem. In the preventive measures awareness creation, promotion of ethics in public service, examining the practices and procedures conducive to corrupt practices for advise or assist for improvement; register or cause the registration of the assets and financial interests of public officials and other public servants, undertake research on ethics and corruption, monitor the implementation of codes of ethics, security protection to witnesses and whistle blowers were enumerated. Others were focused more of on seeking information of the suspects, detecting, collecting and prosecuting the wrong doers (art.7, sub-article 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10). These strategies were endorsed at the regional level with some modification. Within the framework, every government sectors were expected to implement and co-operate with the Commission to work when the need arise, to control the problem.
3.1. Research Design
The research is primarily qualitative in nature. This is because the issue under study is mainly explained more in qualitative rather than quantitative forms. Corruption crime and its consequences are not only difficult but also not enough to put in quantification. However, some forms of quantitative data were used in supplementary where available and the need arise.
In doing so, first, the study focused on comparing the actual implementation of the anti-corruption mechanisms employed in the Municipality against the expected performances of ant-corruption mechanisms stated in the anti-corruption policy that gave responsibility of implementation. Secondly, performances of selected sectors and trends of the customer satisfaction and reports of public opinions will be compared against the endeavors to lessen corruption in the Municipality to come-up with the level of the out-comes of the anti-corruption measures.
Within this qualitative research method, my research has employed case study since case study is an in-depth exploration of a phenomenon from multiple perspectives of the complexity and uniqueness of a particular policy, institution, program or system in a real life context. Moreover, the appropriateness of the selection of the case is based on the transferability and representativeness of the target of the study. The case study approach offers substantial flexibility in terms of what data is to be collected and how it is collected. In this study, the case study focuses on Adama town public sector anti-corruption practices. As the town is emerging and second largest urban center next to Addis Ababa, the Capital city, it may have ample advantages for the relevance of findings of the study. It also enables to assess and re-view relevant policies, strategies, rules and regulations, long and short term plans and periodical reports on anti-corruption and ethics performances. Furthermore, case study approach enables the study to describe the problem, to explain how the work was done, and to identify challenges experienced.
In addition to this, the research will use a systematic and comprehensive review of related literature’s invested on the agenda via internet search. It is the researcher understanding that this is the appropriate method that helps to integrate theories, norms, standards and principles of corruption tackling mechanisms in public sector given the topic of the study, issues to be addressed, specific objective and research question of the present research.
3.2. Data Sources and Collection Methods
As the study is qualitative in nature, the data employed for the research were mainly secondary sources. Reports of the past few years on actual performances of anti-corruption measures from the Branch Commission that coordinate the anti-corruption endeavors with the town’s Municipality, reports from Adama Administration, Oromia Bureau of Anti-Corruption and Ethics, were collected in the form of soft copy and consumed for the study. Furthermore, annual reports of selected sectors in the town on the issue of survey of customer satisfaction and opinions on the service delivery and selected yearly performance reports of sensitive and corruption prone public sectors were also gathered and utilized by weighting their genuineness. On matters that needs additional clarification and where shortages of data met primary data were collected through developing open and close ended questionnaire via email and phone call from Commission’s experts and team leaders.
3.3. Method of Data Analysis
In the analyses part of the study, data collected from different sources were sifted for their authenticity and realness, because reports from the government sectors either inflated or deflated by their nature or unenclosed in the reports. Then, collected data on the performances of major anti-corruption measures were described, narrated weighted and compared against the intended policy outcomes. Based on the results of analyses, interpretation and meaning were given for drawing inferences. Lastly, suggestion and recommendation were given based on the findings.
Discussion and Analysis
4.1. Organizational Capacity of the Branch Commission
Oromia Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission were established by the Proclamation No 71 /2002. The Commission was mandated to coordinate the efforts of fighting corruption in the whole Oromia Regional State from the center. However, after the Regional Bureau began its function, difficulties cropped up in coordinating the vast areas of the region. Oromia Regional State is the largest state both in size and population number in the country, Ethiopia. The region has been divided in to 20 Zonal administrations with more than 360 Woredas and 9 first level towns. In addition to its hugeness, the increasing complexity of the problem and the effort it needs made unmanageable from the center. Therefore, Branches of the Commission mandated with the power to exercise regional missions in their boundaries were established since 2010.
Fig. 1 The Structure of the Commission.
Source: Researchers own drawing based on the reports of the Oromia Ethics and Anti-Corruption Bureau
Among the decentralized Branches, the Central Branch opening its Office in Adama was one of them established in the year 2010. The Branch was mandated to coordinate 2 Zonal Administration with 34 rural Woredas and 3 towns at the level of woreda, while 1 town, Adama with the first level city. The total population and size of the areas the Commission work on were about 4,314,211 pop and 30,556 km2, respectively. This is to show that comparatively weighting the existing human power, budget and logistic against the burden of the work, as it have an impact on effectiveness of the Commission.
These parts of the region were known by their high economic activities and mobility as they are also found near the capital city, Addis Ababa. Every route that moves from Addis Ababa to the corner of the country cut across these administrative boundaries. The value of land and property on it were also relatively high in the area. Adama was one of the most vital town, where the mobility of economy is high and acting as a center of gravity in the area.
The Central Branch Commission at Adama town has been functioning in an environment that was turbulent relative to the other parts of the regions of Oromia. In discharging its function the Commission were staffed with 17 workers out of more than the needed 40, less than 50%. Logistic was also meager, only one vehicle available. The annual budget was increasing from time to time, but utilization is poor, less than 50%.
Table 1: Annual budget & performance of the East Branch Commission
Fiscal Year Budget Performance in ETB
Plan Performance %
2016 1403490 671,729.42
Source: Annual reports of 2016, 2017 of the Commission
4.2. Awareness Creation
Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), Adama city has a total population of 220,212, an increase of 72.25% over the population recorded in the 1994 census, of whom 108,872 are men and 111,340 women. The town also had more than 1000 civil servants staffed in different sectors. Plan and Reports from the Commission shows that awareness creation among the body of government wing (political leaders and civil servants) and civil society was one of the means in tackling corruption in the town.
Table 2: training coverage
Target Addressed Year
Civil Servant 71 27
Student Na 5907
Whistleblowers 23 18
Total 94 5952
Source: 2016, 2017 annual reports
From the above table 1, it could be seen that, the targets addressed through efforts of awareness creation by the Commission were insignificant, less than 1%. The targets focused in the awareness creation were more of the students, especially at the primary level. Of course, this is best as the effort prepares the next generation in the long term. However, as the present is the bridge for tomorrow, the active actors and the direct victims should also be the focus. Because, most of the acts of the corruption were emanated from the decision of the incumbent office holders and civil servants, while the direct victims of the problem were the active segments of the residents. Therefore, as the report shows, most of the targets were missed. Informants from the Commission also recognized that in addressing the main target group all respondents, 10(100%) admitted the limitation.
There were two main problems getting in touch with the mass of the town’s population. The first is the limited capacity of the Commission. The Commission is responsible to coordinate a number of zonal and urban administrations that account one fourth of the Oromia Regional State. The human power and resource that were assigned did not much to coordinate these huge areas. Secondly, the strategy that has been used to compensate for limited capacity were poor. Informants from the Commission informed that they utilized face-to-face training delivery, distribution of pamphlets and annual anti-corruption day in raising the awareness of the population. In face-to-face training, it might be effective in communicating the message; in terms of reaching vast numbers of the target group has its own limitation, since it is costly and difficult to get the residents uprooting them from their daily livelihood. Pamphlets, not more than 1600 in number as indicated in the annual reports of the Commission, could not be enough, without mentioning the literacy problem.
Another means of raising public awareness on the issue of corruption is platform prepared by the municipality. The Municipality facilitates such kind of meeting based on the plan of the National government and the town’s administration itself. At National level, when the Ruling Party and the government feels that mal- governance has posed a threat to the system as whole by creating discontent among the public, the government resorts to opening public discussion at the grass-root level. This has gave an opportunity to communicate what the corruption is, its effect and their role to the community. The Municipality also open public consultation forum based on specific agendas, with specific segments or all-encompassing of the residents. However, the meetings were faced with turnouts and lack of continuity that were difficult to conclude that significant target groups have been addressed.
Regarding the level of awareness among the population of the town there has been some progress. According to my informant, although there were drawbacks in reaching mass of the residents, with the efforts here and there, all were agreed 10(100%) that awareness on the parts of the population has been increasing. Recent researches and evaluation of the report of the public meeting of movement for the deepening reform, ’tilk tehadiso’, confirm the argument.
4.3. Public Participation in Exposing Corruption
Another factor that could have a role in fighting corruption is public participation. As stipulated in the strategy of the Commission, one of the bulwark in fighting corruption is creating a society that do not tolerate the attitude and acts of thefts by the officeholders and aversion towards corruption its basic values and culture. Based on this view, the residents were expected both in refraining from collaborating with acts and actors of corruption as well as disclosing information where they might face acts of corruption. To assess the level of public participation in the town, the researcher tried to gather information based on three variables: opportunities available at hand for the public, culture of the population to expose the problem and the response from the government for the acts uncovered.
Information gathered from the Commission’s experts based on open-ended questionnaire and review of reports has shown that there were two locus of informing the acts of corruption by the public, the towns sectors including up to Mayors and the Commission. There were various means the public wire out complains on the mistreatment in the service delivery of the municipal and state sectors. From the response of informants, the most utilized mechanisms had been facilitating public consultation meeting with the community and hearing their complain. In the past years a number of meetings held by the towns sectors and the Commission with the community, although it had not been sufficient and lacking continuity. Individuals and groups of individuals also came with the information and complains related with acts of corruption and unethical practices in the service delivered, by being there in person. Sometimes, the Commission and the sectors undertake surveillances to gather information. However, the endeavors were haphazard and not systemic.
Within the available opportunity, the culture of the public is an important issue in exposing corruption. As the assessments of the informants of the Commission and reports from the meeting held by the town’s administration with the public, the tendency of raising any ideas on acts of corruption and unethical practices, based on live facts and in person has been improved. Most participants outward any real or perceived problems in the ways service delivered and management. In addition to formal meetings, individuals also came with information when they encounter with acts of corruption and unethical practices. As the response for the question provided for the Informants of the Commission shows, the basis of the informer of the acts were basically conflicts of interest and commitment.
Timely, fair and adequate response for the complain and information’s on corruption that were indicated by the public is another critical point in motivating or de-motivating participation. In the past two years, based on the ruling party’s movement to deepening reform, ”tilk tehadiso” in its amharic term, within the party and the government structure across the country, the town’s administration had opened vast discussion forums with the residents. A number of problems related with mal-governance and even naked corruption were reported. Following the public meeting, the administration has taken different corrective actions. However, how much the corrective measures taken have brought a change among the populace of the town is yet to decide. According to my informant from the Commission, the response towards public complains and information gathered on corruption and mal-governance was not adequate. Among the experts replied for the question ”Is there systematic and immediate response for the complaint against acts of corruption and reports of unethical practice by the public?”, all were agreed that, the problem is not getting information and gathering complaint on corruption, but in addressing the malaise in time and communicating the actions taken to the public transparently.
4.4. Leadership Commitment
Leadership in the town refers to the teams and individuals vested with power and responsibility to make decisions on any matter pertaining to their mandate in realizing nation-wide vision in the town. The town’s core leadership is the executive committee of five members presided by Mayor. Then there are members of cabinets that appointed to lead their respective sectors in the town. Recently, the town was divided in to five sub-cities in order to decentralize the decision making as a response to growing complexity of the city’s public demand. This has added additional hierarchy and leadership between the town administration and kebeles. The kebeles, found nearest to the public and having an impact on the day to day life of the wider residents, are the lowest and the last units of the towns administrative structure. Leaders at the kebele level are sometimes maker and breaker in the lives of the people and governance of the town.
Developing leadership commitment is a panacea in fighting corruption and building a just society. Leaders appointed at different levels have central role within their circle of mandates in reinforcing or purging vices. But as it is criticality, assessing commitment of rank and files of leaders might had been the most difficult job. Considering the challenge, however, the researcher tried to assess the commitments of the leadership at different levels of the town in fighting corruption. The research tried to use different sources of data, then triangulate the data and information’s to get clear picture.
Commitment at the executive committee might be assessed in terms of how the leaders are free attitudinally and involvement in action of corruption, how they shape the attitude among the leaders and civil servants, and take actions on such problems, how they did mobilize and respond to the public as well as work with the Commission in the endeavors against corruption. Against this backdrop, the past five years history of the town could show different scenarios. At the executive level, the town has seen five mayors. About three were dismissed with the problem related with inaction on lack of good governance or rent-seeking problem. From the report of ”tilk tehadso” what most residents complained was that the most corrupted leaders in actual curse corruption on the stage vicariously. They also promised the people on the meeting and forget immediately after that endless talk. Furthermore, civil servants speak of about insecurity in their exposing the acts of corruption committed by the leaders. Town leadership commitment from the grassroots kebele level to the executive committee member of mayor to lead the struggle of anti-corruption and fight the corruption as a team and individually as the agency head, rather they had focus on and defalcate their time on routing and temporally activity
That backlog has passed over to the existing leadership. The incumbent leaders collected pile of public grievance in the meeting of’ ”tilk tehadso”. How much they responded to the public grievance is yet to judge. However, hither to trend shows that the result was mixed. In one way there has been actions taken in reorganizing the leaders and removed the kebele leaders towards whom most mal-governance and corruption were raised. The 2017 deepening rehabilitation ”tilk- tehadiso” all town leadership were removed from their position, one third of them were directly related and had to do with corruption. The remaining were with lack of good governance and problem in service delivery. However, the performance of the substituted leaders at towns administrative levels did not show any radical change. Still complains has continued in most sectors, where some were strong. At the same time, there were some respites at kebele while relapsed again partially. Most of the informants from the Commission commented that commitment among the leadership were by far low. Coordination with Commission from the town’s leadership also weak. They talk about destructiveness of corruption only for the sake of stage and were fake. They did not had strong stand to bring the fundamental change and committed to take action to stop corruption. Due to the mentioned problem trends in corruption were also escalating in all the town’s sectors.
Assigning whistleblowers in the sectors is one among the measures in preventing corruption and unethical practices. If mobilized to expected level, it might share the burden of the Commission and heighten the effort of fighting corruption. To identify the effectiveness the researcher tried to assess based on variables such as existence of criteria and procedures?, Assignments of whistleblowers based on the criteria and procedures, How they had been functioning or played their role?
The Commission had clear criteria and producers in selecting and assigning whistleblowers. The criteria require any individuals to be free from any unethical or criminal acts in the past, attitudinally anti- rent-seeking, able to boldly stand against acts of corruption, professional in educational background and competent. The assignments are expected to be undertaken jointly with the sectors and the commission, after thorough assessment of the person to be assigned.
Assignments of whistleblowers on terms of set criteria were not encouraging. All of my informants from the Commission agreed that assignments based on the criteria and procedure were undertaken in only few sectors. Most of the assigned whistleblowers did not meet the criteria. Recent research undertaken in 2017 by the Regional Commission also strengthens this assertion. According to the findings of the research from 24 whistleblowers communicated in Focused Group Discussion, only 4 were assigned following the procedure. As my informants pointed out, most of the political leaders see them as a threat and fault finder rather than facilitator and supporter in anti-corruption efforts. As a result they inclined to chose conformer and assigned unilaterally that were not fit the criteria. Furthermore, as the box of the structure is relatively better than most of the box in the town’s sectors, it had became the place civil servants attracted through nepotism or dismissed appointees assigned during demotion.
Regarding the contribution of the whistleblowers, my informants have rated their performance as has been low. The bottlenecks enumerated by the respondents were many. Lack of competence that has arisen from lack of assigning based on criteria, where there were assignments based on the criteria, insecurity among the whistleblowers as they were accountable to their immediate leaders and who could hire and fire them. Some of them were co-opted by benefits and lose appetite to stand against misdeeds. There were also turnover among the whistleblowers as the labor market providing ample opportunities.
4.6. Property Registration
Property registration is another measures implemented to prevent and investigate corruption. As a tool of anti-corruption, it was endorsed in the year 2010 with the proclamation No 169/2010 of Cheffee Oromia and its implementation launched in the year 2013, with the registration of the property of the then President of the Regional State of Oromia, His Excellence Alemayehu Atomsa, in the presence of the Regional Cabinet. In the year 2014 and 2015 the registration entered in to full-fledged with the momentum created.
According to the Proclamation No 169/2010 of Cheffee Oromia Property Registration and Making Public, every political leader and key civil servants that works in corruption prone areas should have to register his/her property. The power and responsibility for coordinating the duty of property registration was vested for the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission. The proclamation requires every responsible officeholders to register his/her property and income honestly as well as registered property to be renewed every two years and made public, for the public get the opportunity of assuring the truthfulness of the property of each individuals. The purpose is to clear whether any increments of asset might equivalent with all its incomes and control any deviation if there is/are.
Reports from the Regional and branch of the Commission shows that property registration of political leaders, appointees and civil servants were undertaken. The Booklets of Oromia Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission(2014) report shows that of 200 male, 88 female, total 288, 178 male, 83 female, total 261 had registered their property. In 2015 Annual reports of Branch Commission, the number of property registered rose to 628 male, 193 female, total of 821, which is more than tripled. From the data, it could be understood that property registration has been one of the area the Commission has gone far. However, in the process of registration the willingness among the civil servants and political appointee for registering their property were mixed.
Registration of property is not an end by itself. What makes property registration productive in checking corruption are, when the recorded property validated for their realness by the responsible body and public scrutiny as well as utilized for controlling deviations. The proclamation No 169/2010 also stated that after registration, additional activities should be in place. Registered property and income sources indicated should be validated through different mechanisms such as assessing bank account, searching other unregistered property, evaluation of living condition against income. This should also be supplemented by public scrutiny through publicizing the information. However, in the town, the effort did not gone far beyond registration. The 2017 annual report of the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Bureau of Oromia, the reason for the stagnation were lack of supportive laws, rules and regulation; weak Commission’s capacity; newness of the work and lack of live experiences to adopt; low awareness and fear among leaders and civil servants; and weak leadership commitment.
4.7. Targeting Corruption Prone System
Corruption is everywhere, but accessibility and risk of the problem might not be the same. Some sectors are more vulnerable and their negative impact are also far-reaching. The efforts these problem requires differs accordingly. Along this conception, corruption critical sectors were identified at the national level that should be targeted in all the endeavors of anti-corruption efforts and demolish rent-seeking systems in the urban political economy. As a result, land administration, revenue and tax collection, trade (contraband), government procurement were the major corruption prone areas prioritized by the government.
At the town’s level, the nationally prioritized areas may apply at some level, but not in all its magnitude and manifestation. Particularities should be dealt for effective outcome. Based on this view, the researcher tried to identify assessments and prioritization practices of corruption prone sectors in the town. The assessment were carried out both by the Commission and the town’s administrative management.
The Commission identify the priority areas based on the repeated complaints reported by individuals or groups, own planned surveillance and research. Scrutiny of the past two years report and information from the informants attest that land administration, kebele administrative, driving license, business license, tax collection, project bid and construction, transfer of kebele and condominium housing were the main areas identified. However, only on the transfer of kebele housing problem that investigation carried out and recommended for intervention to administrative body.
4.8. Criminalizing Corruption
Criminalizing corruption is another powerful means of tackling misconducts and abuse of public property. It is the reactive way of intervention against corruption. As the strategy, criminalization has been taken as a last resort next to prevention. The measure pass through different processes, i.e., collecting reports of corrupt acts, clearance of the cases, passing decision on whether the report could fit the criteria stated under corrupt acts and mandate of the Commission, then freezing any properties of the suspect, organizing every supportive records for prosecution and put the suspected before the court. In line with this, the Commission has been working to bring the offender under justice.
Table 3: reports of criminalizing corruption
R.N Items Year
1 Reports of Corruption 25 208
2 Property freezing 3 8
Return of stolen property in cash or money m2 1800 land Mil.39,852,647.50
4 Feedback given for reporters Na 32
5 Complicated cases cleared 15 69
6 Decision on cases whether wrong or not 15 72
7 Bringing suspected before the court Na 73
8 Court litigation 5 25
9 Cases prosecuted in % 85% 100%
10 Criminal prosecuted in % 80% 93%
Source, 2016, 2017 annual reports of the East Central Branch Commission
From the table 3 above, it could be seen that reports on acts of corruption rose in number between the year 2016 and 2017, from 25 to 208 respectively. Assets of the suspected corrupter were freezed in order to protect them from moving or laundering, while corrupter found with sufficient evidence were made to return the property to the government stock. As a result 1800m2 of urban land in Adama in the year 2016. and more than 39.8 mil. ETB in 2017 were returned. The Commission had also the practice of giving feedback to the reporters on the progress of the cases they reported, which encourages further participation. As a whole, cases that got decisions from the reported that fall within the criteria were 15 and 72 for the year 2016 and 2017 respectively, whereas the complicated cases investigated were 15 and 69 for the year 2016 and 2017 correspondingly. In getting the suspected before the court the 2017 report shows about 73 men. In litigation, the cases brought to the court were 5 and 25 in 2016 and 2017 respectively. From the cases came before the court 85% in the year 2016 and 100% in 2017 were got decisions, and 80% in 2016 and 93% in 2017 of suspected men were criminalized.
Overall, from the data above two major generalizations could be drawn. One, there were an increase in the number cases reported and fall under decisions of corrupt act as well as the size of property abused. This might be due to an improvement to the awareness of the residents and culture of exposing corruption or the Commission’s being active as a result of relative growing capacity. Second, the difference between reported cases and cases that reach courts were high, 20% in 2016 and about 12% in 2017. This might be the quality of the report or the problem in processing the cases that could be related with capacity problem.
4.9. Comparative Analysis of Implementation of Measures and Outcome
4.9.1. Anti-Corruption Measures in Practice
The Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission from its onset introduced different laws, rules and regulation that were internally generated or externally adopted to strengthen anti-corruption efforts in the region. To deepen the efforts through increasing accessibility, the Regional Bureau established four branches to coordinate the implementation of the work at the nearest possible. These branches (including the Eastern Zone from which the researcher has taken Adama town as a case among its prerogative), tried to enforce the implementation of the strategies adopted. However, how much they were implemented on the ground? which measures has got more attention and with what impact at their implementation level? should be clear in order to look for improvement. Therefore, based on prepared questions, the researcher asked the Branch Commission experts and unit leaders to rank seven selected anti-corruption measures based on their level of execution.
Table 4: rank based on level of implementation
R.N Measures measures ranked based on their level of implementation
A B C D E F Total
1 Awareness Raising 2 1 1 2 7 3 16
2 Whistleblowers 5 3 3 3 6 2 22
3 Leadership Commitment 6 5 7 7 5 7 37
4 Public Participation 4 6 6 6 1 6 29
5 Targeting Corruption Prone System 3 2 5 5 4 4 23
6 Property Registration 7 7 4 4 3 5 30
7 Criminalization 1 4 2 1 2 1 7
Source: derived from the data gathered
From the above table, one could see that the Commission’s past performance and efforts were focused on mainly criminalizing corruption. Awareness creation, targeting corruption prone system and mobilizing whistleblowers were modestly implemented. Public participation, property registration and leadership commitment were the least that got attention during implementation. However, even though there had been variation one over another at the level of implementation, none of the measures were executed exhaustively and the actual impact in tackling corruption were medium and low.
4.9.2. The Gap in Priority
The researcher also tried to identify the gap between what was prioritized during actual implementation and what ought to be prioritized for the Commission and its efforts of anti-corruption be effective and efficient. The same informants were requested to rank the anti-corruption measures based on their would be impact, if they are properly implemented.
Table 5: rank with the best outcome
R.N Measures If properly implemented rank with the best outcome
A B C D E F Total
1 Awareness Raising 4 2 1 1 1 9
2 Whistleblowers 2 5 3 4 7 21
3 Leadership Commitment 1 3 2 2 3 11
4 Public Participation 6 1 4 5 2 18
5 Targeting Corruption Prone System 3 4 5 7 4 23
6 Property Registration 5 6 6 3 5 25
7 Criminalization 7 7 7 6 6 33
Source: derived from the data gathered
Accordingly, as the informants were voted, awareness raising, leadership commitment and public participation ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively. While whistleblowers, targeting corruption prone systems, property registration ranked in order. Criminalization was ranked the least, as the last option to be applied.
Finally, the actual performance the anti-corruption measures and the would-be effective priority were compared and found that, there were a gap in giving due attention by focusing on the most effective strategies. The table 4, below shows the case more clearly.
Table 6: The Gap in Priority
R.N Measures ranked based on their level of implementation rank with the best outcome
Total Rank Total Rank
1 Awareness Raising 16 2nd 9 1st
2 Whistleblowers 22 3rd 21 4th
3 Leadership Commitment 37 7th 11 2nd
4 Public Participation 29 5th 18 3rd
5 Targeting Corruption Prone System 23 4th 23 5th
6 Property Registration 30 6th 25 6th
7 Criminalization 7 1st 33 7th
Source: derived from the data gathered
4.9.3. Trends of Corruption
Recent study undertaken by Oromia Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (2017) entitled ”A Survey of Perception, Attitude and Practice of Corruption in Oromia National Regional State” has tried to indicate the intensity of corruption in the region. Particularly, the survey also exposed the condition of corruption at Adama town, by specifying the magnitude of each government sectors. The research identified sectors with strong magnitude of corruption within the town and comparative to other similar cities. From the findings of the research it was clear that corruption had been the critical problem in the town.
Remark of the Informants from the Commission also strengthened the findings of the research. For the question, ” Do you think that corruption in the town has decreased or rising?”, 8(80%) replied that corruption still rising in the town, 1(1%) skeptical and 1(1%) decreasing. Those who replied corruption were rising justified their answer by taking the rising number of complaints, increasing report of corruption, critical corruption prone areas still did not show any progress, rather intensified. Who, on the other hand replied corruption has decreased, support the argument by pointing out major projects that were the source of public complain have got solution, many development projects in the town has been accomplished which were mismanaged because of corruption in the past.
5.0. Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
The research, to assess the effectiveness of anti-corruption measures in Oromia based on the case of Adama town, has posed two questions, ”What were the interventions measures utilized and to what level did implemented on the ground to tackle corruptions in the town?, To what level does the interventions were effective in addressing the problem of corruption?”. To this end data and information were collected from the Regional and Branch Commission, Adama town’s administration and analyzed thoroughly. Then, based on the data available, the following findings are identified;
• Anti-corruption measures that were selected as a tools by the Regional Bureau of Ethics and Anti-corruption were known and in use.
• In practice, as far as the performance was concerned, none of the measures were exhaustively implemented and their outcomes were medium and low. Accessibility and coverage of awareness creation were low; community mobilization has been inadequate; whistleblowers were ineffective; property registration stagnated before its effective stage; leadership commitment is ambivalent; criminalization has been intermittent and hanged with bottlenecks in the court system.
• In the implementation of the measures, prioritizing them based on their maximum impacts were poor.
• As a result, still corruption is the main problem and the source of irritation in the town. Therefore, the measures were not effective in mitigating corruption problem. However, this does not mean that the measures are not good, but it is their implementation that failed.
• The main reasons for the poor performance were the weak capacity of the Commission and lack of similar commitment among the rank and files of leader in the town.
Corruption is a source of mal-governance and alien government that led to various economic, social and political crises. While the problem exists in all developed and developing countries, the intensity and the harmful consequence were more pervasive in developing countries. Understanding the destructive effect of corruption, a number of countries institutionalized the agenda for intervention.
Ethiopia was also the victims of corruption and identified the problem as a peril to development, good governance and even survival of the state. Based on this belief, the country institutionalized the anti-corruption effort beginning 1994 by the establishment of Federal Ethics Anti-Corruption Commission, then followed by Regional structures. Oromia Regional State opened the office for the same mission by the Proclamation 169/1995. Following its establishment, the Oromia Ethics Anti-Corruption Commission passed through different stages. From organizing Regional Bureau to decentralizing the structures by opening its office at seven branches in the region to enhance accessibility, to Commission’s formulating of different policies and designing regulations that help the efforts carried out against corruption and unethical practices.
The Commission also tried to implement the policies and regulations to tackle corruption in the region. However, how much the policies and regulations on paper were materialized on the ground and achieved the intended result might be a matter of debate. But, what the case of the study tells in actual was that, there were huge gap between the intention of the anti-corruption measures and the performance on the ground as well as the outcomes they brought. Unless these gorges bridged, the said commitment would remain rhetoric. However how much the Commission has been effective in the effort against corruption was the main tenet of the research. In doing so, the research took Adama town as a case study, To answer research questions, the study depended on analyzing policies and strategies formulated in order to identify what means were under use to avoid the problem. Different reports from the Commission and town’s administration were collected, sifted, analyzed and triangulated in order to get clear picture. Open and close ended questionnaire were prepared to collect additional data and information from 10(59%) of the Commission’s employee. Based on the data gathered and analyzed, it was found that, the measures in use were inadequately implemented and their impacts in addressing the corruption problem were insignificant. Because, 80% of my informant agreed corruption is increasing rather than decreasing. As the study concluded the problem lies not on the strategies but on inadequate implementation. These were emanated from weak capacity of the Commission and lack of commitment among the leaders of the town in working collaboratively. Therefore, for the anti-corruption effort to be effective, the research recommended that building the capacity of the Commission, developing commitment among the leaders, devising further methods to implement the strategies should be given due attention.
Based on the findings identified and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations were forwarded;
• Enhancing the capacity and empowering of the Commission should be given due attention through staffing adequate human power, training, logistic and expanding mandates.
• Developing the true commitment of the leadership in the town, strengthening coordination between the Commission and the towns core leaders is also critical for success.
• Prioritizing on the measures with the maximum impacts without neglecting none of them.
• Proper mechanisms should be devised creatively to overcome the limited human power and logistic, doing more with less.
• As a Commission, proper attention should be given for Adama town in their endeavors.
• Communication channels with the public whether in awareness creation or in making the public active in participating against corruption should be reconsidered. For example, social radios in the town may be one means, the main Oromia radio and television agency has found in the town so to make agree with the agency and create fixed date and program as a means of communication channel if used to aware the people without moving them from their daily activities. Different suggestion boxes at different areas nearest to the public could be another alternative to collect information from the residents.
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Checklists for interview
1. Awareness created on the issue of corruption prevention and control?
• Who is responsible for awareness creation in the town?
• Who were the target groups?
• How many of them were covered or addressed in the training in the past few years?
• What were the means of awareness creation and probability of their outreach?
• What is the level of awareness of the target group on the agenda of corruption?
2. The role of whistleblowers?
• Is there whistleblowers in the sectors?
• If there are, how many of the sectors has assigned whistleblowers?
• What is the terms of assignment/criteria of as a rule and are they assigned as per the criteria?
• What is the role of the whistleblowers?
• How they functioned as per their role? What support they did get? what is the achievement and challenges faced?
3. Leadership commitment in fighting corruption?
• In making as their main agenda on the part of the executive committee in making appointment of sectors and kebel’s leader, promotion and demotion at sectoral and kebele level, in being responsive towards public complaints, in their quick decision of revising corruption prone systems ?
• The sectors head in making corruption agenda in their office, transparent decision making, responsive towards the public?
4. Property registration
• What were the rationales behind property registration in fighting corruption?
• How many targeted leaders and civil servants registered their property?
• How many of them made public?
• How are timely assessments of their property made?
• What were the findings and decision taken based up on?
5. Public Participation in Fighting Corruption
• What were the mechanisms of public participation in fighting corruption? like Council of people’s representative, kebele’s council, residents timely forums, customers, etc…..
• What were the results in fighting corruption?
6. Identifying corruption prone systems and measures taken?
• How the areas in which improvement were necessary are identified?
• How many, in how many sectors were identified?
• On how many of them improvement has taken place?
• What were the achievements and challenges?
7. Criminalizing Corruption?
• How many corruption wrongdoings received from the town?
• Who were the informers of the wrongdoings?
• How many of them were investigated and assured to be true?
• How many of them presented to the court?
• How many of the cases got court decision?
• What were the outcomes and challenges faced?
• How the city coordinate the endeavors of fighting corruption in its town?
• How the town works with the Regional Bureau of Ethic and Anti-Corruption Office?
9. Over all
• What could be said about the tends of corruption in the town, in the past few years?
• Could we say that corruption prevention and control has been effective?
• What were the main over all achievements and challenges faced?