1. Survivor guilt is a condition in which people feel guilty and as if they did something incorrect because they survived an incident and others did not. They believe the fatalities of others is somehow their fault.
2. When they talk about feeling guilt, soldiers express regret, also known as “agent-regret”, and feelings of betrayal to their fellow partners who were not as lucky.
3. Private Joseph Mayek was injured when standing guard near a Bradley fighting vehicle. The gun placed on top misfired, blowing off most of his face. Captain John Prior feels responsible because he placed the vehicles and set the security.
4. The author defines what it is to be “good” to point out that what you do does not matter, rather how much you care about what happened. This is intended to prove that those suffering from survivor guilt have not done anything wrong. In fact, they are good people who were not at the right place at the right time.
5. These definitions and examples serve as a source of relief for the affected. They also help those who are not informed to understand the condition and see it in real situations.
6. Prior’s quotation supports the author’s statement that the survivors are not necessarily responsible for what occurred because any number of factors could have affected the things and people involved.
7. Quoting Prior demonstrated to the reader that even those who have been in situations involving fatalities and feel guilty can look at the reality of the incident and realize that it is not directly their fault and anything could have happened.

1.zero introduction
monetary analysis scandals has been disseminated as issued of private interest and has given effect that such fraudulent transaction have on society due mainly to income manipulation. study the case of Enron, Xerox organization, Toshiba, Gowex or Pescanova which issues and the implication for stakeholders and as well as firms. It’s negatively impacted non-public confidence together with inventory markets, bankers, auditors, company managers, traders and whilst governments. for instance, Enron corporation has been proved conducted income’ manipulation which changed into accomplished manipulation with the aid of using organisation auditors to growth profits drawing near $1 billion, which in fact in no way existed. as well as Xerox agency, company has been proved finished accounting earnings manipulation via revenues with quantity USD 6 billion. The range isn’t just like the U.S. Securities and alternate price expected that the cutting-cuttingmodern fee of 1997 to 2000 with quantity USD three billion on that day.
issues of incomes control has been widely discussed for the past decade and its need to be a step of ideas of proper tenet and new regulators specifically IFRS, GAAP as well as MFRS to endorse the fraudulent instances earnings management. This remains for minimizing income management illegitimately and the corporate agency might be on the fantastic aspect in their monetary analysis in the eyes of stakeholders, investors in addition to corporations.
Accounting requirements regulators are involved approximately the consequences of profits management motive to records excellent (Jaggi ; sun, 2012). consequently, the outcomes originated from profits management practices have severa implications for stakeholders and regulators. As such, the investors and auditors ought to research cautiously the facts furnished by the use of financial statements which may additionally have been manipulated while the top control and the investors have to be aware of the opportunistic conduct that managers can adapt to conquer the benchmarks. therefore, this incomes’s control trouble term paper is to understand how is earnings management occurs, type of earnings management, the strategies in addition to that managers face and the results of incurring in such manipulation.

1.1. profits control Definitions
An corporation’s number one intention is to make earnings and the closing dreams is to maximize the shareholders’ wealth. now not handiest do the business enterprise proprietors need to have a profit on the end of each accounting period, however they also need the corporation financial statements to appearance as right as they are able to. in any case, the monetary statements are what ability buyers and lenders have a look at after they make the decision whether or how now not to lend the agency money or to turn out to be an investor. that is wherein the concept of income control comes into play. income manipulate, in a nutshell, is the revolutionary use of various accounting strategies to make economic statements look better.
there are various definitions of income control located in the gift literature, it’s far defined via Schipper (1989, p.ninety two) due to the fact the “practical intervention within the external financial reporting method with the cause of acquiring a few personal advantage.”
whilst those definitions range, they’ve a few commonalities: they awareness at the intervention within the financial reporting technique to benefit a few private gain, it really is implicit of opportunistic practices. The definition of Schipper manner that activities wherein supervisor’s have an impact on pronounced income for 255fb4167996c4956836e74441cbd507 advantage are taken into consideration profits management practices. This definition is instead huge and lacks deeper insights into the particular mechanisms and goals of earnings control. however, Healy and Wahlen’s definition is centered particularly on the judgment that managers can use in economic reporting and the structuring of transactions to regulate monetary reports to mislead stakeholders. It suggests that manipulation is inherent inside the exercise of earnings control by means of the usage of mentioning that judgment is utilized in economic reporting misinforming stakeholders. The definition of Mulford and Comiskey emphases similar manipulation but is greater specific regarding the cause within the lower back of earnings management, that is the need to fulfill predetermined desires or analyst forecasts. similarly, this definition makes smoother, more sustainable income a similarly goal of earnings management.
The phenomenon of earnings management is located underneath the umbrella of what has emerged as called modern accounting. Mulford and Comiskey (2002) communicate to innovative accounting practices as any and all steps taken to engage in competitive desire and alertness of accounting concepts, fraudulent economic reporting, or income control. although the definitions of earnings management may additionally mean that it is a fraudulent hobby, profits control differs from fraud due to the fact managers can interact in income control in the barriers of the capacity afforded via normally familiar accounting standards (GAAP) without violating those necessities, making it a felony exercise. Managers can also engage in earnings smoothing. that is a shape of income control that is described via Mulford and Comiskey (2002) as a technique through the use of which managers do away with peaks and troughs from an normal profits collection on the way to provide income a extra strong outlook. This consists of steps taken to lessen and maintain profits at some point of suitable years for use in future, much less profitable years.

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1.2. What profits control problem
profits control happens whenever monetary alternatives are based totally on intentional judgment applied for transaction structuring and monetary reporting with the handiest reason of large deceit, concealment or statistics spinning, it offers upward push to earnings management. that is carried out at the manner to lie to the buyers and stakeholders and effect favorable consequences from business employer contracts thru manipulated accounting figures as stated by means of Healey and Wahlen (1999, p.368).
1.3 type of profits management
depending directly to its reasons, profits control may additionally have severa implications on agency’s share price and it’s going problem. at the equal time as a few outcomes are exact for the enterprise but now and then it’s awful to others and might quit end result to bancrupt or winding-up petition. There’re a controversies for the enterprise company and the researchers as whether or not the income’ management is right or now not. but, this could no longer continuously be the case due to the fact not possible in recent times dynamic and hard enterprise environment to discover a corporation that does not practice profits management because it’s allowed thru GAAP. apparently, there are key shape of earnings management specially: 1) Accrual profits management (AEM), 2) real profits’ management (REM) and each has been supported via GAAP.
1.three.1 Accrual income management (AEM)
Accrual earnings control takes vicinity whilst managers interfere inside the financial reporting technique with the aid of exercise discretion and judgment to trade reported income with none coins waft effects (Kothari et al., 2012). corporations may be competitive with their accounting alternatives via bringing forward income from a future period, through the acceleration of revenues or deceleration of expenses, thereby developing profits within the 5bf1289bdb38b4a57d54c435c7e4aa1c period. This creates what’s known as discretionary accruals in the literature. due to the truth that accruals contrary over time, income might be dwindled mechanically with the aid of the quantity of profits that turn out to be brought ahead within the preceding length.

Conversely, a business enterprise can be conservative and store up profits for a destiny length. As an instance, conservative revenue recognition practices may be used to defer sales and reduce contemporary period income. inside the literature, that is called ‘cookie jar reserves’ in which a business enterprise is capable of store earnings for destiny years whilst profits can be under the aim fee of growth (Mulford and Comiskey, 2002). a discount in deferred sales also can be made to enhance income and income in the following durations.
1.three.2 actual earnings’ management (REM)
actual income’ management occurs when managers intentionally make walking picks which have real coins glide effects with the intention of altering stated earnings. as an example, a firm can also offer price discounts and offer more flexible credit score terms to clients to decorate income revenues in short. further, managers also can opportunistically lessen studies and improvement prices for you to lessen costs within the earnings declaration (Dechow and Skinner, 2000). further, managers can cast off protection charges to boom cautioned income.
Zang (2012) explains this form of profits management behavior as practical motion taken so that you can adjust said income in a wonderful direction with the aid of changing the timing or structuring of a funding, operation, or financing transaction, that’s consistent with the definition of profits control furnished with the resource of Healy and Wahlen (1999). Cohen and Zarowin (2010) provide an reason behind real sports-based earnings control because the movements managers take that deviate from everyday industrial corporation practices, and that those actions are manipulations that have an effect on cash flows. The commonality between the ones one of a type causes is in reality the fact that actual activities-based earnings manage is sensible in nature and has actual cash glide consequences.
1.four techniques of earnings control
earning control is a totally famous term utilized by manage to manipulate income. but, it does no longer mean any unlawful sports activities by means of using control to control income. Managers can acquire income from accounting picks or by the usage of running selections. Managers can control income because they have got flexibility in making accounting or walking options. The most a hit and considerably used income control techniques may be labeled into the top five techniques.

1. The huge bath
strategies that used whilst a enterprise agency had some losses or fees due to operations restructuring, hassle debt restructuring, asset impairment and written-off, discontinued operations of a section and subsidiaries, and they need to do away with it in modern-day particular period. This method is to make to be had for organization to file at the accounting assessment in the occasion that they’ve horrific information of losses, it’s far higher to file all of it as soon as.
2. running fees
This profits control approach takes place whilst managers plan certain occasions to arise in certain durations. which means that managers can also decide to purchase new equipment in a duration wherein earnings has been moderately excessive. They want to make certain that the earnings is leveled out with prior periods simply so there might not be a spike in a few months and dramatic decline in others. no matter the fact that they may be rearranging the timing of the purchase to quality gain the monetary critiques, they’re despite the fact that because it have to be reporting the fee.

3.Cookie jar reserve
The cookie-jar technique offers with estimations of destiny events. GAAP states that manage has to estimate and report obligations as a way to be paid within the future because of activities or transactions within the cutting-cuttingmodern economic yr based totally on accrual foundation. but, there’s normally uncertainty surrounding the estimation device because future is not always positive. There’s no accurate answer; there may be reasonably feasible answers. control has to select an unmarried quantity consistent with GAAP so there may be a risk of taking the advantage of income manipulate. below the cookie-jar technique, the employer will try and overestimate costs within the route of the present day duration to control earnings. If and whilst real prices flip out lower than estimates, the difference may be positioned into the “cookie jar” to be used later when the company dreams a lift in income to meet predictions. a few examples of estimation to manipulate profits are: sales returns and allowances, estimates of terrible debt and write-downs; estimating inventory write downs; estimating warranty prices; estimating pension price; terminating pension plans and estimating percent final touch for long time contracts and many others.
4. huge bet on the destiny approach
at the same time as an acquisition happens, the organisation acquiring the opportunity is stated to have made a massive bet at the destiny. below typically everyday Accounting ideas (GAAP) guidelines, an acquisition have to be mentioned as a buy. This leaves doors open for income manipulate. inside the first example, an organization can write off continuing R&D fees in competition to 5bf1289bdb38b4a57d54c435c7e4aa1c income in the acquisition yr, protective future income from those fees. which means that that when the fees are truely incurred in the destiny, they’ll no longer want to be mentioned and for this reason future earnings will gather a boost. the second method is to mention the earnings of the currently received corporation. while the received business enterprise consolidated with discern agency profits, then at once gather a boost inside the 5bf1289bdb38b4a57d54c435c7e4aa1c twelve months’ income. via acquiring a few different corporation, the parent enterprise buys an assured increase in current or destiny profits via huge bet method.
5. changing the GAAP method
This method includes control judgement in volunteering for a new accounting desired, changing sales and specific expenses popularity guidelines. as an instance changing depreciation approach from reducing balance to right away line method.

1.1 Summarise the policies and procedures of the setting relevant to promoting children and young people’s positive behaviour.
Attendance policy
In my school, they expect good attendance from all the children who attend the school. The school aims to encourage achievement for all children in the school. The school also aims to promote good attendance and decrease the number of absences. The school aims to make sure children have access to the full-time education to which they are entitled. The school aims to encourage the children’s parents to perform their legal duty, which is to ensure their child attends school all the time.
Behaviour policy
The staff promote positive by encouraging children to be ‘good citizens’ at school, out of school and throughout their lives. The staff Promote positive behaviour to encourage the children to always treat others with respect, kindness and consideration, as it is a very good thing to do an it reflects positive behaviour. They also encourage children to always take responsibility for their own actions and also encourage them to be aware of the consequences of their actions. Another important aim the staff promote children to do is to treat the school belongings and other children’s belongings with respect.
Anti-bullying policy
In my school, they are committed to the value of tolerance and respect for others an they are against all forms o bullying. In my school, everyone including the staff, pupils and parents have a very important role to play in promoting an environment where bullying is not allowed and to ensure that every individual is valued and cared for.

1.2 Evaluate how the policies and procedures of the setting support children and young people to:

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Feel safe:
In my school, the staff make sure that every individual who attends the school is always felt safe and protected. They ensure that every child is protected from any forms of bullying and discrimination. If a child has a problem or they feel like they need to talk about something, the staff always encourage them to talk to a staff member they trust. In my school, every staff are trained to make sure the staffs are aware of the policies and procedures when it comes to safeguarding children, as there is a safeguarding policy, which all schools should follow to help safeguard children. In my school, they aim to provide a safe environment, they encourage children to have good behaviour and always follow instructions.

Make a positive contribution:
In my school, the staff takes into account the views of every individual who attends the school and when the staff do their teaching and planning, they reflect what they have seen the child be able to/ not able to do and put that in their planning, to help the child. My school also involves the parents by encouraging them to help their child and encourage their children to develop positive behaviour and encouraging them and help build their confidence. In my school, when a child has done/ shown positive behaviour, they are given stickers and dojo points and everyday a child gets a chance to be the Paths child and at the end of the day they all the children and the class teacher give compliments to the child.

Develop social and emotional skills:
In my school, the school ensures that every individual child’s social an emotional skills are developed and teach them at a earlier stage. This is to ensure they are given a good chance of developing an emotion, social and healthy lifestyle. The staff teach children different things to build and develop their social and emotional skills. This is by teaching them social skills – by always working as a team, gaining their confidence and always taking turns and sharing. In my school, the staff do a lesson on Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) twice a week in the afternoon. The staff encourage children to develop their abilities and skills and encourage them to achieve and try their best at everything they do.
Understand expectations and limits:
In my school, the staff ensures and encourage good behaviour from all individuals. In my school, it is important that every child follows the rules and understands the expectations and limits. This is important and encouraged in my school to help every child achieve and do their best in life. In my school, there are class rules set in each class and some of the rules are displayed in the class.

1.1. Background of the Study
Corruption is one of the key underlying factors that seriously undermines the quality of economic governance in both developing and developed countries According to the study undertaken by Transparency International’s(2016), of the 176 countries on Corruption Perceptions Index 2016, the vast majority (69 per cent) scored below 50 out of 100, where 0 is perceived to be extremely corrupt and 100 is perceived to be completely clean, exposing how significant and pervasive corruption is around the world. This year more countries declined in the index than improved, a worrying set-back highlighting that progress in many countries remains fragile.

As cited in Eric M. Uslaner(2014), In the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index from Transparency International (TI), measuring elites’ evaluations of the honesty (or dishonesty) of political and economic institutions in their countries, 131 of the 178 nations fell below the midpoint on the 10 point of the index, with higher scores representing low corruption. Only 23 nations had scores (7 or higher) indicating that their governments are basically honest. Furthermore, In the Global Corruption Barometer for 2013, public opinion surveys in 107 countries conducted by TI, a majority did not see corruption as a major problem in only one country, Denmark (ibid).

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Ethiopia is not an exception. There are high levels of corruption in Ethiopia, although less high than in comparable regional countries. According to the survey of Transparency International 2016 that was undertaken in 176 countries on the Ethiopia ranked 108 with the score of 34, below the average point of 50. Examples of corruption include facilitation payments and bribes being necessary to keep land leased from the state or in order to obtain government contracts. Companies face high risks of corruption in Ethiopia’s public services provision. Petty corruption and the solicitation of bribes in return for the processing of documents are particularly common forms of corruption in the public services sector (HRR 2016, FitW 2017).

Especially, the problem is more glaring, systematic, rampant and chronic in the urban areas. The government also admit that, while the political economy of rent seeking and the ensuing corruption is destroyed and denied its upper hand in the countryside, in the urban areas it have an upper hand at a level of posing threat for the existence of the society and the system as a whole.

In tackling the problem the government has been taking different measures. Among the strategies under the focus of the government were institutionalizing the anti-corruption campaign by establishing independent government organs at Federal (Proclamation No. 235/2001) and Regional levels, as well as Sub-Regional branches as necessary to enable co-ordination of the work. The anti-corruption and ethics sector established at different level were assumed to utilize both preventive and reactive measures to tackle the problem. Every government sector, including the Municipalities were expected to mainstream the problem based on the framework of the anti-corruption mechanisms under the supervision of Regional Anti-Corruption and Ethics Bureau.
1.2. Research Question

Urbanization is fast in Ethiopia as the phenomena in the developing countries. Migration of population from the rural areas has been changing the demography of urban centers. This trend will also continue in the future as the economic transformation undertaken in the country may reinforce the process. However, most of the urban centers were not well prepared to handle the existed residents and absorb the incoming population in a way impacting positively for the growth of the urban.
Urban centers had been prone to corruption as seen in the past few years. There were reports that almost all public sectors in the towns were not free from the problem. Services were commoditized where it looks as if taken for granted in facilitation of decisions. As the practice were deepened and became naked, then accessibility to decisions and services made differences between ”the haves and the have not”. Most of the services delivered by the public office depended on what and how much one have. Provision of social services and infrastructure are low in quantity and quality. Public complains and grievances were high as a result.
The town had been fraught with leadership turnover from the measures taken on the individuals responsible for acts of corruption. The party in power and the government had not been refrained to remove leaders from their position after every political and performance evaluation for the mal-governance and inadequate service delivery collected from the community during consultation and meetings.
However, the problem of corruption is still a threat and bottleneck in the public service. There are complains among the residents in the governance and provision of services, infrastructures. Belief are widespread as ”only change of men, not change of governance”, exist, which pessimism reigns in opinions of most of the urban dwellers.
Adama town is the second urban centre following the primate and Capital city of Ethiopia and also the largest in the Oromia Regional State. The city with high commercial center and transportation route, significant economic mobility existed. The town was also increased in the number of population and size in the last ten years. As the town had a great potential for future growth and might share the burden and pressures of population migration that rest on the Capital city, the problem of corruption that has been the syndrome of most of the urban Ethiopia might hinder its role. Therefore, the issue needs great attention, as the government took as a core agenda of intervention while the balance sheet still shows negative in the urban centers as whole.
The research tried to answer the following questions;
• What were the interventions measures utilized and to what level did implemented on the ground to tackle corruptions in the town?
• To what level did the interventions were effective in addressing the problem of corruption?
Through addressing the above questions, the study determined the effectiveness of anti-corruption intervention mechanisms in the town and forwarded possible suggestion based on its merit.

1.3. Significance of the Study

The research has a number of significance. First of all, the research contribute much in suggesting ways in which the anti-corruption measures could be implemented for maximum outcomes for the practitioners and leaders of the town in preventing corruption. The study also indicated priority areas during implementation. Furthermore, the study might help as a stepping board for further investigation on the issue.

Chapter Two
Literature Review
2.1. What is corruption?

Defining corruption has been problematic as equally as mitigating its practice. Differences were mostly on the focuses of the issue and the range of actions included in the acts of corruption. Therefore it is important to see various propositions to capture the concept and draw working definition for the purpose of this writing.

As Johann Graflambsdorff (2007) put Corruption is commonly defined as the misuse of public power for private benefit. The term ”private benefit” relates to receiving money or valuable assets, but it may also encompass increases in power or status. Receiving promises for future favors or benefits for relatives and friends may also be considered a private benefit. With regard to favors for relatives and friends, the terms nepotism and favoritism are also common.
World Bank (1997) definition of corruption as cited in (Jorge Martinez-Vazquez et.al.,2007) stated that corruption is ”The abuse of public office for private gain.” Public office is abused for private gain when an official accepts, solicits, or exhorts a bribe. It is also abused when private agents actively offer bribes to circumvent public policies and processes for competitive advantage and profit. Public office can also be abused for personal benefit even if no bribery occurs, through patronage and nepotism, the theft of state assets, or the diversion of state revenues.
Anwar Shah,(2007) also lamented that Corruption is defined as the exercise of official powers against public interest or the abuse of public office for private gains. Public sector corruption is a symptom of failed governance. Governance is defined as the norms, traditions, and institutions by which power and authority in a country are exercised.
Xiaobo Lil (2000) working definition of corruption after assessing the China and its CPC corruption problems and characteristics, as all forms of behavior that deviate from the prescribed norms of a regime, in which individuals or groups exploit the formal organization instead of working for it, and in which personal roles take precedence over organizational roles. The behavior itself, as conducted by public agents, may not be for private purposes. Official deviance so defined includes both corrupt conduct and non-corrupt misconduct.

Musa Idris(2011), in his study corruption as the abuse of public office, trust, or authority by conferring undue benefits (economic, political, administrative and social) on oneself or a third party contrary to statutory provisions and code of ethics for public servants such as offering and or collecting bribes, inflation of contract sum, over invoicing of supplies, tampering with payment vouchers, nepotism, unofficial use of public assets, electoral malpractices etc.

Official definition of corruption in Ethiopia in the Proclamation of anti-corruption, number 363/2005, article 2/13-14 stated corruption as undue advantage” means an improper benefit or a benefit obtained through inappropriate means; which includes a range of acts such as any interest or right in money or in another valuable item or property; any appointment, employment or contract; paying, relieving. or making free from loan. obligation or any other liability fully or partially; any service or favor intended to relieve from any actual or potential civil, administrative or criminal suit and liabilities or incapacities resulting there from; any discharge or abstention from exercising a right or an obligation; any other interest or service other than cannot be expressed in monetary terms; providing any of the benefits of the above with the intent or making promises for such purposes.
From the above definitions it could be inferred that corruption is the abuse of power by those vested with the authority of government, be of individual or a group of leaders or civil servants for private gains and prioritizing self advantage against the interest of the citizen or public by distorting formal rules and regulation, which works at the expense of others proper rights. Such acts could be expressed in different forms with various ranges.
2.2. Types of Corruption

Different types of corruption were identified by Jean-François Arvis, Ronald E. Berenbeim, (2003); Adam Graycar Tim Prenzler,(2013),

Corruption By Nature
• Paying for benefits:-for example, to influence bidding results, buy an administrative decision,
or shape a judicial decision
• Paying to avoid costs:-for example, to ensure that something that is due is done on time.

Corruption By Level
Petty corruption, which in its mildest form is similar to tips. Much corrupt activity involves relatively small amounts of money changing hands to obtain some basic service or a permit, or to prevent something like a small fine or a parking or speeding ticket. It also covers lots of contracts and purchases in municipal activities, aid programs, bribes for medical or educational services, purchase of textbooks in educational programs. Although the consequences can be severe, this type of corruption is often termed petty corruption.

Grand corruption in this form of corruption involves those at the highest level of governments, who loots the Treasury and improperly and dishonestly manipulates and controls the institutions of power. The practice reflected in government business: public works, public procurement, licenses, or in relation with privatization.

2.3. Causes of Corruption

According to Kempe R. Hope(2000) the first factor contributing to corruption in Africa is that of the total exercise by the ruling elite of all power attached to national sovereignty. This exercise of state power has led to the supremacy of the state over civil society and, in turn, to the ascendancy of the patrimonial state with its characteristic stranglehold on the economic and political levers of power, through which corruption thrives for. It is through this stranglehold that all decision-making occurs and patronage is dispensed.

Individual explanations associate corruption with individuals who, provided with enough opportunities, will act corruptly. Individual explanations reduce the phenomenon to individual personalities. Social and institutional explanations, on the other hand, seek the causes of corruption in cultural institutions, poverty, temptation, imperfect system of laws, and political change.

2.4. Consequences of Corruption
There are arguments that corruption facilitates growth as decision making process become active when there is kickback for decision makers in service delivery in return. As Sten Widmalm(2008) put, corruption can lubricate the economic machinery; things get done faster whereas businesses using the proper channels are burdened with ‘red tape’, complicated rules, and so on. And, sometimes, it can even work to the advantage of citizens who seek at least a minimal amount of influence. However, most agreed on the detrimental effect of corruption on social, economic, security and welfare of the society as a whole.

The transaction costs of illegal exchanges are important for maintaining secrecy. Because corrupt contracts confer no property rights, the corrupt party may not provide the service, ask for more money or provide the service to a competitor. With no third party to which agents can appeal in the event of a dispute, such contracts are risky, especially if no further transactions are expected or very high amounts are involved By increasing uncertainty and the costs of legal transactions, corruption reduces investment and therefore growth.

George B.N. Ayitte(2000) emphasized that in a corrupt system, contractors and suppliers fail to deliver. Who you are and how big a kickback you offer matters more than how well or efficiently you perform a job. Poor allocation of public resources results when governments award contracts to corrupt firms, which recover in the estimates they submit the costs of bribes they pay. When this occurs, political and economic collusion between public servants and archaic or rent-seeking cliques will hamper innovation. Furthermore, Ian Senior(2006) also put that when bribes are needed to gain contracts the price paid by the winning contractor exceeds the value of the work that would be done in an uncorrupt market. The balance is paid to the corruptee or retained as excess profit by the corruptor. If an asset has been created through a corruptly awarded contract, a higher return is needed. As a result corruption lowers the quality of services provided and goods bought by administrations which hampers the provision of quality and quantity of infrastructures.

Corruption distorts the allocative role of government because it tilts the composition of public spending towards projects that make it easier to collect on bribes, at the expense of priority programs. Interminable and inappropriate “white elephant” projects will proliferate. In major international transactions a preference arises for purchasing custom-built, high-tech equipment, because controls become difficult with no market prices against which to compare costs (Winston, 1979). Corruption also increases public deficits, as contracts are not let to the lowest bidders and the frequent insertion of additional clauses inflates the initial project costs. Mauro (1997) shows that corruption steers public expenditure towards areas that will facilitate corrupt
transactions – typically, spending on defense rather than on education.

Corruption distorts the redistributive role of the state, facilitates fraud and breeds tax evasion. Because it reduces government revenues, it places an increasingly heavier burden on a steadily decreasing number of taxpayers. This raises incentives to turn to the informal sector and starts a vicious circle. It also totally distorts programs to combat poverty. It renders international aid much less effective by diverting growing amounts from their intended purposes, such as infrastructure, programs to combat poverty or reconstruction from earthquakes and civil wars.
In systems where rent seeking proves more lucrative than productive work, talent will be misallocated and the elite will turn to non-productive work, with adverse consequences for the social surplus and growth.

According to Institute of Peace and Corruption (2015), higher levels of corruption within the police and judiciary create inefficiencies by disabling sound legal frameworks and formal and informal codes of conduct. This leads to increased levels of crime and violence within society. Corruption of the enforcement apparatus (army, police and the courts) allows organized crime to extend its predatory activities of the private sector. It can even enable a symbiosis between organized crime and politicians that further encourages the abuse of power.

2.5. Anti-Corruption Measures
Most countries forbidden corruption and took different approaches to tackle the problem. While some emphasize on the root problem to dried out the source or one could say prevention, others emphasize on the reactive ways of tackling the issue. As the findings of research by OECD,(1999) shows;
”When asked to identify their most effective mechanisms against corruption, most countries cited more than one type of mechanism as the most effective. Only two countries considered that one type of mechanism should be preferred to all others (the Czech Republic and Korea both regarded law enforcement and investigation as the most effective). Indeed, Ireland responded that “No one mechanism should be singled out as more important than any other”. This view was supported by Hungary and Poland, who specifically referred to the importance of employing a range of integrated measures. Japan also addressed the strategic aspect, emphasizing the importance of measures being applied in a comprehensive and consistent manner.”
Here are some of the measures covered for the purpose of the study.

Regulatory measures
The objective of regulatory policy is to ensure that regulations support economic growth and development as well as the achievement of broader societal objectives such as social welfare, environmental sustainability, and the respect of the rule of law. It addresses the permanent need to ensure that regulations and regulatory frameworks are justified, of high quality and achieve policy objectives. Regulatory policy helps policy makers reach informed decisions about what to regulate, whom to regulate, and how to regulate. As an integral part of effective public governance and the foundation for building integrity, regulatory policy helps to shape the relationship between the state, citizens and businesses.

Public Sector Integrity Systems
Integrity is a core pillar of good public governance. It ensures government policies are responsive, fair and contribute to the public’s best interests. It legitimizes institutions, increasing compliance and building trust in government. This includes effective legislative and institutional frameworks, adequate resources and support that will enable public sector organizations to take on the responsibility for managing the integrity system.
A culture of integrity in government is based, in part, on values. Over-elaborate formal regulations and procedures however may be counterproductive, with the potential to raise unnecessary administrative costs, institutionalize distrust, and reduce ethical reasoning to a culture of just following rules and procedures.
An effective public sector integrity system is not only values-based, but also compliance-based. To that end, the recommendations implore member countries to ensure that the integrity system is underpinned by sound accountability and transparency mechanisms. Strong controls, such as audits, risk mapping and disciplinary measures are necessary elements to ensure compliance with the integrity system

Empowering Civil Society
Adam Graycar and Tim Prenzler(2013) preventing public corruption requires an effort from all members of society at large. For these reasons, the Convention calls on countries to promote actively the involvement of non-governmental and community-based organizations, as well as other elements of civil society, and to raise public awareness of corruption and what can be done about it
As OECD(2017) stated civil society plays a key role in influencing and monitoring government and particularly in fighting corruption. Capable, independent and vocal civil society organizations can study and advocate for improved integrity and anti-corruption policies, monitor their implementation and inform citizens of strengths and weaknesses. Second, civil society play an essential “watch-dog” role, exposing and denouncing corruption and applying pressure for formal investigations and the application of sanctions. Sten Widmalm(2008) supports this argument for the role of citizens in fighting corruption, when they express a strong preference for a non-corrupt public administration and can naturally work for anti-corruption struggle if they have the power to coordinate their efforts.

The effective participation of civil society in the fight against corruption depends on four key factors. First, the existence of a legal framework that enables civil society organizations to participate in the all aspects of society without political and legal (including funding) restrictions is crucial. Second, strengthening the relationship between state and its citizens in the fight against corruption will improve the quality of policies by integrating different points of views, and enhancing public trust in the government and its actions. The extent to which CSOs actively engage in the fight against corruption is the third key factor. Lastly, CSOs must also demonstrate a strong commitment to integrity within their own organizations (OECD, 2017).


According to OECD (2017), the protection of employees who disclose wrongdoing in the context of their workplace (“whistleblowers”) is at the core of an organization’s integrity framework. Indeed, employees who report wrongdoing may be subject to intimidation, harassment, dismissal and violence by their colleagues or superiors.

Ian Senior(2006) also stated that it is hard to imagine that anyone enjoys whistle-blowing. It may lead to the loss of promotion prospects, the loss of a job or ostracism within the workplace For any whistle-blower it is essential to name names and to have hard evidence to support claims. This entails, in effect, spying on colleagues. Further, the whistle-blower must expect that those whom he accuses of corruption will not only deny it but will produce counter-charges against him. He runs a double risk: failing to prove his case and ruining his career.

Provisions must be in place, therefore, to incentivize whistleblowers including: legal protection from retaliation, clear guidance on reporting procedures, and visible support and positive reinforcement from the organizational hierarchy. Such protections are recognized as an essential element for safeguarding the public interest, promoting a culture of public accountability, and in many countries is proving crucial in the reporting of misconduct, fraud and corruption (OECD,2017)

Criminalizing bribery
Corrupting of public officials undermines integrity of the public administration, affects social and economic development of the country and erodes trust in public institutions. Criminalization is one of the main tools to combat such serious wrongdoing as public corruption. Criminal law is effective in punishing corrupt behavior and deterring future offences. Therefore, the criminal liability for bribery is a necessary element of any comprehensive anti-corruption framework (ibid).

2.6. Anti-Corruption Mechanisms in Ethiopia
Ethiopia institutionalized anti-corruption struggle in addressing the problem through the establishment of Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission by the Proclamation No. 235/2001. In the Proclamation different mandates were given to the Commission to fight corruption in the government sectors. The Commission as stated in the Proclamation No. 235/2001, Article 6, have the following objectives;
I. strive to create an aware society where corruption will not be condoned or tolerated
II. by promoting ethics and anti-corruption education;
III. to prevent corruption offences and other improprieties;
IV. to strive to create and promote integrity in public service by detecting, investigating and prosecuting alleged or suspected cases of corruption offences and other improprieties;
V. to cause the preparation and follow up the implementation of codes of ethics for public officials and public servants; and to assist others, upon request, in establishing their own codes of ethics.

Furthermore, in the Proclamation No. 235/2001 of article 7, the Commission was mandated with both preventive and detective-prosecuting measures to minimize the problem. In the preventive measures awareness creation, promotion of ethics in public service, examining the practices and procedures conducive to corrupt practices for advise or assist for improvement; register or cause the registration of the assets and financial interests of public officials and other public servants, undertake research on ethics and corruption, monitor the implementation of codes of ethics, security protection to witnesses and whistle blowers were enumerated. Others were focused more of on seeking information of the suspects, detecting, collecting and prosecuting the wrong doers (art.7, sub-article 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10). These strategies were endorsed at the regional level with some modification. Within the framework, every government sectors were expected to implement and co-operate with the Commission to work when the need arise, to control the problem.

Chapter Three:
Research Methodology
3.1. Research Design

The research is primarily qualitative in nature. This is because the issue under study is mainly explained more in qualitative rather than quantitative forms. Corruption crime and its consequences are not only difficult but also not enough to put in quantification. However, some forms of quantitative data were used in supplementary where available and the need arise.
In doing so, first, the study focused on comparing the actual implementation of the anti-corruption mechanisms employed in the Municipality against the expected performances of ant-corruption mechanisms stated in the anti-corruption policy that gave responsibility of implementation. Secondly, performances of selected sectors and trends of the customer satisfaction and reports of public opinions will be compared against the endeavors to lessen corruption in the Municipality to come-up with the level of the out-comes of the anti-corruption measures.

Within this qualitative research method, my research has employed case study since case study is an in-depth exploration of a phenomenon from multiple perspectives of the complexity and uniqueness of a particular policy, institution, program or system in a real life context. Moreover, the appropriateness of the selection of the case is based on the transferability and representativeness of the target of the study. The case study approach offers substantial flexibility in terms of what data is to be collected and how it is collected. In this study, the case study focuses on Adama town public sector anti-corruption practices. As the town is emerging and second largest urban center next to Addis Ababa, the Capital city, it may have ample advantages for the relevance of findings of the study. It also enables to assess and re-view relevant policies, strategies, rules and regulations, long and short term plans and periodical reports on anti-corruption and ethics performances. Furthermore, case study approach enables the study to describe the problem, to explain how the work was done, and to identify challenges experienced.
In addition to this, the research will use a systematic and comprehensive review of related literature’s invested on the agenda via internet search. It is the researcher understanding that this is the appropriate method that helps to integrate theories, norms, standards and principles of corruption tackling mechanisms in public sector given the topic of the study, issues to be addressed, specific objective and research question of the present research.

3.2. Data Sources and Collection Methods

As the study is qualitative in nature, the data employed for the research were mainly secondary sources. Reports of the past few years on actual performances of anti-corruption measures from the Branch Commission that coordinate the anti-corruption endeavors with the town’s Municipality, reports from Adama Administration, Oromia Bureau of Anti-Corruption and Ethics, were collected in the form of soft copy and consumed for the study. Furthermore, annual reports of selected sectors in the town on the issue of survey of customer satisfaction and opinions on the service delivery and selected yearly performance reports of sensitive and corruption prone public sectors were also gathered and utilized by weighting their genuineness. On matters that needs additional clarification and where shortages of data met primary data were collected through developing open and close ended questionnaire via email and phone call from Commission’s experts and team leaders.
3.3. Method of Data Analysis

In the analyses part of the study, data collected from different sources were sifted for their authenticity and realness, because reports from the government sectors either inflated or deflated by their nature or unenclosed in the reports. Then, collected data on the performances of major anti-corruption measures were described, narrated weighted and compared against the intended policy outcomes. Based on the results of analyses, interpretation and meaning were given for drawing inferences. Lastly, suggestion and recommendation were given based on the findings.

Chapter Four
Discussion and Analysis

4.1. Organizational Capacity of the Branch Commission
Oromia Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission were established by the Proclamation No 71 /2002. The Commission was mandated to coordinate the efforts of fighting corruption in the whole Oromia Regional State from the center. However, after the Regional Bureau began its function, difficulties cropped up in coordinating the vast areas of the region. Oromia Regional State is the largest state both in size and population number in the country, Ethiopia. The region has been divided in to 20 Zonal administrations with more than 360 Woredas and 9 first level towns. In addition to its hugeness, the increasing complexity of the problem and the effort it needs made unmanageable from the center. Therefore, Branches of the Commission mandated with the power to exercise regional missions in their boundaries were established since 2010.

Fig. 1 The Structure of the Commission.

Source: Researchers own drawing based on the reports of the Oromia Ethics and Anti-Corruption Bureau
Among the decentralized Branches, the Central Branch opening its Office in Adama was one of them established in the year 2010. The Branch was mandated to coordinate 2 Zonal Administration with 34 rural Woredas and 3 towns at the level of woreda, while 1 town, Adama with the first level city. The total population and size of the areas the Commission work on were about 4,314,211 pop and 30,556 km2, respectively. This is to show that comparatively weighting the existing human power, budget and logistic against the burden of the work, as it have an impact on effectiveness of the Commission.
These parts of the region were known by their high economic activities and mobility as they are also found near the capital city, Addis Ababa. Every route that moves from Addis Ababa to the corner of the country cut across these administrative boundaries. The value of land and property on it were also relatively high in the area. Adama was one of the most vital town, where the mobility of economy is high and acting as a center of gravity in the area.
The Central Branch Commission at Adama town has been functioning in an environment that was turbulent relative to the other parts of the regions of Oromia. In discharging its function the Commission were staffed with 17 workers out of more than the needed 40, less than 50%. Logistic was also meager, only one vehicle available. The annual budget was increasing from time to time, but utilization is poor, less than 50%.
Table 1: Annual budget & performance of the East Branch Commission
Fiscal Year Budget Performance in ETB
Plan Performance %
2016 1403490 671,729.42

2017 3329991

Source: Annual reports of 2016, 2017 of the Commission

4.2. Awareness Creation
Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), Adama city has a total population of 220,212, an increase of 72.25% over the population recorded in the 1994 census, of whom 108,872 are men and 111,340 women. The town also had more than 1000 civil servants staffed in different sectors. Plan and Reports from the Commission shows that awareness creation among the body of government wing (political leaders and civil servants) and civil society was one of the means in tackling corruption in the town.
Table 2: training coverage
Target Addressed Year
2008 2009
Civil Servant 71 27
Student Na 5907
Whistleblowers 23 18
Total 94 5952
Source: 2016, 2017 annual reports
From the above table 1, it could be seen that, the targets addressed through efforts of awareness creation by the Commission were insignificant, less than 1%. The targets focused in the awareness creation were more of the students, especially at the primary level. Of course, this is best as the effort prepares the next generation in the long term. However, as the present is the bridge for tomorrow, the active actors and the direct victims should also be the focus. Because, most of the acts of the corruption were emanated from the decision of the incumbent office holders and civil servants, while the direct victims of the problem were the active segments of the residents. Therefore, as the report shows, most of the targets were missed. Informants from the Commission also recognized that in addressing the main target group all respondents, 10(100%) admitted the limitation.
There were two main problems getting in touch with the mass of the town’s population. The first is the limited capacity of the Commission. The Commission is responsible to coordinate a number of zonal and urban administrations that account one fourth of the Oromia Regional State. The human power and resource that were assigned did not much to coordinate these huge areas. Secondly, the strategy that has been used to compensate for limited capacity were poor. Informants from the Commission informed that they utilized face-to-face training delivery, distribution of pamphlets and annual anti-corruption day in raising the awareness of the population. In face-to-face training, it might be effective in communicating the message; in terms of reaching vast numbers of the target group has its own limitation, since it is costly and difficult to get the residents uprooting them from their daily livelihood. Pamphlets, not more than 1600 in number as indicated in the annual reports of the Commission, could not be enough, without mentioning the literacy problem.
Another means of raising public awareness on the issue of corruption is platform prepared by the municipality. The Municipality facilitates such kind of meeting based on the plan of the National government and the town’s administration itself. At National level, when the Ruling Party and the government feels that mal- governance has posed a threat to the system as whole by creating discontent among the public, the government resorts to opening public discussion at the grass-root level. This has gave an opportunity to communicate what the corruption is, its effect and their role to the community. The Municipality also open public consultation forum based on specific agendas, with specific segments or all-encompassing of the residents. However, the meetings were faced with turnouts and lack of continuity that were difficult to conclude that significant target groups have been addressed.
Regarding the level of awareness among the population of the town there has been some progress. According to my informant, although there were drawbacks in reaching mass of the residents, with the efforts here and there, all were agreed 10(100%) that awareness on the parts of the population has been increasing. Recent researches and evaluation of the report of the public meeting of movement for the deepening reform, ’tilk tehadiso’, confirm the argument.
4.3. Public Participation in Exposing Corruption
Another factor that could have a role in fighting corruption is public participation. As stipulated in the strategy of the Commission, one of the bulwark in fighting corruption is creating a society that do not tolerate the attitude and acts of thefts by the officeholders and aversion towards corruption its basic values and culture. Based on this view, the residents were expected both in refraining from collaborating with acts and actors of corruption as well as disclosing information where they might face acts of corruption. To assess the level of public participation in the town, the researcher tried to gather information based on three variables: opportunities available at hand for the public, culture of the population to expose the problem and the response from the government for the acts uncovered.
Information gathered from the Commission’s experts based on open-ended questionnaire and review of reports has shown that there were two locus of informing the acts of corruption by the public, the towns sectors including up to Mayors and the Commission. There were various means the public wire out complains on the mistreatment in the service delivery of the municipal and state sectors. From the response of informants, the most utilized mechanisms had been facilitating public consultation meeting with the community and hearing their complain. In the past years a number of meetings held by the towns sectors and the Commission with the community, although it had not been sufficient and lacking continuity. Individuals and groups of individuals also came with the information and complains related with acts of corruption and unethical practices in the service delivered, by being there in person. Sometimes, the Commission and the sectors undertake surveillances to gather information. However, the endeavors were haphazard and not systemic.
Within the available opportunity, the culture of the public is an important issue in exposing corruption. As the assessments of the informants of the Commission and reports from the meeting held by the town’s administration with the public, the tendency of raising any ideas on acts of corruption and unethical practices, based on live facts and in person has been improved. Most participants outward any real or perceived problems in the ways service delivered and management. In addition to formal meetings, individuals also came with information when they encounter with acts of corruption and unethical practices. As the response for the question provided for the Informants of the Commission shows, the basis of the informer of the acts were basically conflicts of interest and commitment.
Timely, fair and adequate response for the complain and information’s on corruption that were indicated by the public is another critical point in motivating or de-motivating participation. In the past two years, based on the ruling party’s movement to deepening reform, ”tilk tehadiso” in its amharic term, within the party and the government structure across the country, the town’s administration had opened vast discussion forums with the residents. A number of problems related with mal-governance and even naked corruption were reported. Following the public meeting, the administration has taken different corrective actions. However, how much the corrective measures taken have brought a change among the populace of the town is yet to decide. According to my informant from the Commission, the response towards public complains and information gathered on corruption and mal-governance was not adequate. Among the experts replied for the question ”Is there systematic and immediate response for the complaint against acts of corruption and reports of unethical practice by the public?”, all were agreed that, the problem is not getting information and gathering complaint on corruption, but in addressing the malaise in time and communicating the actions taken to the public transparently.
4.4. Leadership Commitment
Leadership in the town refers to the teams and individuals vested with power and responsibility to make decisions on any matter pertaining to their mandate in realizing nation-wide vision in the town. The town’s core leadership is the executive committee of five members presided by Mayor. Then there are members of cabinets that appointed to lead their respective sectors in the town. Recently, the town was divided in to five sub-cities in order to decentralize the decision making as a response to growing complexity of the city’s public demand. This has added additional hierarchy and leadership between the town administration and kebeles. The kebeles, found nearest to the public and having an impact on the day to day life of the wider residents, are the lowest and the last units of the towns administrative structure. Leaders at the kebele level are sometimes maker and breaker in the lives of the people and governance of the town.
Developing leadership commitment is a panacea in fighting corruption and building a just society. Leaders appointed at different levels have central role within their circle of mandates in reinforcing or purging vices. But as it is criticality, assessing commitment of rank and files of leaders might had been the most difficult job. Considering the challenge, however, the researcher tried to assess the commitments of the leadership at different levels of the town in fighting corruption. The research tried to use different sources of data, then triangulate the data and information’s to get clear picture.
Commitment at the executive committee might be assessed in terms of how the leaders are free attitudinally and involvement in action of corruption, how they shape the attitude among the leaders and civil servants, and take actions on such problems, how they did mobilize and respond to the public as well as work with the Commission in the endeavors against corruption. Against this backdrop, the past five years history of the town could show different scenarios. At the executive level, the town has seen five mayors. About three were dismissed with the problem related with inaction on lack of good governance or rent-seeking problem. From the report of ”tilk tehadso” what most residents complained was that the most corrupted leaders in actual curse corruption on the stage vicariously. They also promised the people on the meeting and forget immediately after that endless talk. Furthermore, civil servants speak of about insecurity in their exposing the acts of corruption committed by the leaders. Town leadership commitment from the grassroots kebele level to the executive committee member of mayor to lead the struggle of anti-corruption and fight the corruption as a team and individually as the agency head, rather they had focus on and defalcate their time on routing and temporally activity
That backlog has passed over to the existing leadership. The incumbent leaders collected pile of public grievance in the meeting of’ ”tilk tehadso”. How much they responded to the public grievance is yet to judge. However, hither to trend shows that the result was mixed. In one way there has been actions taken in reorganizing the leaders and removed the kebele leaders towards whom most mal-governance and corruption were raised. The 2017 deepening rehabilitation ”tilk- tehadiso” all town leadership were removed from their position, one third of them were directly related and had to do with corruption. The remaining were with lack of good governance and problem in service delivery. However, the performance of the substituted leaders at towns administrative levels did not show any radical change. Still complains has continued in most sectors, where some were strong. At the same time, there were some respites at kebele while relapsed again partially. Most of the informants from the Commission commented that commitment among the leadership were by far low. Coordination with Commission from the town’s leadership also weak. They talk about destructiveness of corruption only for the sake of stage and were fake. They did not had strong stand to bring the fundamental change and committed to take action to stop corruption. Due to the mentioned problem trends in corruption were also escalating in all the town’s sectors.
4.5. Whistleblowers
Assigning whistleblowers in the sectors is one among the measures in preventing corruption and unethical practices. If mobilized to expected level, it might share the burden of the Commission and heighten the effort of fighting corruption. To identify the effectiveness the researcher tried to assess based on variables such as existence of criteria and procedures?, Assignments of whistleblowers based on the criteria and procedures, How they had been functioning or played their role?
The Commission had clear criteria and producers in selecting and assigning whistleblowers. The criteria require any individuals to be free from any unethical or criminal acts in the past, attitudinally anti- rent-seeking, able to boldly stand against acts of corruption, professional in educational background and competent. The assignments are expected to be undertaken jointly with the sectors and the commission, after thorough assessment of the person to be assigned.
Assignments of whistleblowers on terms of set criteria were not encouraging. All of my informants from the Commission agreed that assignments based on the criteria and procedure were undertaken in only few sectors. Most of the assigned whistleblowers did not meet the criteria. Recent research undertaken in 2017 by the Regional Commission also strengthens this assertion. According to the findings of the research from 24 whistleblowers communicated in Focused Group Discussion, only 4 were assigned following the procedure. As my informants pointed out, most of the political leaders see them as a threat and fault finder rather than facilitator and supporter in anti-corruption efforts. As a result they inclined to chose conformer and assigned unilaterally that were not fit the criteria. Furthermore, as the box of the structure is relatively better than most of the box in the town’s sectors, it had became the place civil servants attracted through nepotism or dismissed appointees assigned during demotion.
Regarding the contribution of the whistleblowers, my informants have rated their performance as has been low. The bottlenecks enumerated by the respondents were many. Lack of competence that has arisen from lack of assigning based on criteria, where there were assignments based on the criteria, insecurity among the whistleblowers as they were accountable to their immediate leaders and who could hire and fire them. Some of them were co-opted by benefits and lose appetite to stand against misdeeds. There were also turnover among the whistleblowers as the labor market providing ample opportunities.
4.6. Property Registration
Property registration is another measures implemented to prevent and investigate corruption. As a tool of anti-corruption, it was endorsed in the year 2010 with the proclamation No 169/2010 of Cheffee Oromia and its implementation launched in the year 2013, with the registration of the property of the then President of the Regional State of Oromia, His Excellence Alemayehu Atomsa, in the presence of the Regional Cabinet. In the year 2014 and 2015 the registration entered in to full-fledged with the momentum created.
According to the Proclamation No 169/2010 of Cheffee Oromia Property Registration and Making Public, every political leader and key civil servants that works in corruption prone areas should have to register his/her property. The power and responsibility for coordinating the duty of property registration was vested for the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission. The proclamation requires every responsible officeholders to register his/her property and income honestly as well as registered property to be renewed every two years and made public, for the public get the opportunity of assuring the truthfulness of the property of each individuals. The purpose is to clear whether any increments of asset might equivalent with all its incomes and control any deviation if there is/are.
Reports from the Regional and branch of the Commission shows that property registration of political leaders, appointees and civil servants were undertaken. The Booklets of Oromia Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission(2014) report shows that of 200 male, 88 female, total 288, 178 male, 83 female, total 261 had registered their property. In 2015 Annual reports of Branch Commission, the number of property registered rose to 628 male, 193 female, total of 821, which is more than tripled. From the data, it could be understood that property registration has been one of the area the Commission has gone far. However, in the process of registration the willingness among the civil servants and political appointee for registering their property were mixed.
Registration of property is not an end by itself. What makes property registration productive in checking corruption are, when the recorded property validated for their realness by the responsible body and public scrutiny as well as utilized for controlling deviations. The proclamation No 169/2010 also stated that after registration, additional activities should be in place. Registered property and income sources indicated should be validated through different mechanisms such as assessing bank account, searching other unregistered property, evaluation of living condition against income. This should also be supplemented by public scrutiny through publicizing the information. However, in the town, the effort did not gone far beyond registration. The 2017 annual report of the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Bureau of Oromia, the reason for the stagnation were lack of supportive laws, rules and regulation; weak Commission’s capacity; newness of the work and lack of live experiences to adopt; low awareness and fear among leaders and civil servants; and weak leadership commitment.
4.7. Targeting Corruption Prone System
Corruption is everywhere, but accessibility and risk of the problem might not be the same. Some sectors are more vulnerable and their negative impact are also far-reaching. The efforts these problem requires differs accordingly. Along this conception, corruption critical sectors were identified at the national level that should be targeted in all the endeavors of anti-corruption efforts and demolish rent-seeking systems in the urban political economy. As a result, land administration, revenue and tax collection, trade (contraband), government procurement were the major corruption prone areas prioritized by the government.
At the town’s level, the nationally prioritized areas may apply at some level, but not in all its magnitude and manifestation. Particularities should be dealt for effective outcome. Based on this view, the researcher tried to identify assessments and prioritization practices of corruption prone sectors in the town. The assessment were carried out both by the Commission and the town’s administrative management.
The Commission identify the priority areas based on the repeated complaints reported by individuals or groups, own planned surveillance and research. Scrutiny of the past two years report and information from the informants attest that land administration, kebele administrative, driving license, business license, tax collection, project bid and construction, transfer of kebele and condominium housing were the main areas identified. However, only on the transfer of kebele housing problem that investigation carried out and recommended for intervention to administrative body.
4.8. Criminalizing Corruption
Criminalizing corruption is another powerful means of tackling misconducts and abuse of public property. It is the reactive way of intervention against corruption. As the strategy, criminalization has been taken as a last resort next to prevention. The measure pass through different processes, i.e., collecting reports of corrupt acts, clearance of the cases, passing decision on whether the report could fit the criteria stated under corrupt acts and mandate of the Commission, then freezing any properties of the suspect, organizing every supportive records for prosecution and put the suspected before the court. In line with this, the Commission has been working to bring the offender under justice.

Table 3: reports of criminalizing corruption
R.N Items Year
2016 2017
1 Reports of Corruption 25 208
2 Property freezing 3 8
Return of stolen property in cash or money m2 1800 land Mil.39,852,647.50
4 Feedback given for reporters Na 32
5 Complicated cases cleared 15 69
6 Decision on cases whether wrong or not 15 72
7 Bringing suspected before the court Na 73
8 Court litigation 5 25
9 Cases prosecuted in % 85% 100%
10 Criminal prosecuted in % 80% 93%

Source, 2016, 2017 annual reports of the East Central Branch Commission

From the table 3 above, it could be seen that reports on acts of corruption rose in number between the year 2016 and 2017, from 25 to 208 respectively. Assets of the suspected corrupter were freezed in order to protect them from moving or laundering, while corrupter found with sufficient evidence were made to return the property to the government stock. As a result 1800m2 of urban land in Adama in the year 2016. and more than 39.8 mil. ETB in 2017 were returned. The Commission had also the practice of giving feedback to the reporters on the progress of the cases they reported, which encourages further participation. As a whole, cases that got decisions from the reported that fall within the criteria were 15 and 72 for the year 2016 and 2017 respectively, whereas the complicated cases investigated were 15 and 69 for the year 2016 and 2017 correspondingly. In getting the suspected before the court the 2017 report shows about 73 men. In litigation, the cases brought to the court were 5 and 25 in 2016 and 2017 respectively. From the cases came before the court 85% in the year 2016 and 100% in 2017 were got decisions, and 80% in 2016 and 93% in 2017 of suspected men were criminalized.
Overall, from the data above two major generalizations could be drawn. One, there were an increase in the number cases reported and fall under decisions of corrupt act as well as the size of property abused. This might be due to an improvement to the awareness of the residents and culture of exposing corruption or the Commission’s being active as a result of relative growing capacity. Second, the difference between reported cases and cases that reach courts were high, 20% in 2016 and about 12% in 2017. This might be the quality of the report or the problem in processing the cases that could be related with capacity problem.

4.9. Comparative Analysis of Implementation of Measures and Outcome
4.9.1. Anti-Corruption Measures in Practice
The Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission from its onset introduced different laws, rules and regulation that were internally generated or externally adopted to strengthen anti-corruption efforts in the region. To deepen the efforts through increasing accessibility, the Regional Bureau established four branches to coordinate the implementation of the work at the nearest possible. These branches (including the Eastern Zone from which the researcher has taken Adama town as a case among its prerogative), tried to enforce the implementation of the strategies adopted. However, how much they were implemented on the ground? which measures has got more attention and with what impact at their implementation level? should be clear in order to look for improvement. Therefore, based on prepared questions, the researcher asked the Branch Commission experts and unit leaders to rank seven selected anti-corruption measures based on their level of execution.

Table 4: rank based on level of implementation
R.N Measures measures ranked based on their level of implementation
A B C D E F Total
1 Awareness Raising 2 1 1 2 7 3 16
2 Whistleblowers 5 3 3 3 6 2 22
3 Leadership Commitment 6 5 7 7 5 7 37
4 Public Participation 4 6 6 6 1 6 29
5 Targeting Corruption Prone System 3 2 5 5 4 4 23
6 Property Registration 7 7 4 4 3 5 30
7 Criminalization 1 4 2 1 2 1 7
Source: derived from the data gathered

From the above table, one could see that the Commission’s past performance and efforts were focused on mainly criminalizing corruption. Awareness creation, targeting corruption prone system and mobilizing whistleblowers were modestly implemented. Public participation, property registration and leadership commitment were the least that got attention during implementation. However, even though there had been variation one over another at the level of implementation, none of the measures were executed exhaustively and the actual impact in tackling corruption were medium and low.
4.9.2. The Gap in Priority
The researcher also tried to identify the gap between what was prioritized during actual implementation and what ought to be prioritized for the Commission and its efforts of anti-corruption be effective and efficient. The same informants were requested to rank the anti-corruption measures based on their would be impact, if they are properly implemented.

Table 5: rank with the best outcome
R.N Measures If properly implemented rank with the best outcome
A B C D E F Total
1 Awareness Raising 4 2 1 1 1 9
2 Whistleblowers 2 5 3 4 7 21
3 Leadership Commitment 1 3 2 2 3 11
4 Public Participation 6 1 4 5 2 18
5 Targeting Corruption Prone System 3 4 5 7 4 23
6 Property Registration 5 6 6 3 5 25
7 Criminalization 7 7 7 6 6 33
Source: derived from the data gathered
Accordingly, as the informants were voted, awareness raising, leadership commitment and public participation ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively. While whistleblowers, targeting corruption prone systems, property registration ranked in order. Criminalization was ranked the least, as the last option to be applied.
Finally, the actual performance the anti-corruption measures and the would-be effective priority were compared and found that, there were a gap in giving due attention by focusing on the most effective strategies. The table 4, below shows the case more clearly.
Table 6: The Gap in Priority
R.N Measures ranked based on their level of implementation rank with the best outcome
Total Rank Total Rank
1 Awareness Raising 16 2nd 9 1st
2 Whistleblowers 22 3rd 21 4th
3 Leadership Commitment 37 7th 11 2nd
4 Public Participation 29 5th 18 3rd
5 Targeting Corruption Prone System 23 4th 23 5th
6 Property Registration 30 6th 25 6th
7 Criminalization 7 1st 33 7th
Source: derived from the data gathered

4.9.3. Trends of Corruption
Recent study undertaken by Oromia Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (2017) entitled ”A Survey of Perception, Attitude and Practice of Corruption in Oromia National Regional State” has tried to indicate the intensity of corruption in the region. Particularly, the survey also exposed the condition of corruption at Adama town, by specifying the magnitude of each government sectors. The research identified sectors with strong magnitude of corruption within the town and comparative to other similar cities. From the findings of the research it was clear that corruption had been the critical problem in the town.
Remark of the Informants from the Commission also strengthened the findings of the research. For the question, ” Do you think that corruption in the town has decreased or rising?”, 8(80%) replied that corruption still rising in the town, 1(1%) skeptical and 1(1%) decreasing. Those who replied corruption were rising justified their answer by taking the rising number of complaints, increasing report of corruption, critical corruption prone areas still did not show any progress, rather intensified. Who, on the other hand replied corruption has decreased, support the argument by pointing out major projects that were the source of public complain have got solution, many development projects in the town has been accomplished which were mismanaged because of corruption in the past.
Chapter Five
5.0. Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1. Findings
The research, to assess the effectiveness of anti-corruption measures in Oromia based on the case of Adama town, has posed two questions, ”What were the interventions measures utilized and to what level did implemented on the ground to tackle corruptions in the town?, To what level does the interventions were effective in addressing the problem of corruption?”. To this end data and information were collected from the Regional and Branch Commission, Adama town’s administration and analyzed thoroughly. Then, based on the data available, the following findings are identified;
• Anti-corruption measures that were selected as a tools by the Regional Bureau of Ethics and Anti-corruption were known and in use.
• In practice, as far as the performance was concerned, none of the measures were exhaustively implemented and their outcomes were medium and low. Accessibility and coverage of awareness creation were low; community mobilization has been inadequate; whistleblowers were ineffective; property registration stagnated before its effective stage; leadership commitment is ambivalent; criminalization has been intermittent and hanged with bottlenecks in the court system.
• In the implementation of the measures, prioritizing them based on their maximum impacts were poor.
• As a result, still corruption is the main problem and the source of irritation in the town. Therefore, the measures were not effective in mitigating corruption problem. However, this does not mean that the measures are not good, but it is their implementation that failed.
• The main reasons for the poor performance were the weak capacity of the Commission and lack of similar commitment among the rank and files of leader in the town.

5.2. Conclusion
Corruption is a source of mal-governance and alien government that led to various economic, social and political crises. While the problem exists in all developed and developing countries, the intensity and the harmful consequence were more pervasive in developing countries. Understanding the destructive effect of corruption, a number of countries institutionalized the agenda for intervention.
Ethiopia was also the victims of corruption and identified the problem as a peril to development, good governance and even survival of the state. Based on this belief, the country institutionalized the anti-corruption effort beginning 1994 by the establishment of Federal Ethics Anti-Corruption Commission, then followed by Regional structures. Oromia Regional State opened the office for the same mission by the Proclamation 169/1995. Following its establishment, the Oromia Ethics Anti-Corruption Commission passed through different stages. From organizing Regional Bureau to decentralizing the structures by opening its office at seven branches in the region to enhance accessibility, to Commission’s formulating of different policies and designing regulations that help the efforts carried out against corruption and unethical practices.
The Commission also tried to implement the policies and regulations to tackle corruption in the region. However, how much the policies and regulations on paper were materialized on the ground and achieved the intended result might be a matter of debate. But, what the case of the study tells in actual was that, there were huge gap between the intention of the anti-corruption measures and the performance on the ground as well as the outcomes they brought. Unless these gorges bridged, the said commitment would remain rhetoric. However how much the Commission has been effective in the effort against corruption was the main tenet of the research. In doing so, the research took Adama town as a case study, To answer research questions, the study depended on analyzing policies and strategies formulated in order to identify what means were under use to avoid the problem. Different reports from the Commission and town’s administration were collected, sifted, analyzed and triangulated in order to get clear picture. Open and close ended questionnaire were prepared to collect additional data and information from 10(59%) of the Commission’s employee. Based on the data gathered and analyzed, it was found that, the measures in use were inadequately implemented and their impacts in addressing the corruption problem were insignificant. Because, 80% of my informant agreed corruption is increasing rather than decreasing. As the study concluded the problem lies not on the strategies but on inadequate implementation. These were emanated from weak capacity of the Commission and lack of commitment among the leaders of the town in working collaboratively. Therefore, for the anti-corruption effort to be effective, the research recommended that building the capacity of the Commission, developing commitment among the leaders, devising further methods to implement the strategies should be given due attention.
5.3. Recommendations
Based on the findings identified and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations were forwarded;
• Enhancing the capacity and empowering of the Commission should be given due attention through staffing adequate human power, training, logistic and expanding mandates.
• Developing the true commitment of the leadership in the town, strengthening coordination between the Commission and the towns core leaders is also critical for success.
• Prioritizing on the measures with the maximum impacts without neglecting none of them.
• Proper mechanisms should be devised creatively to overcome the limited human power and logistic, doing more with less.
• As a Commission, proper attention should be given for Adama town in their endeavors.
• Communication channels with the public whether in awareness creation or in making the public active in participating against corruption should be reconsidered. For example, social radios in the town may be one means, the main Oromia radio and television agency has found in the town so to make agree with the agency and create fixed date and program as a means of communication channel if used to aware the people without moving them from their daily activities. Different suggestion boxes at different areas nearest to the public could be another alternative to collect information from the residents.

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? Oromia Anti- Corruption Commission (2017) Annual Report
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? Idris, Musa(2011), Assessment of the Effectiveness of Anti-corruption Institutions in the Federal Public Service of Nigeria, A Dissertation, in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

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? Professor Rema Hanna, Sarah Bishop, Sara Nadel, Geabe Scheffler, July, 2011: What has worked, what hasn’t and what we don’t know
Hobbs the Printers:
? Senior, Ian (2006), Corruption – the World’s Big C: Cases, Causes, Consequences, Cures, The Institute of Economic Affairs, Westminster.
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? Thomas Wu MGT 682, Independent Studies 02715615G, Corruption and Bribery in China, August 6, 2003

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? Arvis, Jean-François ; Ronald E. Berenbeim(2003), Fighting Corruption in East Asia: Soluti from the Private Sector, , The World Bank, Washington D.C.
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? “How to research Corruption?”. Conference Proceedings Interdisciplinary Corruption Research Forum, June 2016 Amsterdam
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? Ayittey George B.N. (2000), Combating Corruption in Africa: Analysis and Context, in Corruption and Development in Africa: Lessons from Country Case-Studies, edn,.

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Proclamation No, 235/2001:
? Proclamation of Ethiopia federal Democratic Republic of Ethics and Anti- Corruption Commission proc/ No, 235/2001

Proclamation NO, 71/2003:
? Proclamation of Oromia National Regional State of Ethics and Anti- Corruption Commission Proc No,71/2003
Review by AfriMAP;
? December (2015), Effectiveness of Anti-Corruption Agency in East Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd:
? Widmalm Sten(2008),Decentralization, Corruption and Social Capital : From India to the West, New Delhi.
Universities Amsterdam:
? Integrity of Governance Research Group Department of Public Administration and Organization Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands, [email protected]; [email protected]
University of Gothenburg:
? Anna Persson, Bo Rothstein, Jan Teorell, June, (2010), the failure of Anti- Corruption policies, The theoretical mischaracterization of the problem, The Quality of Government institute Department of political science.
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? Lambsdorff, Johann Graf (2007), The Institutional Economics of Corruption and Reform: Theory, Evidence, and Policy, Cambridge.
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? Anwar, Shah (2007): Tailoring the Fight against Corruption to Country Circumstances, in Performance Accountability and Combating Corruption, Public Sector Governance and Accountability Series, Washington D.C.

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Appendix I
Checklists for interview
1. Awareness created on the issue of corruption prevention and control?
• Who is responsible for awareness creation in the town?
• Who were the target groups?
• How many of them were covered or addressed in the training in the past few years?
• What were the means of awareness creation and probability of their outreach?
• What is the level of awareness of the target group on the agenda of corruption?
2. The role of whistleblowers?
• Is there whistleblowers in the sectors?
• If there are, how many of the sectors has assigned whistleblowers?
• What is the terms of assignment/criteria of as a rule and are they assigned as per the criteria?
• What is the role of the whistleblowers?
• How they functioned as per their role? What support they did get? what is the achievement and challenges faced?
3. Leadership commitment in fighting corruption?
• In making as their main agenda on the part of the executive committee in making appointment of sectors and kebel’s leader, promotion and demotion at sectoral and kebele level, in being responsive towards public complaints, in their quick decision of revising corruption prone systems ?
• The sectors head in making corruption agenda in their office, transparent decision making, responsive towards the public?
4. Property registration
• What were the rationales behind property registration in fighting corruption?
• How many targeted leaders and civil servants registered their property?
• How many of them made public?
• How are timely assessments of their property made?
• What were the findings and decision taken based up on?
5. Public Participation in Fighting Corruption
• What were the mechanisms of public participation in fighting corruption? like Council of people’s representative, kebele’s council, residents timely forums, customers, etc…..
• What were the results in fighting corruption?
6. Identifying corruption prone systems and measures taken?
• How the areas in which improvement were necessary are identified?
• How many, in how many sectors were identified?
• On how many of them improvement has taken place?
• What were the achievements and challenges?
7. Criminalizing Corruption?
• How many corruption wrongdoings received from the town?
• Who were the informers of the wrongdoings?
• How many of them were investigated and assured to be true?
• How many of them presented to the court?
• How many of the cases got court decision?
• What were the outcomes and challenges faced?
8. Coordination
• How the city coordinate the endeavors of fighting corruption in its town?
• How the town works with the Regional Bureau of Ethic and Anti-Corruption Office?
9. Over all
• What could be said about the tends of corruption in the town, in the past few years?
• Could we say that corruption prevention and control has been effective?
• What were the main over all achievements and challenges faced?

1.1 Background of the study
The primary purpose of buildings is to provide occupants with conducive, safe, comfortable,
healthy and secured indoor environment to carry out different kinds of activities such as work,
study, leisure and family life as well as social interactions. A completed building must be able
to perform its functions in the manner that will ensure satisfaction to its occupants in order to
achieve this purpose, buildings are designed, planned, constructed and managed based on
standards and specifications established by governments, professionals and experts who are
supposed to have adequate knowledge of users’ needs and expectations. Studies have however
shown that sometimes these standards and specifications do not conform to the changing needs
and expectations of users; and thus users are not always satisfied with the performance of their
buildings (Kaitilla 1993, Ukoha and Beamish 1997, Zeiler and Boxem 2008, Meir 2009). The
consequences of these are manifested in building related illness and ‘sick building syndrome’
(Kian 2001), increase in the desire for remodeling or modifications or abandonment of
completed buildings (Kim 2005) which cause waste of resources, time, energy and even
damage to the building envelope components and the surrounding environment (Mitterer 2012).
Several reasons may be adduced on why buildings perform poorly in meeting users’ needs and
expectations. The chief among them is the lack of adequate knowledge of users’ changing
needs and preferences by architects and other professionals who design, construct and maintain
buildings. This is obviously due to inadequate research on this subject. Meir (2009) observed
that whereas designers in other fields of human endeavour spend considerable resources in
examining the actual functioning and user satisfaction with everyday services and products and
refining their design accordingly, professionals in the building industry do not. In the light of the above, Kim (2005) and Fatoye and Odusami (2009) suggested that one of the ways to
improve the overall performance of buildings is to explore and understand users’ needs,
expectations and aspirations through regular performance evaluation.
In Nigeria, existing studies (Ukoha and Beamish, 1997; Olatubara and Fatoye, 2007; Fatoye
and Odusami, 2009; Ilesanmi, 2010; Clement and Kayode, 2012, Ibem 2012;) focused on the
general performance of public housing in meeting occupants’ needs and expectations. From
these studies, it is established that the physical characteristics of residential buildings have a
significant influence on occupants’ satisfaction with their residential environment. This implies
that the dwelling unit component of housing plays a vital role in determining the quality of
residential environment in particular and the performance of housing projects in general.
However, only a few studies have specifically examined the performance of housing units built in public housing schemes with a view to satisfying the needs and expectations of the occupants in the Nigerian context.
The purpose of a building is to provide shelter for activities carried out by the building users.
The question is, do the facilities in the building perform well and appropriate for their use? A
completed building must be able to perform its functions in the manner that will ensure
satisfaction to its occupants and when this performance could not be met, it can cause excessive
amounts of damage, nuisance or even death; disserving building owners, occupants and
imposing large amounts of unnecessary costs.
Building Services is that aspect of building components that deal with the provision of facilities
that make such buildings comfortable, safe and convenient for human use. According to
(CIBSE), Building services constitute a significant portion of money within a building. In an
average building they account for around 20-30% of the total capital cost, and on buildings that have large volumes of building services installations like laboratories, hospitals and hotels accounting for about 40-50%. In addition, they are also responsible for majority of the running costs of a building post construction.
Building services play a central role in construction of any building. A building must do what
it was designed to do, not just provide shelter but also provide a safe, comfortable and livable
environment. Building services contribute immensely to the functionality of the
building. So, everything inside a building which makes it safe and comfortable comes under the
title of ‘Building services’.
A building as a basic structure only offers protection against adverse weather conditions, such
as rainfall, snowfall, sunshine, wind etc. For the convenience of the users of buildings, more is
required of this basic structure; these requirements include among others toilet facilities, this
brings up the need for collection, transportation, disposal and treatment of waste. The need for
water to make this modern toilet functional also makes it imperative to provide water. The
waste generated in addition to the collection and disposal of storm water also brings up the
issue of drainage systems in building. The heat generated by the sun’s radiation causes a lot of
inconvenience to building users in form of raised body temperature; this situation requires
adequate ventilation, good air circulation and movement. The natural form of circulation might
not be adequate hence the need for means of artificial air circulation that can only be made
possible by the use of energy the most common of which is electricity.
Closely linked to this is the need to provide lighting to a building. Building being basically a
boxlike enclosure usually requires lighting to allow for visibility of the interior, this is only
made possible by either natural lighting obtained by the creation of openings in building, or
artificial lighting obtained via the use of electricity or any other sources of energy. The
foregoing basically is what services to a building are all about. Put in a different form, building
services or general services are those provisions in and around buildings that make the use of
the built environment convenient for users.
Imagine yourself in the most fabulous building in the world. Now take away the lighting,
heating and ventilation, the lifts and escalators, acoustics, plumbing, power supply and energy
management systems, the security and safety systems. You are left with a cold, dark,
uninhabitable Shell. (Ref. CIBSE)
Everything inside a building which makes it safe and comfortable comes under ‘Building
services’. A building must do what it was designed to do, not just provide shelter but also be
an environment where people can live, work and achieve.
Building services systems are the electrical and mechanical installations inside a building that
provide the internal infrastructure for the proper functioning of the building. Major building
services systems include:
(a) Electricity supply systems.
(b) Air-Conditioning systems.
(c) Lighting systems
(d) Lifts and Escalators.
(e) Fire services systems.
(f) Drainage
(g) Water services
(h) Earthing system.
Post occupancy evaluation (POE) is a general term for a broad range of activities aimed at understanding how buildings perform once they are built. It is the process of obtaining feedback on the performance of building in use. The value of POE is being increasingly
recognized, and it is becoming mandatory on many public projects. POE is valuable in all
construction sectors, especially healthcare, education, offices, commercial and housing, where
poor building performance will impact on running costs, occupant well-being and business
efficiency. POE has been used by number of researchers over the years as a tool for
documenting, evaluating and improving a building as well as environmental condition.
Building services functionality is an important criterion in the post occupancy evaluation of any
building, hundreds of POEs have been conducted on a variety of building types over the last 25
years but only few focuses on building services performance level of the occupant’s. It is
important to note that building services is an integral part for building functionality in meeting
user needs, if services fails building also fails that’s why much consideration is required
because people stays in a building for a long hours, thus, features like internal temperature,
water services, drainage system, lightning directly affect their well-being in any residential
POE of Building services is a useful management tool for evaluating the effectiveness of the
building services systems in completed buildings, and helps identify improvement measures for
implementing building projects in future.
This research will be used to assess the building services performance feedback, operational
systems satisfaction level of installed building services facilities and occupant’s satisfactory
opinions. Through BSPOE, designers can discover how similar buildings performs once they
are in use, policy makers can also apply it to help in developing and improving on the existing
programmes and projects being delivered. BSPOE is also a valuable tool for assessing installed
building services quality, since building designers, owners and even the government, in the
case of state subsidized buildings are held accountable for the success or failure of the building
and policies creating the buildings, K.C. Lam (2004). BSPOE identifies ways people can use buildings and equipment more efficiently and more cost-effectively. BSPOE also eliminates
dysfunctional and seldom-used facilities in a building and mistakes can be corrected in future
design and policies, Marsh (2003). The greatest benefits from BSPOEs are determine when the
information is made available to as wide an audience as possible, beyond the organization
whose building is evaluated, to all sector and construction industry. Information from BSPOEs
can provide not only insights into problem resolution but also provide useful benchmarking
data to which other people projects can be compared, Armstrong (2008).
1.2 Statement of the Research Problems
Building services engineering installation is worth 30-60% of the total cost of a building
construction. There are certain criteria that building services installation should meet up with in
designing, Marsh (2003, p. 62) states that “The purpose of design is to construct a workable
arrangement of technology that will deliver the technical objectives of the project. Unlike
architecture, building services must deliver the described technical performance exactly. To
under-deliver leaves the client with a building that is unusable, to over-deliver leaves the client
with a building that is too expensive or complex to operate”.
Many building defect complaints are reported in public and privates estates buildings in
Gombe, such as constant tripping off of the Power Distribution board, Neutral and Earthling
failure which results in Electric shock and damaging of electrical appliances, backlash offensive odour from soil waste, leaking pipes in the toilet that causes moisture on the building
walls and inadequate water supply and storage provision and poor waste disposal methods.
Hence, Building Services Post-Occupancy Evaluation (BSPOE) can be seen as a multifaceted
tool to be adopted in solving problems of building services and facilities management in a
building, as it evaluates the performance of buildings and facilities systematically. BSPOE can
also be seen as a systematic way to collect data and information on a particular building
services installation performances. Among the benefits that can result from BSPOE is the
identification of successful standard design features that can be scrutinized repeatedly (Watson,
2003), identification of problems to mitigate or reduce accidents or disaster that can occur due
to installations error or sub-standard works, improvement of building services performance and
environment, identification of redundant or omitted building services features and
empowerment of users to negotiate building issues and reduce maintenance works and cost
(Vischer, 2002; Hewitt et al., 2005).
Hundreds of POEs have been conducted on a variety of building types over the last 25 years,
but all this researches focuses on general building defects while commensurate works have not
be done on building services.
Buildings have started using latest advances in information technology to enhance the way they
work and to deliver new standard of performances and profitability. There is tendency now for
people to go for intelligent building in order to have functional and efficient satisfactions of the
installed facilities which are control by computer and intelligent network.
There are Building codes and standards which set out the rules and regulations that all the built
environment must adhere to when designing and installing building services facilities that
makes them fit for human use for all new and refurbishment work and if these facilities fails the
building fails that’s why much consideration must be given to them. This system can be applied to identify problem areas in existing buildings, to test new prototypes and to develop guidance
and criteria for future facilities. The building should be designed with the aim of producing a
high-quality interior environment so that the health and safety of the occupants are not
When considering purchasing a house or apartment or any dwelling for residence, one of the
major issues should be that it is electrically safe to live in. To this end personal safety and that
of other residents should be assured in the knowledge that all appliances, electrical systems and
components are functioning correctly. This safety aspect if checked on a regular basis also
combines to save the purchaser in energy costs during the lifetime of the system.
The problem this research wants to solve is to define means of tracking performances of these
installations since there is no enough practical information on operational function of installed
facilities in residential estates in Gombe State and to generate information as feedback
mechanism to the designer and explore how this can be made on regular features in building
construction industry to become in comparative that buildings to follow suits.
The outcome of this research is to provide information to the building industry about buildings
in use and abilities to determine how well a new concept of POE of building services works for
the government and public sector.
1.3 Significance of the Study
Current literature indicates that the poor condition of domestic mechanical and electrical
installations throughout Europe has raised concerns in respect of the safety of the
owner/occupier. The awareness of the public in regard to mechanical ; electrical safety seems
to suggest that a greater understanding may be needed and further input from the institutional
bodies in charge of mechanical ; electrical regulations be intensified, Noel Masterson (20I2).
The greatest danger of under-maintained electrical installations is fire. An investigation of the
Merseyside Fire and Rescue Service (UK) from 17 April 2008 to 8 December 2008 showed
that 79% of the accidental primary fires were caused by faults in the electrical installation
(Leonardo Energy, January.2010)
Building Services Post-occupancy evaluation (BSPOE) of buildings is vitally needed to ensure
that building perform its function and life of occupants and the appliances or the installed
facilities are safe and sustained after the building has been occupy. BSPOE of buildings is of
utmost importance in building performance evaluation, as it comprises the technique that is
used to evaluate whether a building meets the user’s requirements and possess ability to
perform function it was originally designed for. By using occupants as a benchmark in
evaluation, the potential for improving the performance of building services installations is
enormous. When reviewing the safety of a domestic installation of building services there are
quality requirements which must be attained, the main starting point would be the previous and
current condition of the installation if it was ever maintained or renovated. The point being,
safety at all times must be to the forefront of the occupants thoughts. One good reason for
prioritizing electrical safety in the home is the increasing use and abundance of modern
electrical appliances. Overloading of circuits in a house is now a serious concern for most
households due to the fact that when the house was designed the electrical outlet condition was
never perceived to have the growth that it has achieved, Noel Masterson (20I2).
BSPOE is a useful management tool for evaluating the effectiveness of the building services
system in completed building and helps identify improvement measures for implementing
building projects in future. It is also use to evaluate the maintenance and performance of
buildings services installation after they have been occupied. In addition, BSPOE provides a
mechanism for understanding the mutual interaction process between buildings and users’
needs and for recommending ways of improving the environment necessary to accommodate
these needs. Building Services Post Occupancy Evaluation involves systematic evaluation of
opinion on building services installation of buildings in use, from the perspective of the people
who use them and the provision of facilities in the buildings that make such buildings
comfortable, safe and convenient for human use. It assesses how well buildings match users’
needs, and identifies ways to improve building design, performance and fitness for purpose.
Having BSPOE as a measuring tool in any building will be able to detect which elements in
building performs or which elements in building underperforms and affecting the user’s
satisfaction and productivity, according to Riley, (2006), POE is used to consider the extent to
which a building meets the needs of its end-users while also recognizing ways in which design,
performance and fitness for purpose can be enhanced same also applied to BSPOE.
It is important to conduct a POE of building services installation in the residential building or
any other building so that the results can be used to gauge the level of satisfaction of designers,
occupants and owners of the building, and to determine whether the occupants are happy or
not. As the purpose of the building is to serve the needs of the occupants and it is critical that
the building should be evaluated from time to time to ensure that it is serving its intended
purposes. The building is an immovable asset, and it is affected by external factors such as
exposure to the climate, which leads to the necessity for maintenance.
Building should be designed in such a way to provide an environment where people can feel
comfortable, work, live and achieve. To have a satisfactory building services installation, every
building must follow design criteria which are the explicit goals that a project must achieve in
order to be successful, but in most cases the reverse is the case. Building services have certain
design criteria given by regulatory bodies such as CIBSE (Chattered institute of Building
services Engineers), National Building code, ASRHAE (Association of refrigeration, heating
and air condition engineers), British Standard (BS Standard) est., which serve as the
benchmarks against which success or failure in meeting design intent is measures in building
services, it is also a basis against which to evaluate success without any challenges.
This research will be of significance to the owners of public and private housing estates and
occupants, shedding light on the need for adequate provision of building services installation in
line with regulatory body guideline to serve end users better and provide comfortability and
safe environment. It will also provide a mechanism for understanding the mutual interaction
process between buildings services facilities and users’ needs and for recommending ways of
improving the environment necessary to accommodate these needs. It will serves as a tool to
account for building quality because M & E services installation is what makes building to
achieve the purposed it was designed for.
BSPOE is used not only to determine clients’ or users’ satisfaction, but also to fulfil other
objectives, including determining recurrent building services defects, supporting design and
construction criteria, supporting performance measures for asset and facility management,
lowering facility life cycle costs by identifying design errors that could lead to increased
maintenance and operating costs, clarifying design objectives and improving building
performance. The idea of BSPOE is to establish in relations the problems arising from the
building industry, more especially in the care facilities such as mental hospital, nursing homes,
school residence and residential buildings and estates.
Conducting POE of building services in residential estates buildings will assist with the
knowledge base which will be utilized by the owner of the residential estate to improve the standard of the facility. The knowledge base that the POE provides, will serve as the
benchmarks for continuous improvement, instead of waiting the Post Occupancy Phase to kick
and to reduce cost of recurrent maintenance.
This research has the broad aim of developing a general guideline for the BSPOE practice,
specifically for government and public buildings in Nigeria. The objectives were first, to
review and analyze government and public estates building performance, secondly, to
determine the occupants’ satisfaction level and thirdly, and to determine the correlation between
building performance and occupants’ satisfaction level.
1.4 Aims and Objectives
1.4.1 Aim
The aim of the research is to carry out POE in selected residential building estates in Gombe
Metropolis with a view to assessing the factors that affect the comfortability, functionality;
efficiency and safety of building services installations and to generate data as an input for
future installation.
1.4.2 Objectives
The specific objectives of this research are;
1) Identify and rank building services POE indices and measures.
2) Perform Evaluations of Building Services installation.
3) Determine the operational effectiveness of building services installation in residential buildings.
4) To develop measure for improving services design and installation for future
residential building projects.
1.5 Research Methodology
The data to be use in this research to be derive from both primary and secondary sources. The
primary data to be obtain through the survey method, while the secondary data to be derive
from the review of literature and archival records. The primary data to be obtain through the
use of a structured questionnaire survey, oral interviews and measurements.
1.6 Scope and limitations
1.6.1 Scope
The scope of this research is to evaluate building services performances of residential building
and it is confined to multi blocks estate of public and private estates within Gombe and
environs. The research is to cover services installations which are the technical components of
building only to determine level of comfort and functionality and safety of any built facility.
1.6.2 Limitation
The study is therefore limited to;
I. Narrowness of the subject.
II. Unavailability of occupant’s as at when needed.
III. Availability of technical information from the occupant’s.

1. Describe how four forces for change may impact upon Alphabet Games. In doing so, you must use a recognized analytical framework
Pestel analysis
It is a framework or tool used by marketers to analyze and monitor the macro-environmental factors that have an impact on an organization.
Political Factor
Political factors are about how government influence in the economy which including, government policy, political stability or instability in overseas markets, foreign trade policy, tax policy, trade restrictions. Organizations need to be able to respond to these situations and adjust their marketing policy accordingly.
According to the case study the Political factor will affect Alphabet Games considerably. The


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