1. term of resiliencies defined differently according to

1.     Contents 1.

      Contents. i 2.      Introduction. 2 3.      Problem Statement 3 4.      Justification of the Research.

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3 5.      Scope of the Study. 4 6.      Objectives. 4 7.      Methodology.

4 8.      Work Plan. 5 9.      Estimated Cost Built Up. 5 10.   References.

6    2.     Introduction   Resilience is a term that is becoming widely popular in a variety offields, ranging from psychology to business administration to disaster riskreduction (Ingirige, Pathirage, Kulatunga,Fernando & Thayaparan, 2016). The Oxford Dictionary definesresilience as the capacity of a system to recover quickly from difficulties.However, this definition is very broad and can be misinterpreted. Hence, theterm of resiliencies defined differently according to the field it is used in.The definition can also change with the country or state it is applied to, asthe measuring parameters of resilience could differ with the differing socialand physical setting.Sri Lanka annually experiences a numerous variety of disasters; disastersdue to climatic and seasonal changes (Example: floods, landslides) as well asunpredictable and rare disasters (Example: Tsunami). The occurrence of suchdisasters leads up to the loss of human and animal life, threat to personal andsocial health and safety, economic losses and destruction to criticalinfrastructure of a country.

It could be hypothesized that the impact from thesedisasters are much greater in Sri Lankan communities than the impact from asame level disaster experienced by a developed country because the Sri Lankangovernment and the relevant organizations currently pay more attention to postdisaster management, rather than concentrating equally on each part of adisaster cycle (pre-disaster, disaster and post-disaster)Hence, it is paramount that the country shifts its focus to the conceptof Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). In consideration, preparedness of a communityto face disasters is an important factor which should be thoroughly analyzed asthere is a direct correlation between preparedness of a system to how well asystem reacts in the face of a disaster. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 – 2030 is avoluntary and non-binding agreement which integrates disaster risk managementwork and maps the progression of the world in that field throughout the next 15years, and was taken up by UN Members on 18th March, 2015 (Aitsi-Selmi, Egawa, Sasaki, Wannous & Murray, 2015).It is considered significant for its role in shifting from disastermanagement to disaster risk reduction. This framework will be greatlyconsidered in this research study.

This research study willattempt to derive a definition for resilience in the Sri Lankan context,considering the physical and social aspects in the country. It will then intendto use resilience as a tool to identify the preparedness of Sri Lankancommunities in the face of a disaster. Landslide disasters will be used as thecase study. Landslides are a very common type of hazard in Sri Lanka,especially in the highlands. This makes it very effective case study for thisresearch. The landslides that have occurred in the recent past can becategorized according to the size of impact on the community. 3.     ProblemStatement The current status ofdisaster management in Sri Lankan communities can be described as inadequate,as following a disaster the announcement of deaths, displacement of people andproperty loss invariably follows.

This research intends to study the significanceof using resilience as a tool to improve disaster risk reduction, usinglandslide disasters as a case study. 4.     Justificationof the Research At present, theSri Lankan government and other disaster management organizations in thecountry are mostly concerned with post disaster management which gives lessthan ideal results for the disaster affected communities. Ergo, analyzing theresilience of the community, in which case the community throughout thecomplete cycle of the disaster will be considered, could be a satisfactory replacement.Due to the highrainfall as well as various human interferences, the mountainous regions of SriLanka are very prone to experiencing landslide disasters, notably during theNorth-East and South-West monsoonal periods (Ratnayake &Herath, 2005). Hence landslides can be considered as an appropriate casestudy for the research.

   5.     Scopeof the Study  The research will be limitedto a certain size category of landslide disasters in Sri Lankan communities.The landslide data considered will be limited to the past 15 years. The term”community” in the research will exclude wildlife and ecosystems without anyhuman inhabitation.  The limitations in the studycan be attributed to the constraints in time and resources. 6.

     Objectives Ø  Define “resilience” in termsof Sri Lankan contextØ  Identify the parameters ofmeasuring resilienceØ  Develop a framework toevaluate resilience of a community in facing landslide disastersØ  Provide recommendations andguidelines for assessed communities having a high risjk due to landslides.  7.     Methodology  Ø  Carry out a thorough literature survey to gainan understanding regarding the aspects of resilience as defined by variouscountries and organizations as well as regarding landslides in Sri Lanka.

Ø  Identify organizations in Sri Lanka that areresponsible for landslide disaster management and mitigation and obtainavailable data regarding the recent landslides that have occurred (Number ofyears to be determined).Ø  With the obtained data, categorize thelandslides according to impact level and thereby choose a suitable category forthe study.Ø  Developing a questionnaire for the stakeholdersof landslide affected regions.Ø  Carry out field visits to areas that haveexperienced landslides in the past (Consider both large and small landslideareas).

Ø  Carry out discussions and questionnaire surveywith the stakeholders of the relevant landslide regions.Ø  Identify parameters to measure the community, parametersto measure a landslide and the risks and impacts caused by a landslide to acommunity.Ø  Identify the weightage each parameter couldcontribute to the resilience of the community.Ø  Develop a layered framework using theidentified parameters  8.     WorkPlan    9.

     EstimatedCost Built Up Activity Budget Access to Resources and Data Rs. 3000.00 Travel Rs. 8000.00 Lodging Rs.

6000.00 Food Rs. 2000.

00 Overhead Rs. 4000.00 Total Budget Rs. 23000.00  10.           References  Ø  Ingirige, B., Pathirage, C., Kulatunga, U.

,Fernando, T., Thayaparan, M. (2016). D4.1 EU-CIRCLE Resilience Framework –Initial Version.

A pan-European framework for strengthening CriticalInfrastructure resilience to climate change.Ø Ratnayake,U., Herath, S. (2005). Changing rainfall and its impact on landslides in SriLanka. Journal of Mountain Science,2(3), 218-224. doi:10.

1007/BF02973195Ø Definition of resilience in English. Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/resilienceØ Aitsi-Selmi,A., Egawa, S., Sasaki, H., Wannous, C.

, Murray, V. (2015). The SendaiFramework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Renewingthe Global Commitment to People’s Resilience, Health, and Well-being. InternationalJournal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(2), 164-176.



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