1. ABOUT THE COMPANY
IndiGo, headquartered in Gurugram is India’s largest passenger airline with a market share of 39.7% as of January, 2018. It was set up in early 2006 by Rahul Bhatia of InterGlobe Enterprises and Rakesh Gangwal, a United States based NRI.InterGlobe holds 51.12% stake in IndiGo and 48% is held by Gangwal’s company Caelum Investments.

They primarily operate in India’s domestic air travel market as a low-cost carrier with focus on their three pillars – offering low fares, being on-time and delivering a courteous and hassle-free experience. IndiGo has become synonymous with being on-time.
Since their inception in August 2006, they have grown from a carrier with one plane to a fleet of 156 aircraft today. A uniform fleet for each type of operation, high operational reliability and an award-winning service makes them one of the most reliable airlines in the world. They currently operate flights connecting 50 destinations – 42 domestic and 8 international.
1.1 TIMELINE
2013-14: IndiGo was the second fastest growing lost-cost carrier in Asia after the Indonesian Airline – Lion Air. However, IndiGo had already announced that it plans on seeking permission from the ministry to acquire four more aircraft, therefore actually taking the delivery of nine aircraft in 2013. In August 2013, the Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation ranked IndiGo among the top 10 low-cost carriers in the world.

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2015-16: IndiGo placed an order of 250 Airbus A320 Neo Aircraft worth $27 billion, making it the largest single order ever placed in the history of Airbus. Indigo announced an initial public offering of Rs. 3200 crores on October 19, 2015 which opened on October 27, 2015. According to the submission to DGCA, IndiGo with a 33.8% share of domestic passenger traffic in the year ended March 31 reported a net margin of 9.4%

2016-17: Indigo awarded for outstanding performance and profitability by CAPA India, Mumbai. IndiGoReach has been recognised amongst the top 100 most impactful CSR program by the World CSR Congress, Mumbai. It was recognized as ‘Great Place to Work for in India’ for 8 years in a row (2008- 2016)

2017-18: IndiGo celebrated its 11th anniversary with special fares. Indigo was ranked the second-Best Budget Airline by SmartTravelAsia.com. It was named as Aon’s Best Employer for the year 2016 and 2017.
IndiGo announced the appointment of Rajagopalan Raghavan as the senior Vice-President and Wolfgang Prock-Schauer as the Chief Operating Officer.

1.2 MISSION STATEMENT

“IndiGo is a very quality conscious airline and passenger safety is paramount to our company’s mission and values”

1.3 MARKET SHARE

Source: http://www.livemint.com/Companies/RHi9FvENDxO1re0jQ6bN3L/Indias-air-traffic-doubles-to-117-million-passengers-in-6-y.html

2. ABOUT THE INDUSTRY

The Director-General and CEO of International Air Transport Association (IATA) – Tony Tyler, had stated that the global world is focussing on Indian aviation, starting from manufacturers, airlines, businessmen, tourism boards, global businesses to individual shippers and travellers. According to Mr. Tyler, a bright future can be expected if there is a common goal among all stakeholders in India’s aviation sector.

2.1 Market Size
India’s domestic air traffic nearly doubled to 117 million passengers in 2017 with 100 flights taking off every hour compared to 67 in 2011, as per the data released by aviation regulator Directorate General of Civil Aviation. India’s airlines flew 117.18 million passengers in 2017 compared to 59.87 million in 2011. They also noticed that there was an 18% growth over the 99.88 million passengers who flew in 2016.
India is the 9th largest civil aviation market in the world, In FY17, domestic passenger traffic witnessed a growth rate of 21.5 per cent. In FY17, airports in India witnessed a domestic passenger traffic of about 100 million people. Investments worth US$ 6 billion are expected in the country’s airport sector in 5 years. India’s civil aviation market is set to become the world’s 3rd largest by 2020 and expected to be the largest by 2030.
As of December 2017, the existing fleet of aircraft stands at 548 aircraft in India, and another 920 aircrafts are expected to be inducted into the fleet by 2025.
Some major changes:

• Domestic passenger traffic expanded at a CAGR of 11.46 per cent over FY06–17
• According to Directorate General of Civil Aviation, domestic passenger traffic witnessed growth at a rate of 22 per cent, in comparison 21.24 per cent in FY16.
• International passenger traffic registered growth at a CAGR of 8.33 per cent over FY06-17.
• During February 2017, domestic airlines carried over 8.23 million passengers, showing a growth of more than 23 per cent compared to the same period last year.
• During FY17, domestic passenger traffic increased by 22 per cent in comparison with growth rate of 21.24 per cent in FY16.During FY16, international passenger traffic increased by 7.72 per cent.
Notes: FY – Indian Financial Year (April – March), CAGR – Compound Annual Growth Rate

2.2 Factors Contributing to the Growth of Aviation Sector

From an under-managed and over-regulated sector, the aviation industry in India has now changed to a more open, liberal and investment friendly sector. The civil aviation sector in India has moved into a new era of expansion. Some key factors contributing to this are:
• Increased tourist inflow
• Modern airports
• Supporting government policies
• Higher household incomes
• Entry of low cost carriers (LCC)
• Cutting edge information technology (IT) interventions
• Strong economic growth
• Increased FDI inflows in domestic airlines
• Surging cargo movement
• Focus on regional connectivity
• Sustained business growth

2.3 Some Major Threats to the Airline Industry
There are many threats faced by the aviation industry. The global economy creates a great impact on travelling for leisure and business. A downturn in the global economy means that less people are likely to travel for pleasure and to do business. This leads to fall in income of the airline during this period. To minimize this effect, the organization should devise a mechanism of reducing its operation cost to the minimum level possible to prevent losses due to its operating costs exceeding income.
Some government legislations can also be a major threat to the investors in aviation industry. Government interventions can come with some rules which are very costly to adhere to.
Air travel is very vulnerable to changes in the environment. Heavy storms affect flight schedules, and this means refunding those customers who opt to cancel their flights instead of waiting. It can also lead to loss of the asset, for example, crashing of an aircraft. To minimize the effect of this loss, the airline should make sure that it is well insured against losses resulting from these changes in the weather. There should also be an insurance cover for the passengers of the airline.
Air travel has a seasonal demand especially where a large percentage of travellers involves the ones travelling for leisure. In this case, the highest demand is likely to arise during international holidays like the Christmas season and a significant decrease in demand would be faced in the middle of the year. To ensure that there is no significant drop in customers during the off-peak seasons, the organization can come up with methods to encourage people and motivate them to travel during this period by lowering the travel rates, offering discounts and some special travelling packages.
In recent times, air travel has been a target to terrorists, and this has had a very negative impact on the airlines themselves. Frequent travellers have been scared, and the airline industry has lost a number of customers. To gain back the confidence that they’ve lost, an organization should carry out an extensive campaign solely meant to assure customers of their safety when travelling using their airline.
With the increasing number of airlines and aircrafts, it is highly likely that the shortage of airports and airport facilities will come up. The airline should therefore, invest in its own airports and ensure that they have enough parking bays for its aircrafts.
The organization also face the threat of being attacked by its major competitors. It should therefore, passively work on counteracting these so that it does not fall prey to the accusations made by other airlines.
The greatest hurdle faced by many airlines today is high fuel prices. A huge upward surge in fuel prices can destabilize an investment in the aviation industry. To counter this, the airline should ensure that it has its own fuel reserves so as to reduce the affect caused by the changes in fuel prices as it will have time to adjust while relying on its fuel reserves.

2.4 Road Ahead

India’s aviation industry is largely untapped with huge opportunities for growth, taking in consideration that air transport is still expensive for majority of the country’s population, of which nearly 40 per cent is the upwardly middle class.
The industry stakeholders should engage and collaborate with policy makers to implement efficient and rational decisions that would boost India’s civil aviation industry. With the right policies and undivided focus on quality, cost and interest of passengers, India would be well placed to achieve its vision of becoming the third-largest aviation market by 2020.
In the coming 20 years, Indian companies will buy 2,100 new planes worth US$ 290 billion. Also, domestic air traffic in India is expected to cross 150 million in FY19, on the back of unprecedented capacity induction by airlines*.
Exchange Rate Used: INR 1 = US$ 0.0155 as of January 4, 2018.
Note: *According to Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation (CAPA)

3. EXTERNAL ANALYSIS

3.1 Porter’s Five Forces

3.1.1 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
Any airlines generally face a duopoly of two main suppliers – Airbus and Boeing. There are other suppliers like Bombardier, Dauphin, Embraer, Dronier, Tupoloev but they do not meet the requirements to serve the lost cost commercial aircraft carriers, particularly IndiGo airlines. Thus, there are a few suppliers and thus are in a better position to bargain because they always find customers for their aircrafts.

3.1.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers
Buyers in airline industry are highly fragmented and very large in number thus lowering their power. With the economy growing at a faster pace and increasing low cost carriers, the buyers have increased and with that have increased the opportunities for growth. The switching cost is almost negligible as there are multiple alternatives available. It is not really difficult for a customer to move from one airline to another or switch to some other provider.

3.1.3 Threat of New Entrants
Product Differentiation: When we take low cost carriers in account, we observe that there is not much of a difference in services provided to the customers. Differentiation can only be achieved by Value Added Services. IndiGo provides stair free ramps, ‘Q-busters’ and check-in-kiosks. Hence, this works in favour of IndiGo.
Switching Cost: The switching cost is not really high. Customers can easily pick other low-cost carriers over IndiGo. The switching cost of an airline to other business or industry is high as the exit cost is high.

3.1.4 Availability of Substitutes
The main substitute for the low-cost carrier is the railways. But this substitute is not as powerful as the airline because of the following reasons:
• Customers prefer airlines over railways because it is convenient and it saves time. So, it cannot act as a substitute for the customers who value time.
• Many customers use airlines as a status symbol. So, for prestige, trains cannot act as a substitute.
• So, if we just consider IndiGo airlines, other low-cost carriers like SpiceJet and Go Air are the direct substitutes. In this case, the threat of substitutes is high as the cost of switching between other low-cost carriers is very low.

3.1.5 Competitive Rivalry
The aviation industry is a highly competitive industry which makes it difficult to earn high returns in this sector. The main reasons for high competition in the low-cost carrier airlines are stated below:
• Very less scope for differentiating competitor’s product and services
• There is very little scope for growth in the aviation industry. The only way to grow is by stealing away competitor’s customers.
• Supplier’s bargaining power is high as the supplier of aircrafts are the same – Airbus and Boeing.
• There is no brand loyalty because the switching cost for customers is almost negligible. So, the customers can easily choose the competitor’s aircraft over ours.
• Closest competitor of IndiGo is SpiceJet followed by Go Air.

3.2 PEST ANALYSIS

4. INTERNAL ANALYSIS
Under internal analysis we’ve considered two main categories:
(i) VRIO Analysis
(ii) SWOT Analysis

4.1 VRIO Analysis

VRIO is the acronym from the first letters of the areas – Value, Rareness, Imitability and Organisation. So, the first thing that comes to the mind is whether the resource is available. It is considered valuable if it can increase the market share, net profit etc. Once a resource is identified as valuable, the next thing that comes up is to identify whether it is rare or it’s available to all competitors. If the resource is valuable but not rare, it means that the competitors possess the same resources, the company has no specific advantage in this resource. The resource should also be difficult for the competitors to imitate or acquire. This is called Imitability, which can act as a competitive advantage if the company knows how to benefit from it. Organisation is where the resources are supported by the provisions in the company and that they are used properly. Otherwise, the resource is of no use.
Therefore, the resource that is valuable, rare, costly to imitate or acquire and the company is organised to capture the value of the resource, it can be a source of competitive advantage for an organisation.

The VRIO analysis for IndiGo Airlines is as follows:

Valuable: IndiGo has increased its market share and created value by offering the lowest fairs to its passengers. They use a single type of aircraft which means the cost of maintenance of the aircraft is low, which in turn favours them in creating the value. Also, they follow the practice of hedging the fuel, which results in lowering down the overall cost of the fuel.

Rarity: IndiGo has the highest market share in the industry and all of this is due to the low-priced tickets it offers to the travellers. The single type of aircraft and low average age of the fleet is a rarity in the Indian Airline Industry.

Imitability: Even though IndiGo has created value amongst its customers and the market but its strategies like using a single type of aircraft and less turnaround time are imitable and hence are not sustainable in the long run.

Organisation: In the last few years, IndiGo has become a big brand name in the Indian Aviation Industry. It has been around 10 years since its institution and it has created value through its unique proposition.

RESOURCES MARKET SHARE OPERATING PROFIT NET PROFIT
LOW FARES YES YES YES
SINGLE TYPE OF AIRCRAFT YES YES YES
TURNAROUND TIME YES YES
BRAND NAME YES
YES

4.2 SWOT ANALYSIS

1. A banana palm is a herb, not a tree.
2. The stem of a banana can reach 10 meters in height and almost half a meter in circumference.
3. One big banana plant can give three hundred kilograms of bananas per season.
4. There are thousand types of banana known. But only 5 varieties of bananas are considered suitable for human consumption.
5. For the first time in botany, the banana was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
6. One banana contains up to 300 mg of potassium, which helps to fight with increased blood pressure and strengthens the heart muscle.
7. There are different colors of banana, yellow, red, golden, green and even black.
8. Most of the bananas grow in India and Brazil.
9. Bananas are 1.5 times more nutritious than potatoes, rich in vegetable protein and at the same time – no saturated fats.
10. In the 1930s, in Nazi Germany, bananas were declared “unpatriotic” fruit.
11. Banana is berries not a fruit.
12. Banana grows from bulbs not from seeds.
13. In Philippines, fruit sauce is made from banana.
14. In Uganda, where local people eat almost bananas, each person eats, on average, 220 kilograms of bananas a year.
15. Banana has 74% of water.
16. About 100billions of banana are consumed every year in the world.
17. Bananas contains an amazing amino acid – tryptophan, from which the human body synthesizes serotonin – a hormone of joy.
18. Banana is the fourth most popular and consumed agricultural product.
19. Two bananas may well replace dinner or breakfast for calorie and nutritional value.
20. Banana grows upside down, towards the sun that’s why banana is curved.
21. Banana fibers can be used to make ropes and tea bags.
22. Bananas can be used to make wine and beer, in some part of Africa people make it.
23. Due to potassium, banana is slightly radioactive but causes no harm.
24. Banana peels can be eaten if it is cooked.
25. Banana floats on water.
26. The unripe or green banana is cooked as vegetable.
27. Peel of banana can be used to whiten the teeth.
28. In India, once a man ate 81 bananas in just half hour.
29. In 1960, people tried to get high by smoking banana peels.
30. Human and banana have about 50%of identical genes.
31. The scientific name for banana is musa sapientum which means’ fruit of wise men”.
32. Bananas are very helpful for people who suffer from constipation problems.
33. Rubbing banana peel on the insect bite provides relief from itching.
34. Banana has property of lowering the high body temperature.
35. The most popular variety of bananas is Cavendish.
36. In India, the flower of a banana is sacred and symbolizes purity.
37. In California there is a Banana Club Museum. They have 17,000 different items made up of banana.
38. Bananas are used in cosmetology and not only at home, but also as ingredients of cosmetics.
39. Banana helps in weight loss.
40. Banana peel is used in making soap.
41. China had banned pictures and video of using banana in seductive way.
42. 51% of bananas are eaten in breakfast.
43. Mait Lepik from Estonia won in the world’s first banana eating competition for speed. He managed to eat 10 bananas in 3 minutes
44. Dried bananas contain 5 times more calories than fresh bananas.
45. Once the most popular varieties of bananas were virtually extinct in the 20th century due to the spread of diseases that affect these plants.
46. Banana is the only fruit that even in infants does not give an allergic reaction.
47. The compositions of bananas include antioxidants and amino acids, and they are known to protect the body and improve immunity.
48. Bananas inhibit calcium in the body; it is not excreted with urine, but remains in the body and is used to strengthen bones.
49. Rubbing banana peel during headache reduces the pain.
50. When weaning from nicotine addiction, it is recommended to eat bananas – a large number of vitamins, potassium, and magnesium help to remove the remnants of nicotine from the body and adapt to life without cigarettes.

1.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE

Every business organization aims at earning maximum profit, to achieve this objective companies reduces the cost and increase the volume of sales and production. Profit depends on the large number of factors; most important are the cost of manufacturing and the volume of sales Assembling cost is the aggregate of expenses of all assets devoured during the time spent making an item and Volume of offers is the amount or number of items sold by an organization in a specific timeframe. Alternate variables of benefit are the pieces of the pie, mark picture, rivalry, and cost of generation and so on.
Back is an existence blood of business without fund, the core of business association can’t work inferring there by normal passing ideal from considering birth of a business to its liquidation back is required. As the measure of business expands, the requirement for costing is correspondingly more in light of the fact that a cost is a successful device of arranging and control. Cost help in planning the different exercises of the associations with the outcome that every one of the exercises goes before as per the targets. Industrial manufacturing is a major growth sector for the Indian economy with diverse companies for the Indian economy including those engaged in manufacturing of machine, equipments, electrical and metal items, bond, building and development material, elastic and plastic items and computerization innovation items
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labor and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may allude to a scope of human action, from handiwork to innovative, yet is most normally connected to modern creation, in which crude materials are changed into completed merchandise on an expansive scale. Such completed merchandise might be sold to different makers for the creation of other, more mind boggling items, for example, air ship, family unit apparatuses, furniture, sports gear or autos, or sold to wholesalers, who thusly pitch them to retailers, who at that point pitch them to end clients and customers.
Assembling designing or assembling process are the means through which crude materials are changed into a last item. The assembling procedure starts with the item outline, and materials detail from which the item is made. These materials are then adjusted through assembling procedures to wind up the required part.
Current assembling incorporates every single moderate process required in the creation and reconciliation of an item’s segments. A few ventures, for example, semiconductor and steel producers utilize the term manufacture.
Today link plate and bolster industry is an essential auxiliary industry supporting the foundation improvement at present on development. The development of this part is specifically connected to the execution of foundation advancement in the nation. India, being a rising center point of assembling and administration businesses, the development prospects for link plate and backings are great. All industry verticals expend link plate and backings amid the plant setup
The supporting links, link plate and backings have different applications, for example, supporting stages for concrete, compost, sugar factories and different businesses. Generally makes of link plate and backings additionally make gratings, towers and other creation structure required amid design set up. the link plate and bolster advertise is sectioned my parts, mechanical verticals and real players the emotionally supportive network is additionally ordered into welded and shot link plate emotionally supportive network. The request covers the production network, plant set up costs and the appropriation show
Expansive quantities of electrical designers have constrained detail learning concerning wiring frameworks. There is the inclination by specialists to abstain from getting to be associated with the points of interest of wiring frameworks, leaving the wiring framework determination and configuration to planners or temporary workers. Certain choices must be made for any wiring framework establishment, and these choices ought to be made in the plan and development exercises’ chain where greatest effect is accomplished at the most reduced conceivable cost. Conceding outline choices to development can bring about expanded expenses and wiring framework incongruent with the proprietor’s future necessities. Right on time in the venture’s outline life, the expenses and highlights of different material wiring frameworks ought to be equitably assessed in detail. Lamentably, such assessments are regularly not set aside a few minutes and cash included. Realize that these underlying assessments are critical and will spare time and cash over the long haul. The assessment ought to incorporate the wellbeing, trustworthiness, space and cost prerequisites of the venture. Numerous mechanical and business electrical wiring frameworks have inordinate introductory capital costs, superfluous power blackouts and require unnecessary support. Additionally, the wiring framework might not have the highlights to effortlessly oblige framework changes and developments, or give the most extreme level of wellbeing for the work force and the offices.
Link plate wiring frameworks are the favored wiring framework when they are assessed against proportionate channel wiring frameworks regarding security, constancy, space and cost. To appropriately assess a link plate wiring framework versus a channel wiring framework, a designer must be educated of both their establishment and the framework highlights.

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1. East Germany started constructing a wall on August 13th, 1961.
2. After the defeat of Germany in World War II, Germany was divided into 4 zones and it was controlled by 4 Allied powers.
3. West Germany was controlled by France, Great Britain, and America.
4. The Soviet Union controlled East Germany.
5. The capital of Germany, Berlin was also divided into East and West Berlin.
6. The main reason behind the construction of Berlin wall was to stop East Germans moving to West German
7. After construction of Berlin wall, even the subways were divided.
8. Before construction of the wall, the West Germans were allowed to visit East with a permit in advance.
9. In 1961, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev approved the construction of the wall.
10. The east side of the wall was not covered in graffiti but West side was.
11. Despite the construction of the wall, there were several checkpoints that allowed people to visit another side.
12. The Berlin Wall was 155 kilometers long.
13. The wall was about 11 to 13 feet high.
14. The wall divided the Berlin for 28 years and a day.
15. At first, the wall was just a barbed wire fence. Then it turned into a concrete wall.
16. The Berlin Wall was thought as the cruelty of Soviets, they had control over the people of East Berlin and their willingness to shoot at people they thought were traitors.
17. The wall was known as ‘Iron Curtain’.
18. The wall literally divided Europe into democracy and communism.
19. Charlie Checkpoint was the most famous crossing point and is still famous for the museum.
20. After the construction of the wall, about 5,000 people tried to escape.
21. It is estimated that 138 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall.
22. Before the construction of the wall, over two million East Germans moved to West Berlin between 1949 and 1961.
23. Many segments of the wall are given in different institutions around the world.
24. East Germany adopted the currency of West Germany On July 1st, 1990.
25. The construction was started overnight. In the morning when people woke up there was wire fence dividing the Berlin.
26. In 1979, a Swedish woman married to the Berlin Wall.
27. For two years, starting in 2010, a memorial complex “Berlin Wall” was built.
28. About 28 million euros were invested in the creation of the memorial.
29. In 1963, West Germany tried to destroy the wall with a tank but failed.
30. Athlete Usain Bolt, who set his fantastic world record in Germany, received as a gift a piece of the Berlin Wall weighing.
31. There were 20 bunkers and 302 observatory towers on Berlin Wall.
32. The pieces of Berlin Wall were sold on eBay.
33. If West Berliners want to get rid of anything they used to throw it on the other side of the wall.
34. In 1989 the border of Hungary was opened which made the route of escape to Austria for East Germans.
35. The last person who died in process of crossing the wall was escaping in the hot air balloon.
36. November 9th, 1989, was the date known for the demolition of Berlin wall.
37. The barrier between east and west actually consisted of two walls. The space between the massive concrete slabs was packed with trenches, watchtowers, floodlights, patrol dogs and trip-wire guns, and became known as the ‘death strip’.
38. The Soviets added thousands of machine gun inside the Wall to control the people of East from escaping.
39. The demolition of wall started when East German Politburo member Guenther Schabowski, mistakenly announces that we will demolish the wall immediately.
40. David Bowie performed on the West Berlin wall and all the east side people were listening him through wall. He addressed them from the stage: “We convey our best wishes to all our friends on the other side of the Wall!
41. At the fall of the wall, travel restrictions were immediately lifted, sparking an instant mass migration of thousands of people.
42. In the year 1989, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher requested Soviet President to stop the demolition of Berlin wall.
43. One notable escape was in 1963 by Horst Klein, an East German acrobat who used a high-tension cable to tightrope over the wall, well above the heads of the patrolling guards.
44. Actual demolition started on June 13th, 1990 and from 9th November 1989 and June 13th, 1990 the wall was guarded.
45. An East German soldier drove the tank to escape the wall in 1963.
46. In the first two years of the wall’s existence, more than 1,300 desperate guards escaped their oppressed lives and duties by fleeing to the west.
47. 98 people were shot or killed when they were trying to escape through wall.
48. The demolition of the wall also ended Cold War.
49. East and West Germany were reunited On October 3, 1990.
50. Present time, two rows of cobblestones are set along the Berlin wall in the Berlin.

1.7 Learning:
Learning is the act of obtaining new, or amending and strengthening, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or priorities and may involve creating different types of information. The skill of learning is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines. It does not occur all at once, but builds upon and is molded by previous knowledge. To that end, learning may be regarded as a continuous process, rather than a collection of accurate and procedural knowledge. Learning produces changes in the human and the changes produced are relatively long-lasting.
There are various kinds of learning which are as follows
1.7.1 Non-associative learning:
It regarded as a permanent change in the strength of reply to a single stimulus due to frequent exposure to that stimulus. Changes due to such factors as sensory adaptation, fatigue, or injury do not qualify as non-associative learning.”
1.7.1.1 Sensitization
1.7.1.2 Habituation

1.7.2 Associative learning:
It is the process by which someone learns coordination between two stimuli, or a behavior and a stimulus. The two types of associative learning are classical and operant conditioning.
1. In the former, a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly presented, together with a reflex producing stimuli, until eventually the neutral stimulus produces a response on its own.
2. In operant conditioning, a certain behavior is either reinforced or punished, which alters the probability that the behavior will reoccur.
1.7.3 Enculturation:
It is the process by which community learn values and behaviors that are suitable or necessary in their adjacent culture. Parents, other adults, and peers form the individual’s understanding of these values. If successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values and rituals of the culture. This is different from acculturation, where a person adopts the values and societal rules of a culture different from their native one.
1.7.4 Episodic learning:
It`s a change in behavior that occurs as a result of an occasion. For example, a fear of dogs that follows being bitten by a dog is episodic learning. Episodic learning is so named because events are recorded into episodic memory, which is one of the three forms of explicit learning and retrieval, along with perceptual memory and semantic memory
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1.7.5 Multimedia learning:
In this type of learning a person acquire skill by using multimedia. In this type of learning a person uses both auditory and visual stimuli to learn information. This type of learning relies on dual-coding theory.
1.7.6 Rote learning:
Is memorizing information so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. The major technique used for rote learning is learning by repetition, based on the idea that a learner can recall the material exactly (but not its meaning) if the information is repeatedly processed. Rote learning is used in diverse areas, from mathematics to music to religion. Although it has been criticized by some educators, rote learning is a necessary precursor to meaningful learning.

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1.7.7 Meaningful learning:

The learned knowledge (e.g., a fact) is fully understood to the extent that it relates to other knowledge. To this end, meaningful learning differs with rote learning in which information is acquired without sense of understanding. Meaningful learning, on the other hand, implies there is a comprehensive knowledge of the context of the facts learned.

1.7.8 Informal learning:

It occurs through the experience of day-to-day situations, for example, one learns to look ahead while walking because of the danger inherent in not paying attention to where one is going. It is learning from life, during a meal at table with parents, play, discovering, etc.

1.7.9 Formal learning:
That is learning that takes place between teacher and student relationship, such as in a educational system. In formal learning, the learning or training departments set out the goals and objectives of the learning.

1.7.10 Non-formal learning:

It is organized learning outside the formal learning system. For example, learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints, in clubs or in (international) youth organizations, workshops.

1.7.11 Indirect learning:
It is the process by which people self-educate if a topic is exposed to them in a context that they already enjoy. For example, after playing a music-based video game, some people may be motivated to learn how to play a real instrument. Self-education can be improved with systematization. In natural learning, self-oriented learning training has proven an effective means for supporting independent learners with the natural phases of learning.

1.7.12 Dialogic learning:
It is a type of learning based on dialogue, in which most of the learners are involved. Learners get a chance to speak and present their views and share their ideas. Through this learning students improve their confidence because they are assigned a special task by the teacher and they are going to discuss on them.

1.7.13 Incidental learning:
This learning is not planned by the instructor or the student, but occurs as a result of another activity—an experience, observation, self-reflection, collaboration, exclusive event, or mutual routine task. This learning happens in addition to or apart from the instructor’s plans and the student’s expectations.
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1.8 Four Stages of teaching English
Before teaching English something must be very cleared in teacher’s mind. First, it is very important that teacher has clear vision about aims and objectives. To achieve these aims a teacher must put stress on these four stages. These are,
Skill to listen
Skill to Speak
Skill to Read
Skill to write

1.8.1 Skill to listen:
Listening means receiving message through ear with understanding, through practice only, teacher can make students able to use this skill. At elementary level more stressed should be paid on accuracy and less on fluency. A learner has a little opportunity to listen the spoken English.
1.8.2 Skill to Speak
Conveying the message through the words orally is called speaking. It is a productive skill. During speaking learners produce sound words and sentences in the connection of response. Often this skill is neglected in our institutions and as result, learners fail to speak properly. They feel shyness and hesitation in reaction of the message.
1.8.3 Skill to Read:
To recognize the written words or messages is known as reading skill. This skill must be very fruitful for learners, which enables them to speak as well as write. For improving this skill learner avail chance to get knowledge through, Books, Newspapers, and articles and by the use of electronic media etc.

1.8.4 Skill to write:
Through this skill a person express his ideas, feelings views with the help of words and sentences. It is geographical expression of language. It is mechanical at early stage and then creative for higher stage.
Synthesis Of four skills;
Listening and reading skills are passive, while speaking and writing are active skills. These skills are scientifically/organic links with each other, these are connected with each other. During teaching of English, a teacher uses two or more skills at the same time. A teacher of English must keep in mind and never ignore these skills at any cost.
1.9 Problems of teaching English to teacher:
It is admitted fact that English has been compulsory from primary to Degree level, we have to learn English to overcome these challenges and difficulties of this era. In these days of intense, anybody denied or ignored the importance of this language; especially in Pakistan the pass percentage of students of this language is very poor. To tackle these problems a teacher must remove all deficiencies regarding to English teaching. There are many reasons behind this and some of them are:
1) Not well trained English teachers
2) Over crowded class rooms.
3) lack of A-V-aids.
1) Not well trained teachers: A teacher must have three main qualities for his best performance.
– A required knowledge.
– A choosing of best teaching method
– An understanding of the purpose
The English teacher must take care of his vocabulary Accent, teaching style and pronunciation. This needs a lot of practice and work.
2) over crowded class rooms: Pakistan is developing country, more than 70% of the population lives in rural or remote areas, some belongs to lower class, some to middle or upper class. This situation is very complicated for English teacher to teach a language.
3) Lack of A-V-Aids: No doubt majority of our school are run without of equipment’s such as A-V-Aids and language laboratories which are necessary for teaching English. Our English teachers are not well aware of modern teaching techniques. In our government schools most of the teachers avoid using of such materials.
Qualities of an English teacher
1. A full Command/Mastery of English:
2. Avail an opportunity of professional trainings.
3. Knowledge of phonetics.
4. Much more confidence and complete mastery over subject
5. Interest in his subject
6. Awareness of the latest modern methods and techniques.
7. Prepare his topic according to lesson plan.
8. Lecture must be relevant to the topic
9. Appropriate body movements and use of gesture to make lesson very effective and fruitful.

1.10 Students Issues
1- Teacher pronunciation
2- Teaching Method
3- Medium of Teaching
4- Family Background
5- School Envoronment

1. At the first line of Sonnet 18, Shakespeare starts with a rhetorical question, compared his lover to a summer day. The author praises his lover’s beauty even further by stating that the lover is even “more lovely and more temperate”. His lover’s beauty seems to surpass a summer day. However, right after that, Shakespeare points out that the beauty of the summer can change or disappear eventually: by time, by the hotness of the sun, by misfortune, or just by nature’s course. His lover’s beauty is just the same as a summer’s day: the lover will eventually get old, and by then, her beauty and her youth will fade. She will eventually die, and her beauty will die with her. Shakespeare doesn’t want that to happen, he wants her beauty to be everlasting. Therefore, he writes this poem about his lover’s beauty with a hope that the art can keep her beauty forever throughout the time because the poem itself will not change over time. People will read the poem, they will make the poem live on and more and more people will know about her beauty. In his verse, she and her beauty shall live forever.

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