1.1 Why we select mouse model:
A mice and human both have similar tumor biology with regard to genome and functional characters, this is the reason why mouse are mostly selected for study of diverse diseases like cancers. Mouse genome is very similar to human, that’s why the basic mechanism of cancer progress and response to its cure are similar.
Different characters at cellular, molecular and anatomical level are similar to humans and have similar functioning in cancer.
1.2 RNA interference- definition:
It is a process which can prevent manifestation of gene at the phase of translation or other way is to obstruct the transcription of exact genes.
RNA intervention is basically a gene-silencing method that subdues the function of objective gene.
1.3. Advantage of this technology:
This experimental proposal offers suppleness by adjusting time and period of gene suppression.
It permits necessary functions or fatal genes to be operated in vivo by having inducible and flexible nature of gene suppression.
Quashing the gene activity is better than to knock out it.
1.4.Use of RNA interference for cure of cancer:
It is widely useful for cancer treatment. Small interfering RNA drugs for cancer has overwhelming advantages over other drugs that are used for cancer cure as well as chemotherapy. Because it acts upon the post translational stage of genic expression that’s why it does not have any harmful effect on DNA. It works by silencing many cancer sponsoring genes.
Fig 1.1 siRNA pathway


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2.Mouse model for cancer study using Small interference RNA:
Sequence specific gene silencing is carried out successfully by using small interfering RNAs. It has become an influential instrument for finding of goal and medicines. These are useful especially for cancer treatment. It can inhibit any gene of interest so we can study gene functions and can produce drugs of our demand. This technique has taken the place of knockout mouse models and the production of small molecule because many small molecule inhibitors cause toxic effects in cells.
But it also must be carefully carried out for its successful use in medicines. Enzymes like ribonucleases are used for the breakdown of siRNA which are then passed out by excretion it cannot cross cell membranes because of its high molecular weight, negative charge and water-loving capacity.
For effective delivery systems in cancer research different types of formulations are applied like liposome polymers, or micelles.
For the transfer of small particles to tumors after complete management the physical characters like size, shape, surface charge are important for concern. Long circulating nanoparticles are easily taken up by the tumor vessels because they possess irregular shapes and leaky nature. Once they are taken up the target cells via endocytosis, then they have to release in cytosol. For cancer treatment these steps are very important and should be carried out with great care from the administration site to cytosol in target cells.
Let’s take an example of orthotopic ovarian cancer for this model study, it involves in vivo transfer of siRNA
2.1 Experimentation:
2.2. Material required for experiment:
a. Commercial reagents:
0.5 M EDTA
Glacial acetic acid
siRNA (sigma-Aldrich)
Human ovarian cancer cell lines, Hey A8, SKOVE3, A2780.
Chitosan, low molecular weight
Sodium tripolyphosphate.
Hank’s balanced salt solution
Taqman miRNA assay.

2×fast syber green master mix
Verso cDNA synthesis kit
Direct-Zol RNA kit
2.3. Equipments required for experiment :
A spectrophotometer for RNA quantification
A centrifuge
A homogenizer
A thermal cycler
A real time thermal cycler
In vivo imaging system
How to prepare nanoparticle of siRNA/Chitosan:
Chitosan is used for many clinical applications because of its important properties like it is low toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible linear polysaccharide. SiRNA/CH nanoparticles are produced because they have ability to interact with membranes of cells. To transport siRNA into tumors the development of nanoparticle is necessary otherwise siRNA cannot cross cell membranes individually because they have high molecular weights. A process of ionic gelation is carried out for its formation using cationic chitosan and anionic siRNA and TPP.
Following steps are followed for its formation.
In 99.75 ml of water 0.25 of glacial acetic acid is dissolved to produce 0.25 % acetic acid.
Then add CH in 0.25% acetic acid to form a CH solution.
In 100ml of water 0.25 g of TPP is added to produce TPP.
Then to CH solution TPP and siRNA are added with continual mixing to form nanoparticles.
These nanoparticles are then incubated for 40 minutes at four degree Celsius temperature after incubation these particles are centrifuged for 40 min at 4 degree temperature at 14,000 rpm.
Then obtained pellet is washed to eliminate unbound chemicals then these nanoparticles are stored at 4 degree Celsius before using.
How to produce in vivo model of ovarian cancer:
First requirement is of a nude mice its age should be atleast 8-12 weeks mostly available at cancer institutes.
Second requirement is of human ovarian cancer cells like Hey A8 are cultured RPMI1640 fetal bovine serum is provided as the supplementation before they are injected into mice body.
Trypsin enzyme is used for detachment of cells then these are centrifuged at 1200 rpm for five minutes.
Now washed the cells with PBS.
Cells are then resuspended in HBBS.
30g needle is used for injecting these cells into the peritoneal cavity of mice 1×106 per 200 of µl per mouse.
Once the tumor has developed then nanoparticles are inoculated itraperitoneally in the mouse that carries tumor and then 1.25-5 microgram of dose is given per mouse.
How to isolate RNA from tissue, plasma and blood:

1. Auschwitz was infamous concentration camp that was the site of the most mass destruction of civilians in the history of mankind.
2. The Camp was located near the Polish city, Auschwitz.
3. At the entrance to the camp of there was an inscription in German- “Arbeit Macht Frei” which means ‘work sets you free’.
4. The number of dead people at Auschwitz is more than the combined death of British and Americans in WWII.
5. The Auschwitz Camp had 3 main camps-the original camp, a combination concentration/extermination camp, and a labor camp.
6. With these three main camps, there were forty-five other satellite camps.
7. Auschwitz was guarded by about 6,000 SSs.
8. The first group of prisoners, consisting of 728 Polish political prisoners, they were Soviet prisoners of war, gypsies and thousands of Jews.
9. In the spring and summer of 1944, three to four trains arrived daily at Auschwitz-Birkenau, bringing in 3 to 3.5 thousand people.
10. The main task of the prisoners of the concentration camp was hard work for the benefit of Nazis.
11. The prisoners who could not work anymore were sent to the gas chambers.
12. 6 days a week prisoners were required to work.
13. The death rate of workers in the first 3-4 months after arrival was about 80%.
14. According to the rules of the camps, the people have to be tested for any infectious diseases and had to take bath.
15. The prisoners were forced to get naked and ordered to take bath and those who seem unfit were sent to the gas chamber.
16. Every tenth concentration camp personnel were women.
17. The most destructive invention was gas chamber and crematorium.
18. Children, elder people, and disabled people were directly sent to the gas chambers.
19. The homosexual people were also sent to the camp.
20. Most Jewish children were killed immediately after their arrival.
21. On September 1944, 12,300 children from Kaunas were sent to gas chambers.
22. In early October 1944, there were 2,510 boys and girls in Auschwitz. On January 10th 1945, there were 611 left.
23. In the camp, more than 1 million Jews, 1000,000 USSR people, and 150,000 Poles were killed.
24. The ash from the crematorium was used as fertilizers for the agricultural field.
25. German doctors performed many experiments on the people of camps.
26. People at the camp were injected with deadly infections and studied further.
27. Even the children were injected with a high dose of tranquilizers.
28. Dozens of men and women were exposed to large doses of X-ray irradiation with further removal of the genital organs.
29. First aid was also not provided to the prisoners after irradiation and castration operations, which lead to the death of most of the people.
30. Prisoners were also used to find out optimal ways of treating the serious wound. For that, they were planted by metal fragments, glass pieces, nails, dirt or anything they find.
31. In the camp, there were only about 7,000 weak and sick prisoners of Auschwitz from more than 20 countries.
32. A number of weak people were so less because they shot the people who are not strong now.
33. More than 1.1 million people died in Auschwitz Concentration Camp and 90% of them were Jews.
34. Before sending prisoners to the gas chamber their hair was shaved.
35. The hair of dead people was used as the fabric to sew rough working clothes.
36. At the time of Holocaust Jewish boxer, Salamo Arouch was also imprisoned at Auschwitz and he was forced to fight with the other people.
37. The children born in the concentration camp were killed in a brutal way – they were drowned in metal barrels.
38. Josef Mengele was the doctor at camp and was known as ‘Angel of Death’.
39. Mengele performed many experiments on twins and abnormal children.
40. Mengele used to sew two children together or exchanged the organs of the twins and many more.
41. To change the eye color of the children, Mengele injected chemicals in the eyes of them.
42. At Auschwitz, about 60 million Reichsmark, equivalent to £125m today, was generated for the Nazi state by slave labor.
43. Maximilian Kolbe was a priest who volunteered to die for another prisoner who was crying for his family.
44. Anne Frank’s father survived the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
45. At the time of Holocaust, a Jewish woman exposed around 3000 hiding Jewish people to Gestapo to save her family. Ever after that Nazi sent her family to camp.
46. The meals for prisoners was a slice of bread, 0.5 liters of black coffee and 1 liter of ricotta soup, several grams of sausage and margarine.
47. Most of the people who survived through labor work, at last, died from malnutrition and starvation.
48. In Auschwitz camp, there were special rooms called starvation cells.
49. To punish the people they were thrown into these cells and left inside until they die without eating.
50. There is an experiment conducted on women of the camp, a special solution was injected into the uterus and then it was removed and studied further.
51. Witold Pilecki was Polish army officer; he volunteered to enter the camp to find out about the situation and to gather information.
52. Witold Pilecki managed to escape the camp and that’s how the world knew about the camp.
53. People of villages living near the camps used to help the prisoners by providing food.
54. The Polish peasants were evacuated from the vicinity of Auschwitz by replacing them with loyal German settlers from the families of SS servicemen.
55. Despite the appalling conditions at the camp, some prisoners continued to struggle for their rights and freedom.
56. January 27, 1945, was the day when the prisoners of Auschwitz were liberated.
57. Soviet army liberated the prisoners, more than 7,000 ill and dying prisoners were found.
58. Antoni Dobrowolski was the oldest survivor of Holocaust. He died at the age of 102.
59. Three prisoners managed to escape the camp. They dressed as Nazi officers and stole the car of one of the officer and escaped from the main entrance.
60. In the history of the camp, about 700 attempts were made to escape, 300 of which were successful.

1. The name ‘Alaska’ is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the largest state of all the states of United States and is one-fifth of the entire land area of the US.
3. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress declared Alaska as the 49th state.
4. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
5. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air
6. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
7. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement on Three Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
8. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
9. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
10. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
11. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
12. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
13. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
14. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
15. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
16. The flag of Alaska was drawn by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and he won.
17. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
18. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
19. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
20. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
21. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
22. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different languages.
23. Alaska has the lowest population density in comparison to all the other states.
24. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
25. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
26. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
27. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
28. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
29. There are 20 highest peaks in the United States and 17 are in Alaska.
30. In 1897 during the Klondike Gold Rush, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
31. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
32. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
33. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
34. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
35. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
36. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
37. Tongass National forest, Alaska is the largest forest of US.
38. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
39. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
40. The Northern Lights can be seen 243 days a year in Fairbanks.
41. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
42. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
43. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
44. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
45. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
46. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
47. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
48. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
49. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
50. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
51. In Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
52. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
53. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
54. The economy of Alaska is maintained on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, tourism and fishing.
55. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
56. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
57. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
58. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
59. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
60. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.

1) I think owner’s choice was not appropriate in using design bid build delivery method. Because it is said in case study that owner was not aware of budget for construction involved but appointing project manager ; CM at risk will help the owner in making good decision about budget and better using of design bid build.
2) According to me no, the owner has considered all the relevant factors.
3) Unless the project manager ; CM at risk are involved the project won’t be realistic because the owner had a experience of doing similar project but this project is little bigger than what he did so putting the delivery method as design bid build won’t be realistic for him due to unaware of budget ; time.
4) The owner can make decision in design ; budgeting phase. According to the budget the designs can be made, and the project can be completed within the budget. The owner communicates with CM at risk through project manager. The owner may communicate during renovation phase so that CM at risk respond to the actual conditions in the old structure.
5) The authority the project manager needs to have is control over project material, man power, designs and he must work with the budget ; time provided by the owner.
6) The owner reserved for the authority of budget ; time.
7) The PM/CM at risk should consult the facilities staff during the design ; construction due the requirements i.e. the construction ; design has to be done according to their requirement but during procurement of subcontractor there is no need for meeting with the staff.
8) No, the CM at risk need to be selected by owner or may be project manager because the design is done as per the owner requirement but the CM at risk are involved to avoid overruns caused in project.
9) It is always better for the owner to select trade contractor who has better experience because the contractor is the one mainly works on field and he will be having practical experience.
10) The owner must inspect the site for every time intervals to know the weather the project is going as per plan. This also can be done through project manager.

1. Exceptionalism became a defense in the Cold War in the 1950s, signifying a national accountability to lead the forces of the Free World in the containment of Soviet supremacy. The terrorist events of September 11, 2001 strengthened the rhetoric of exceptionalism as a multipurpose description for the attacks (“they hate us because we are free”) and a new-fangled sense of American mission, now acknowledged with the global war on terror.
2. In the 1950s, historians defined the American Revolution as a modest constitutional discussion among the cultured elite, quite dissimilar from the class-based ferocity of revolutionary France and Russia, or Third World revolutions controlled by socialists. As the historian Herbert Bolton criticized many years ago, by treating the American past in separation from the rest of the world, historians were serving to increase up a nation of racist.
3. The impression of American exceptionalism was assembled into our culture. It has always been associated to the idea of freedom. The identification of the United States as a exclusive incarnation of liberty in a world overrun by tyranny goes back to the American Revolution. Tom Paine, in his clarion call for independence, Common Sense, called America an “asylum for mankind,” a place where people fleeing Old World tyranny could find freedom
4. During the nineteenth century, American exceptionalism was appealed by home-grown critics, such as abolitionists, who declared the United States was not living up to its acknowledged values, and by the European Left, who positioned the image of an incomparable nation where workers relished political privileges and economic opportunity as a weapon against the status where in their countries. Others most famously Werner Sombart cited the high American usual of living to explain the virtual weakness of socialism related to early twentieth-century Europe.
5. To a significant grade, the spirit of American exceptionalism–a nation state with a special job to bring freedom to all mankind depends on the “strangeness” of the outside world, so often spoken in the Manichean categories of New World versus Old or free world vs slave.
6. The knowledge of American exceptionalism brings with it strong pride in the freedoms Americans enjoy. But general, the persistent claim for exceptionalism goes along with national hubris and closed-mindedness and giveaways a reason for ignorance about the rest of the world. Subsequently the United States is so exceptional, there is no point in learning about other civilizations, as their antiquities have no bearing on ours.
7. Historians have assisted and encouraged this narrow-mindedness. Conceivably the most unique idea ever developed by an American historian was Frederick Jackson Turner’s frontier thesis, which enlightened the country’s apparently unique features–political democracy, self-reliant individualism–as the creation of the struggle to pacify the West. Cold War academics provided historical reasoning, segregating “good” from “bad” revolutions.
8. The history of every country is to some level unique, and the solution to American exceptionalism is not to standardize the whole past into an only global history. But the organizations, developments, and morals that have shaped American history, between them the increase of capitalism, the spread of political democracy, the increase and decrease of slavery, and global labor relocations, can only be understood in a comprehensive background.
9. One authentic appearance of American exceptionalism–the principle, implanted in the Fourteenth Amendment, that anyone born in the United States is inevitably a citizen, irrespective of the status of the parents is now under assault by the very fundamentalists who so persuasively proclaim their devotion to the exceptionalism example.
10. American exceptionalism was, in effect, the joyful belief that these tendencies strengthened each other. That was not a reliable idea for an African-American who received his Ph.D. from Harvard one year before the Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson that endorsed “separate but equal” treatment of the races.

1. Christmas is the second most important Christian holiday after Easter.
2. Christmas is celebrated as the birthday of Jesus Christ but there are no records as 25th December is the birthday of Jesus.
3. 25th December was chosen because it coincides with pagan festival Saturnalia.
4. Christmas was first celebrated in 336.
5. The first artificial Christmas tree was made in the 19th century in Germany.
6. In Boston, from 1659 to 1681 it was prohibited to celebrate Christmas.
7. Firstly, Santa Claus was the short name given to the Christian Bishop of Turkey, St. Nicholas. He was wealthy and used to help the needy people and also became the protector of children.
8. Christmas is sometimes written as Xmas; X in Greek abbreviates for Christ.
9. In mid-17th century Christmas trees were decorated with candles.
10. Christmas trees were also decorated with candies, small gifts, cake, nuts, and fruits.
11. The tallest artificial Christmas tree is in Sri Lanka, it is 72.1 m.
12. The tallest real Christmas tree was 67.36 meters and was in Seattle, Washington.
13. The first artificial Christmas trees were made by Germans.
14. Christmas pudding is the main dish of Christmas.
15. The highest-grossing Christmas movie is Jim Carrey ‘How The Grinch Stole Christmas’.
16. in Canada, there is official address of Santa Claus- North Pole, H0H 0H0, Canada.
17. Approximately 350 million Christmas trees growing in the U.S. farms.
18. Before selling Christmas tree it is grown for 7-10 years.
19. Since 1850 Christmas trees were sold in the US.
20. Until June 26, 1870, Christmas was not the official holiday in the US.
21. Franklin Pierce was the first US president to put Christmas tree in White House.
22. The tradition of Christmas cards is originated in England.
23. The most expensive Christmas card was sold in the auction for £20,000 in the UK.
24. Santa Claus is known by different names around the world- in Russia Deushka Moroz, in Germany Kriss Kringle, etc.
25. Since 1960, half of the population Sweden still watch Donald Duck cartoon.
26. Jingles Bells was originally written for Thanksgiving, not for Christmas.
27. Red and white colored dress Santa Claus was first used by Coca-Cola for promotions.
28. People of Iceland celebrate Christmas Eve by exchanging books and spending rest of the night reading it and eating chocolates.
29. Japanese go to KFC for dinner on Christmas.
30. 230,000 tons of Christmas food is wasted every year.
31. 10 million turkeys are cooked on Christmas in the UK.
32. Burning Yule logs on Christmas is a symbol of luck, health and fertility, and also a guard against evil spirits.
33. Evergreen trees are a symbol of rebirth from the time of paganism.
34. In 2012, 30,000 people participated in Secret Santa organized by Reddit.
35. At the Christmas in Finland, it is customary to go to the sauna.
36. 6.8 million Apple and Android device are bought on the Christmas.
37. French gifted Statue of Liberty to the US on Christmas.
38. In honor of Christmas in Spain, the largest lottery is held annually.
39. In Germany and England, the main dish of the Christmas table is a roast goose or duck.
40. On the eve of the Christmas, Lithuanian Catholics eat only lean food
41. In Russia, Christmas celebration started in the 20th century.
42. The first song for Christmas was written in the 4th century AD.
43. In 2010, a Facebook study showed that 2 weeks before the Christmas is the time when most of the breakups happen.
44. The European live Christmas tree demand reaches about 50 million every year.
45. Oregon, North Carolina, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Washington are the most Christmas tree producing states.
46. The tradition of filling stockings with gifts on a holiday came from the story of three poor sisters. The legend says that one day St Nicholas made his way to them through the chimney and left gold coins in stockings.
47. The first Christmas cracker was invented in 1847 by sweets vendor Tom Smith
48. Charles Dicken wrote Christmas Carols in just six weeks.
49. Every year 1.6 billion Christmas Cards are purchased by Americans.
50. The first Christmas card was created by the Englishman Henry Cole in 1843.
51. In 1810, in the US, the public first saw Santa Claus.
52. The first case of the gift was noted in ancient Rome, where on the celebration of Saturnalia, children were given gifts.
53. orthodox Christian celebrate Christmas on January 7.
54. Traditional colors for decorating a Christmas tree are green, red and gold.
55. the first street Christmas trees with electric garlands appeared in Finland in 1906.
56. In Poland, spiders or spider webs are the usual decoration of the Christmas tree, because according to legend, the spider wove a blanket for Jesus when he was an infant.
57. The British wear paper crowns for the Christmas dinner. Crowns are stored in a special tube, which is called “Christmas cracker”.
58. On Christmas Eve in 1914, warring parties on the Western Front of the First World War stopped shooting and sang Christmas carols, and the next morning German and British soldiers even exchanged handshakes and gifts.
59. In the Netherlands, on Christmas night, children put a shoe to the fireplace for gifts and put a carrot for a magic horse.
60. The Alexandrian theologians proposed to celebrate Christmas on May 26 in 200 BC.


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