1. The name Alaska is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the northernmost state of the US.
3. Alaska is the largest state of all the states of United States and is one-fifth of the entire land area of the US.
4. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress declared Alaska as the 49th state.
5. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
6. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air; it is the only capital of the US state without land communication.
7. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
8. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement onThree Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
9. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
10. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
11. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
12. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
13. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
14. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
15. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
16. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
17. The flag of Alaska was drawn by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and he won.
18. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
19. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
20. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
21. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
22. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
23. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different languages.
24. Alaska has the lowest population density in comparison to all the other states.
25. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
26. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
27. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
28. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
29. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
30. There are 20 highest peaks in the United States and 17 are in Alaska.
31. In 1897 during the Klondike Gold Rush, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
32. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
33. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
34. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
35. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
36. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
37. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
38. Tongass National forest, Alaska is the largest forest of US.
39. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
40. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
41. The Northern Lights can be seen 243 days a year in Fairbanks.
42. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
43. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
44. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
45. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
46. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
47. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
48. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
49. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
50. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
51. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
52. In Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
53. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
54. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
55. The economy of Alaska is maintained on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, tourism and fishing.
56. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
57. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
58. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
59. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
60. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
61. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.

1.1 Identify different reasons why people communicate
People communicate for a number of different reasons and these reasons include:
• To build relationships with people
• Giving and receiving information
• Giving and receiving instructions.
• Discussing a situation.
• To tell someone what you want or need.
• To express a concern or to make a point.
• Develop learning.
• Negotiate.

Through communicating with children in child care settings you can learn their names so you are able to talk to them when you would like to and call them by their names. Calling children by their names instead of saying “You, over there!” or “Oi, you!” is much more respectful. When communicating with children it is good to take interest in the children so you can learn what a child likes or dislikes their culture, needs and abilities. Also if you have very open body language, a smile and good tone of voice you will be seen as more approachable whereas if you have closed body language like folded arms an unhappy face and are rude you will be seen as very unapproachable.

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To effectively communicate with children it is good to go down on their level by kneeling or sitting because this makes the child feel safe and more connected to you. This shows that you are paying attention and listening to them.

1. Choice now : D
Choice in assignment 1: D
Notes:
I think government should put measure for rich people to share their wealth to poor communities for example create the non-governmental organisation through charities to donates potion of their wealth to communities in order to uplift the standard of living. It should not be made compulsory for rich people to assist poor communities.

2. Choice now : D
Choice in assignment 1: D
Notes:
People should be educated about the use of fossil-fuel and the impact it has on the environment. The government has done enough by doing environmental campaign though media and others. But if people don’t want to contribute there is nothing I can to change that. I personally don’t have the capacity to educate everyone to reduce the use of fossil fuel.

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3. Choice now : B
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
I change to option B; With the level of technology inceasing one way or another the alternative of natural will eventual be found. Currently we don’t have to worry about the way we consume natural resources. We need to channel our energy to more important thing than to worry about the way we are consuming natural resources too fast.

1. Mental benefits A mental preparation, such as a race or a workout. Warming up clears an individual’s mind and allows the brain to focus on the exercise that you are about to do warming up can enhance your moral and encourage you to perform better.

2. Increases blood temperature When you are warming up, there is an increase in blood flow over the body.
Which makes your blood temperature? This reduces the oxygen in blood which reduces the amount in the muscle and then frees it up this will also improve endurance and performance.

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3. Promotes better cooling A warm up routine can help to activate the body’s heat control mechanisms such as sweating. This will enable the induvial who exercising cool and reduce getting over heated during the workout, event or a race. A warm up is a range of dynamic or static stretches for five to ten minutes depending on how much your exercising. If you are exercising for more than an hour, your warm up should be longer. A warm up should force the heart beat making it pump blood into the muscles allowing it to dilate easier.

If you are exercising your arms, you may want to do arm stretches. If you are going for a run, then you should do leg stretches, such as open and close the gate. lowers the stress placed on the heart through lowering blood flow resistance.
1. Torn Muscle, One risk of not doing a warm up is a torn muscle. A torn muscle is a very dangerous in the they can be painful a torn muscle can take days, months or even a year to heal
Properly and in this time, you may have lost high amounts of endurance or your athletic skill. Protecting your muscle is very important as they can take very easily
That’s why we stretch all muscles that we are using.

2. Decreased Athletic Performance 2. Secondly as it was discussed above, the failure of a warm up properly can lead to dangers like I said a torn muscle, but it might also negatively impact your athletic performance. For example, say you might need to sprint quickly after a defender but since you have not stretched the muscles in your legs you are not able to take long enough strides to catch him and he scores a point to win the game. So, failing to stretch properly will limit your ability to play your game

1. Torn Muscle, One risk of not doing a warm up is a torn muscle. A torn muscle is a very dangerous in the they can be painful a torn muscle can take days, months or even a year to heal
Properly and in this time, you may have lost high amounts of endurance or your athletic skill. Protecting your muscle is very important as they can take very easily
That’s why we stretch all muscles that we are using.

2. Decreased Athletic Performance 2. Secondly as it was discussed above, the failure of a warm up properly can lead to dangers like I said a torn muscle, but it might also negatively impact your athletic performance. For example, say you might need to sprint quickly after a defender but since you have not stretched the muscles in your legs you are not able to take long enough strides to catch him and he scores a point to win the game. So, failing to stretch properly will limit your ability to play your game

Dynamic stretching – dynamic warm-up, stretches that are “dynamic,” meaning you are moving as you stretch. Some benefits are that It activates some muscles you will use in your exercise. For example, a lunge with a twist helps to engages your hips, legs, and core muscles. you might be doing weighted lunges in the gym or lunging for a ball, the muscles involved have been engaged during that warm-up you did earlier. Dynamic stretching improves a range of motions. So, if you feel like you can barely reach down to tie your shoes after a long day at work, a dynamic warm-up routine can help you feel more agile. Dynamic stretches help you improve body awareness. So, if you don’t warm-up and hop into a soccer game, it may take a while for your body to perform optimally. Moving as you stretch will challenges your balance and coordination; skills that could help your performance. Warming up in motion enhances muscular performance and power. Studies reveal dynamic stretching before a workout can help you lift more weight and increase overall athletic performance compared to no stretching or static stretching. If you are trying to get stronger, build more muscle, or simply perform better, a dynamic warm-up routine is likely your best betas it will help your muscles dilate more than a static stretch

Static stretching – Static stretching is used to stretch muscles while the body is at about to rest. It is composed of various techniques that gradually lengthen a muscle to an elongated position and hold that position for 30 seconds to two minutes.

One short term benefit is a better Athletic Performance
The increase in elasticity and assortment of motions can also translate into better athletic performance. A wider and freer range of motion can assist in how an athlete movement in general throughout practice and competition.

Pain Relief – Feeling the burn of a workout is great but pain because a muscle pulling a joint out of alignment is not. Releasing a tight muscle releases compression in our bodies and allows us to live a pain-free life while performing everyday tasks like walking, driving or even relaxing. No one wants to live in pain. While the ouch in the muscle burn may still be present, stretching helps make the body feel good and takes pain out of the body.

Flexibility one long-term effects of stretching is an improve in your overall flexibility. When you make stretching a habit, you slowly stretch out the connected tissues of your body. Over time, this lengthens the tissues, improving the range of motion in your joints, and in turn your overall ability to stretch the muscle. Stretching these muscles and connective tissues can also help relieve muscle stiffness and decrease the risk of joint degeneration.

One Faster recovery – stretching pumps blood into the muscles and allows for the muscle to dilate and release it’s self of wastes and tension so your recovery is quicker and more effective. Recovery isn’t just about recovering from an exercise, it’s also about getting the benefit of doing the exercise. Recovery is where your muscles will alter , it’s not in the moment of performing the exercise. .

1. Populasi Penelitian
Menurut Sukardi (2014 : 53) bahwa populasi adalah semua kelompok anggota manusia, binatang, peristiwa atau benda yang tinggal bersama dalam satu tempat dan secara terencana menjadi target kesimpulan dari hasil akhir suatu penelitian.
Yang menjadi populasi dalam penelitian yaitu guru dan siswa Sekolah Dasar Negeri 3 sungai Tiung Kecamatan Cempka Kota Banjarbaru. Guru yang berjumlah 10 orang (tidak termasuk kepala sekolah, penjaga TU dan penjaga perpustakaan) dan siswa berjumlah 119 orang tahun ajaran 2017/2018.
2. Sampel Penelitian
Menurut Arikunto (2013 : 131) bahwa sampel adalah sebagian atau wakil dari populasi yang diteliti.
Yang menjadi sampel dalam penelitian yaitu guru dan siswa di Sekolah Dasar Negeri Sungai Landas Kecamatan Karang Intan Kabupaten Banjar. Guru yang berjumlah 10 orang (tidak termasuk kepala sekolah, penjaga TU, dan penjaga perpus) dan siswa yang mewakili kelas I, II, III, IV, V, VI berjumlah 57 orang. Dalam penelitian ini, teknik penarikan sampel dengan proportional sampling . Alasan menggunakan proportional sampling dikarenakan ingin mengetahui cara guru dalam mengelola kelas agar pembelajaran berjalan secara aktif.

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