1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION TO THE STUDY
This research work is proposing a system that will help in identifying and verifying student during examinations with a view of minimizing exams malpractice. Currently, in most schools in Nigeria students’ verification is carried out manually whereby a student will be issued an examination card using identity card for verification.
Biometrics is a technology that uniquely identifies a person based on his physiological or behavioral characteristics. It can be used to achieve a positive identification with a very high level of confidence. Fingerprint technology using biometrics employs certain advantage of eradicating the problem of examination impersonation by allowing the measure of what you are to perform the security activities of student participation in the examinations. Fingerprints have certain natural traits that make them ideal for use in biometric systems.
Fingerprints are unique. No two people on record have been found to have the same fingerprints. Fingerprint identification has been used by law enforcement agencies for many years. Most fingerprint systems operate in authentication, rather than identification mode. Fingerprint scanning can be done in several different ways. Some systems scan the distinct marks on the finger called minutiae points (similar to the traditionally used police method). The positioning of pores and straight pattern matching may also be used. Formal examination can rightly be defined as the assessment of a person’s performance, when confronted with a series of questions, problems, or tasks set to him, in order to ascertain the amount of knowledge that the student has acquired, the extent to which he/she is able to utilize it, or the quality and effectiveness of the skills a student has developed.

The focus of this paper is channeled towards the development of student verification system for online examination and this system would strictly function with the unique feature of identification by means of fingerprint. Verification system based on fingerprints, and the terms verification, authentication, and identification are used in a loose sense and synonymously.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The increase Rate of Examination impersonation among candidates in the Institutions as reduces their self-developing skills and self-confidence towards reading and writing an Examination. It also has negative effect on the growth of Educational system. Despite various strategies deployed by stakeholders to ensure candidates obeyed the rules governing an examination. In Nigeria, having a certificate is much more important than getting an individual skills and these have prompted students to engage in various means to boycott in other to get what they want. Therefore, students are now lazy to study, lazy to get self-confidence (inadequate preparation for examination). The implementation of a Biometric fingerprint pattern Recognition will reduce or remove access to impersonation in an examination.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The primary purpose of this study is channeled towards the development of examination verification system and this system would strictly function with the unique feature of identification by means of fingerprint. Verification system based on fingerprints, and the terms verification, authentication, and identification are used in a loose sense and synonymously. This project is also proposed to supplement the current manual process of verification using requirements such as a matriculation number (PIN), or something that you have, such as an identification (ID) card and course form. The objectives of this project are to minimize exam

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malpractice, enhance the security of the existing system using Biometric Fingerprint, and provide an electronic Database for all students, easier and faster identification of students that are registered for a particular course during examination.
1. Provide a friendly, easy to use online examination platform for students.
2. Reduce the level of examination malpractices and improve the credibility of the examinations via authentication using Fingerprint and randomization of exams questions.
3. Provide a real-time processing of result.
4. Detection of unique Fingerprint image among other nature components.
5. Effective recognition of unique Fingerprint.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The system is used to verify student that are registered for examination based on fingerprint recognition. The system’s first task was to insert the entire student’s information in the system database. This information was obtained by the system through a registration form. This registration form contains all the necessary fields about the student such as name, session, roll, registration, address, photo, matriculation number etc. The system can take one or more fingerprint templates from the ten fingers of a student.
Generally, during examination period student produce evidence of school fees and registration forms to obtain clearance card in order to allow sitting for exam. But for FEC, an administrator sign in using his/her password and enroll student through the system.
1.4 The limitations of the system to be designed are as follows.
1. This online examination system authentication using fingerprint recognition, is designed for Educational Institutions (like schools, Universities and training centers)
2. The system supports only multiple choice questions.
3. The system would enroll users using the internet before they can use it.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The newly proposed development of examination verification system using biometric fingerprint would bring about a great reduction in the Inability to differentiate an authenticated user from an impostor, accuracy, uniqueness and less tedious means of verifying students.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Examination: Formal examination can rightly be defined as the assessment of a person’s performance, when confronted with a series of questions, problems, or tasks set to him, in order to ascertain the amount of knowledge that the student has acquired, the extent to which he/she is able to utilize it, or the quality and effectiveness of the skills a student has developed.
Fingerprints: A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a
human finger. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the digits (fingers and toes), the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin.
Biometrics: A technology that (uniquely) identifies a person based on his physiological or behavioral characteristics. It can be used to achieve a positive identification with a very high level of confidence, such as an error rate of 0.001%.
Authentication: is a process in which the credentials provided are compared to those on file in a database of authorized users’ information on a local operating system or within an authentication server.

1.1 EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT – A PERSPECTIVE
Employee engagement is the emotional commitment that employee has to the organization and its goals.
Employee engagement represents an individual’s enthusiasm and involvement with the work they perform. Employees who have leave of engagement are more productive. Highly engaged employees have a passion and deep commitment for their work disengaged employees are generally disinterested and produce low quality work. The organization must work towards developing employee’s engagement to produce mutual benefit-both to the organization as well as employees. There are three kinds of employees.
Engaged:
They work with lot of passion and commitment. They want to perform to the best of their abilities everyday and are actively involved in driving their organization forwards. They are also highly motivated and perform better then employees who are not engaged. A large number of engaged employees improves the success of an organization.
Not engaged:
They only focus on completing the tasks designated to them for the day. They often feel undervalued and that their contribution has been over looked.

Actively disengaged:
Disengaged workers are unhappy at their workplace and also spread the unhappiness. They tend to spread negativity in their workplace and cause the maximum harm to their organization.

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1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The project work has been carried out with the following objectives:
1. To know whether the employees have recognition for the work done.
2. To know whether the employees have fair treatment in the company.
3. To assess whether the employees are emotionally engaged in their jobs.
4. To assess the job satisfaction of the employees in the company.
5. To identify problems, if any, in the employee engagement and make suggestions.

1.3 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

The information for the study has been collected from two sources, viz;
Primary and secondary sources.
Primary data:
Primary data have been obtained from the discussions with the HR
executives.
As part of primary data collection, a survey has been conducted on the Employee Engagement.
A sample of 22 employees is selected randomly.
A structured questionnaire consisting of 15 statements designed on Likert’s 5 point scale has been administered to them.
The responses are tabulated, interpreted analyzed and inferences have been drawn.
Secondary data:
Secondary data have been gathered from the NSIC records, reports, journals and text books.

1.4 FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY

The project is organized in five chapters.
1. The first chapter comprises the objectives, methodology and limitations of the study.
2. The second chapter carries the profile NSIC, Hyderabad.
3. The third chapter deals with the theoretical perspective of Employee Engagement.
4. The fourth chapter contains the survey analysis of Employee Engagement.
5. The fifth and last chapter consists of the summary, findings and suggestions.

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study suffers from certain limitations.
The questionnaire consisting of 15 statements is not sufficient enough to extract information about a big topic like Employee Engagement.
Time which was limited to weeks is another constraint.
Employee also could not reveal their true feelings to all the statements.

National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), is an ISO 9001-2008 certified Government of India Enterprise under Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME). NSIC has been working to promote, aid and foster the growth of micro, small and medium enterprises in the country. NSIC operates through countrywide network of 123 offices and Technical Centres in the Country. In addition, NSIC has 48 training cum incubation certres with a large professional man power. To manage operations in African countries, NSIC operates from its office in Johannesburg, South Africa. In addition, NSIC has set up Training cum Incubation Centre managed by professional manpower.
Mission: “To promote and support Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Sector” by providing integrated support services encompassing Marketing, Technology, Finance and other services.
Vision: “To be a premier Organization fostering the growth of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Sector”.
Schemes of NSIC
NSIC facilitates Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises with a set of specially tailored scheme to enhance their competitiveness. NSIC provides integrated support services under Marketing, Technology, Finance and other Support service.
Marketing Support
Marketing has been identified as one of the most important tool for business development. It is critical for the growth and survival of MSMEs in today’s intensely competitive market. NSIC acts as a facilitator and has devised a number of schemes to support enterprises in their marketing efforts, both domestic and foreign markets. These schemes are briefly described as under:
Consortia and Tender Marketing
Small Enterprises in their individual capacity face problems to procure & execute large orders, which deny them a level playing field vis-a’-vis large enterprises. NSIC forms consortia of Micro and Small units manfacturing the same product, thereby pooling in their capacity.
NSIC applies the tenders on behalf of single MSE/Consortia of MSEs for securing orders for them. These orders are then distributed amongst MSEs in tune with their production capacity.
Single point Registration for Government Purchase
The units registered under Single Point Registration Scheme of NSIC are eligible to get the benefits under “Public Procurement Policy for Micro & Small Enterprises (MSEs) Order 2012” as notified by the Government of India, Ministry of Micro Small ; Medium Enterprises, New Delhi vide Gazette Notification dated 23.03.2012.
• Issue of the Tender Sets free of cost;
• Exemption from payment of Earnest Money Deposit (EMD),
• In tender participating MSEs quoting price within price band of L1+15 per cent shall also be allowed to supply a portion upto 20% of requirement by bringing down their price to L1 Price where L1 is non MSEs.
• Every Central Ministries/Departments/PSUs shall set an annual goal of minimum 20 per cent of the total annual purchases of the products or services produced or rendered by MSEs. Out of annual requirement of 20% procurement from MSEs, 4% is earmarked for units owned by Schedule Caste /Schedule Tribes (as per PPP Order dated 23.03.2012 overall procurement goal shall be mandatory w.e.f. 01/04/2015)
• In addition to the above, 358 items are also reserved for exclusive purchase from SSI Sector
MSME Global Mart B2B Web Portal for MSMEs
With increase in competition and melting away of international boundaries, the demand for information is reaching new heights. NSIC, realizing the needs of MSMEs, is offering Infomediary Services which is a one-stop, one-window bouquet of aids that will provide information on business ; technology and also exhibit the core competence of Indian MSMEs. B2B Web portal is offering following benefits to the members of Infomediary Services.
• Interactive database of MSMEs
• Self web development tool
• National Tenders on email
• Centralized mail system
• Popular Products Section
• Unlimited global Trade Leads
• Trust Seal of NSIC
• MSME Web Store
• Multiple Language Support
• Discussion Board
• Call Centre Support ; Live Chat
• Other Value added Services
• Payment Gateway for membership subscription
Marketing Intelligence
Collect and disseminate both domestic as well as international marketing intelligence for the benefit of MSMEs. This cell, in addition to spreading awareness about various programmes / schemes for MSMEs, will specifically maintain database and disseminate information.
Exhibitions and Technology Fairs
To showcase the competencies of Indian SSIs and to capture market opportunities, NSIC participates in select International and National Exhibitions and Trade Fairs every year. NSIC facilitates the participation of the small enterprises by providing concessions in rental etc. Participation in these events exposes SSI units to international practices and enhances their business prowess.
Buyer-Seller meets
Bulk and departmental buyers such as the Railways, Defence, Communication departments and large companies are invited to participate in buyer-seller meets to enrich small enterprises knowledge regarding terms and conditions, quality standards, etc required by the buyer. These programmes are aimed at vendor development from MSMEs for the bulk manufacturers.
Credit Support
NSIC facilitates credit requirements of small enterprises in the following areas:
Financing for procurement of Raw Material (Short term)
NSIC’s Raw Material Assistance Scheme aims at helping Small Enterprises by way of financing the purchase of Raw Material (both indigenous & imported). The salient features are:
1. Financial Assistance for procurement of Raw Materials upto 90 days.
2. Bulk purchase of basic raw materials at competitive rates.
3. NSIC facilitates import of scares raw materials.
4. NSIC takes care of all the procedures, documentation & issue of letter of credit in case of imports.

Financing for Marketing Activities (Short term)
NSIC facilitates financing for marketing actives such as Internal Marketing, Exports and Bill Discounting.
Finance through syndication with Banks
In order to ensure smooth credit flow to small enterprises, NSIC is entering into strategic alliances with commercial banks to facilitate long term / working capital financing of the small enterprises across the country. The arrangement envisages forwarding of loan applications of the interested small enterprises by NSIC to the banks and sharing the processing fee.
Performance and Credit Rating Scheme for small industries
Need of a Performance and Credit Rating Mechanism for Micro and Small Enterprises) was highlighted in Union Budget’ 04-05. A scheme for Micro and Small Enterprises has been formulated in consultation with Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) and Rating Agencies. NSIC has been appointed the nodal agency for implementation of this scheme through empanelled agencies.
Benefits of Performance and Credit Rating
• An independent, trusted third party opinion on capabilities and credit-worthiness of Micro and Small Enterprises
• Availability of credit at attractive interest
• Recognition in global trade
• Prompt sanctions of Credit from Banks and Financial Institutions
• Subsidized rating fee structure for Micro and Small Enterprises
• Facilitate vendors/buyers in capability and capacity assessment of Micro and Small Enterprises
• Enable Micro and Small Enterprises to ascertain the strengths and weaknesses of their existing operations and take corrective measures.

Technology Support
Technology is the key to enhancing a company’s competitive advantage in today’s dynamic information age. Small enterprises need to develop and implement a technology strategy in addition to financial, marketing and operational strategies and adopt the one that helps integrate their operations with their environment, customers and suppliers.
NSIC offers small enterprises the following support services through its Technical Services Centres and Extension Centres:
1. Advise on application of new techniques
2. Material testing facilities through accredited laboratories
3. Product design including CAD
4. Common facility support in machining, EDM, CNC, etc.
5. Energy and environment services at selected centres
6. Classroom and practical training for skill upgadation
NSIC Technical Services Centres are located at the following places:
Name of the Centre Focus area
Chennai Leather & Footware
Howrah General Engineering
Hyderabad Electronics & Computer Application
New Delhi Machine Tools & related activities
Rajkot Energy Audit & Energy Conservation activities
Rajpura (Pb) Domestic Electrical Appliances
Aligarh (UP) Lock Cluster & Die and Tool making
Neemka (Haryana) Machine Tools & related activities
Software Technology Cum Business Parks
NSIC has established Software Technology cum Business Parks at New Delhi and Chennai for providing the space to small and medium enterprises in software development and to IT/ITES/MSME units not regd. with STPI or the units that are falling under the overall definition of MSME as per the guidelines of Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Units other than MSME such as Banks/PSUs/Financial Institutions, corporate sector etc. would also be considered for allotment on a case-to-case on merit with the approval of Competent Authority. NSIC Software Technology cum Business Parks, New Delhi is located in a prime location at Okhla Industrial Area adjacent to NSIC Bhawan with a total b uilt up area of approx.53000 sq.ft. This location is in the near vicinity to Nehru Place. (the commercial centre of computer industry). NSIC Software Technology cum Business Parks, Chennai is located in a prime location at Guindy Industrial Estate (Jawahar Lal Nehru Statue) with a total built area of 48,000 Sq. Ft. This location is in the near vicinity to domestic and international Airports.
Incubation of unemployed youth for setting up of New Micro & Small enterprises
This programme facilitates setting up of new enterprises all over the country by creating self-employment opportunities for the unemployed persons. The objective of this scheme is to facilitate establishment of new small enterprises by way of providing integrated services in the areas of training for entrepreneurial skill development, selection of small projects, preparation of project profiles/reports, identification and sourcing of plant, machinery and equipments, facilitating sanction of credit facility and providing other support services in order to boost the development of small enterprises in manufacturing and services sectors.
International Cooperation
NSIC facilitates sustainable international partnerships. The emphasis is on sustainable business relations rather than on one-way transactions. Since its inception, NSIC has contributed to strengthening enterprise-to-enterprise cooperation, south south cooperation and sharing best practices and experiences with other developing countries, especially those in the African, Asian and Pacific regions. The features of the scheme are:
1. Exchange of Business / Technology missions with various countries.
2. Facilitating Enterprise to Enterprise cooperation, JVs, Technology Transfer & other form of sustainable collaboration.
3. Explore new markets & areas of cooperation:
4. Identification of new export markets by participating in sector- specific exhibitions all over the world.
5. Sharing of Indian experience with other developing countries
International Consultancy Services
For the last five decades, NSIC has acquired various skill sets in the development process of small enterprises. The inherent skills are being networked to offer consultancy services for other developing countries. The areas of consultancy are as listed below:
1. Capacity Building
2. Policy & Institutional Framework
3. Entrepreneurship Development
4. Business Development Service

1.1 Employee Engagement: A Perspective
Employee engagement is a route to business success. Employee engagement means involvement of employees in all the decision making processes like policy formation, change in policies and so on. An engaged workplace encourages commitment, energy and productivity from all those involved which will ultimately result in the improved business performance.
Employee engagement is a relationship between an organization and the employees. An “engaged employee” is defined as one who is fully absorbed by and enthusiastic about his work and so takes positive action to further the organizations reputation and interests.
Employee engagement first appeared as a concept in management theory in the 1990s, and became widespread in management practice in the 2000s. It stands in an unspecified relationship to earlier construct such as morale and job satisfaction. Despite academic critiques, employee-engagement practices are well established in the management of human resources and of internal communication.

Organizations have come to realize that in today’s constantly changing business scenario, the most valuable resource that needs to be leveraged is human resource. This means not just attracting the crème-de-la-crème and retaining them but keeping them motivated and committed to achieving the organization goals.
Though Employee Engagement (EE) as a business buzzword has generated research and steam since the new economy service industries like IT (Information Technology) and ITES (IT enables services) have taken off, the origins of engagement are as old as mankind itself.
1.1.1 Origin of Employee Engagement
History records that about 2300 years ago, Alexander (356 BC – 323 BC) was able to march ahead and conquer unknown lands by battling for years across continents, miles away from home, because he had an engaged army that was willing to abide by its commander.
Alexander is known to have achieved the engaged workforce by ensuring that he spent face time with his men, listening and addressing grievance, ensuring on time payment of salary, dressing like the rest of his army and most importantly by leading from front.
History is dotted with examples of leaders who have led their men by building a psychological commitment between their men and their ideology to achieve greatness. In this psychological contract lie the roots of today’s Employee Engagement theories propounded by organizations.

1.1.2 Benefits of employee engagement
There are many benefits of employee engagement for both the organization and employees. Where the organization can maintain a good relationship with his/her employees so that connecting with employees will create a good environment, culture, and peace in the organization.
1. Motivates the individual: The first and foremost advantage of employee participation is that it helps in motivating the employees. This is because when the employees are said to participate in important meetings they also feel special and get encouraged for delivering good work in the near future.
2. Expected output is good: The performance of the employees gets affected in a positive manner. The employees start performing better after getting motivated. Motivating employees is also very important because it helps in the growth of employees as well as the organization.
3. Creative work is delivered: the more the participation, more the work delivered is creative. The employees get a broader sense of perspective which also helps in increasing creativity of the employees. That creativity is seen in the work though. When diverse group of employees will be there to participate in a discussion, it is obvious to get creativity in the work as every person would give his or her own idea and that ultimately will distinguish the work from others.

4. Sense of superiority: the employees like the subordinate ones when getting a chance to engage in important business activities of the company, will feel superior and important. This way the sense of inferiority vanishes and they also gain confidence at the work place. The hesitation of being inferior gets away and the confidence of working in the same work environment retains forever.
5. Decision making becomes effective: The outlook of the employees get broadens which helps in effective decision making. The process is note every ones cup of tea but when the employees are exposed to environment where they get motivated for their participation, the decision making ultimately gets strong. So, the employee participation of engagement of employees in the decision making process become strong and effective.
6. No extra employees would be needed: When the work of superiors is given to others as well, the need of hiring the others or say extra staff gets vanished. The individual gets a chance to prove their potential as they get a good platform to perform. So, in one way it also helps in providing a good platform.
7. Increase the work capacity: It is the motivational thing that can help in increasing the capacity of working of the employees. The employees tend to work more as they also become part of the policy making process. The more work ultimately increases their capacity to work and is good for the company in fact.
8. Sense of responsibility increases: the employees feel a great sense of responsibility. Responsibility goes along with the authority. So, when they are given responsibility, they automatically feel authority to work which is again a sign of positivist. It is beneficial both for the company as well as the subordinates participating in the decision making process.
9. Novelty in ideas: more the ideas more will be the great output. All the types of ideas are important to the company because more the ideas, more will the company be able to distinguish itself from the market competitors. The subordinates can also have an exemplary idea but can also be bought forward when given a chance. So, if the company wishes to get something new, the engagement of subordinates is also important to get quality work.
10. Better overall staff morale: Fully engaged staff is happier, more productive but their level of morale is higher. This is even more important in difficult times because better morale can mean better teamwork and better recognition of and dealing with difficult situation. This can result in better outcome.

1.1.3 Elements of Employee Engagement
The term employee engagement has been defined by various researchers. A commonly agreed upon definition would be physical, psychological or emotional involvement of the employee while at work.
Four things are important when we talk about employee engagement; commitment, motivation, loyalty and trust. Their level determines the quality of engagement of an employee. Each one is briefly discussed in the coming paragraphs.
1. Commitment: Commitment means the degree to which individuals associate themselves with the job, the responsibilities and the organizational objectives. Engaged employees are those who are fascinated by their work and committed to face every challenge to attain their goals. They are dependable and highly productive and therefore, are accountable for what they do.
2. Motivation: Up till recently it was believed that the biggest motivation is achievement. The reverse is also true, which means achievement results in more motivation. If employees put in their 100 percent efforts to take their organization to the next level, this attained status motivates them more than anything. Proper rewards and recognitions can further motivate them to achieve more and more for their organization. Motivation and achievement go hand in hand and act as the burning fuels for the success of any organization.
3. Loyalty: Employees who are actively engaged in their work show more loyalty towards the organization. The best part is that they need less focus and attention of managers to perform their task as they themselves feel accountable for their job responsibilities and results attained. However, it doesn’t take much time for actively engaged employees to turn into disengaged employees if the organization doesn’t have a well established reward system. Recognition is a basic necessity of individuals to remain steered up towards their job.
4. Trust: High Levels of employee engagement can be fostered only when trust prevails in the organization from both the sides. As they share strong emotional bond with the organization, the latter should also show trust in their abilities. Employees must be given autonomy to perform their tasks their way. They should not be restricted to a specific rules and regulations and therefore, should be motivated to experiment to perform their task in a different and innovative manner
.
All these elements play a vital role in determining the fate of an organization. Besides this, two-way communication to discuss challenges, potential consequences, vision and values and organization’s future should be established. In fact, communication is the backbone of any organization without which it can’t survive for long. Having an open conversation with employees can solve the problems that they are facing in executing their job.

1.1.4 Dimensions of Employee Engagement
Organizations cannot achieve their goals just by defining their mission statement nor can they foster a high performing work culture until they take substantial steps. They need people to get the jobs done and that too with excellence.
For fulfilling all their goals, organizations require actively engaged employees. Employee engagement happens only in those organizations which treat their people as their biggest assets and take care of their basic necessities and other psychological needs. Workplaces that meet all these conditions of employee engagement grow much faster and sustain much longer that those who fail to meet them.
There are different dimensions of employee engagement that make productive organizations stand apart from the rest and determine their destiny.
Things like what employees get in exchange for the efforts they put to perform the delegated tasks, if employees are able to perform their best, if they are treated as an important asset or just a means to perform the job and how they can grow if they stick to their organization are of great importance. Actually these are emotional elements revealing the basic employee needs. They would like to contribute only when their efforts are recognized and awarded. Not only this, all they can also drive them to be more efficient while delivering their jobs.

1. What Do I Get: Employee engagement to an extent depends upon what people get in exchange for performing the job. This includes basic compensation, benefits, organizational culture and working environment. These are basic elements that motivate them to join the organization and perform the given task with complete dedication.
2. What Do I Give: As it is a two way process, setting clear expectations plays an important role. This helps employees to understand what exactly they are expected to give the organization. This includes defining their job responsibilities that they need to fulfill and tasks that they need to perform. The human resource team and immediate supervisors or managers need to tell them clearly what they are expected to do. It creates more meaningful relationships among seniors and subordinates and workgroups.
3. Do I Belong to the Organization: Social association is the most basic requirement for anyone? Even employees would like to stay with the organization that treats them as their integral part and not just the means to get the job done. ‘My opinions Count’ gives them satisfaction and motivates them to put their best to meet organizational goals.
4. How Can I Grow: Continuous growth including promotions, salary hikes and rewards and recognition are most essential tools to retain employees in the organization? New challenges and opportunities to learn keep them motivated towards their work life and encourage them to give their best even during crisis.
1.1.5 Phases of Employee Engagement
Employee engagement is a concept that has begun to grab the attention of the corporate world for past few years. When put simply higher levels of employee engagement mean higher profitability of the organization.
Employee engagement is a long term process and goes through various phases describing the level of the engagement, involvement, attachment and belongingness between employee and employer. These phases of employee engagement make a continuous cycle that each organization aiming to achieve increased profitability must undertake.

1. Attract: The first phase of the employee engagement cycle is attracting the best talent from the industry. This phase involves creating a positive impression about the work culture and employee career as a potential employer. It is all about carefully creating an authentic, genuine and crafted image as an employer. This is although an indirect yet the first impression that attracts a big pool of candidates to apply for the job vacancies in an organization. The first phase is the most important phase of the employee engagement cycle.
Another aspect spreading the reputation of an organization is its employees. They are not only the employees but also are regarded as internal customers. Their job and career satisfaction speaks about their workplace. Therefore, they should not be taken for granted. Besides attracting the talent from the outside, it is important to keep the existing employees attracted towards the organization.
2. Acquire: The acquire image involves more than one thing. It includes:
a. the way the potential candidates are interacted while advertising a position
b. keeping the promises that were made while hiring them and
c. Providing the new joiners a right kind of work culture.
When an organization advertises a position, interested candidates apply. The way their applications are created, the reaction of the organization and the manner in which they are approached speak a lot about the image and work culture of an organization.
Hiring the best talent not only serves the purpose. During their honeymoon or initial period with the organization, the company must try to keep all the promises that were made during the selection process.
Besides this, they should feel happy and satisfied when their expectations are tested against the reality. Providing the right kind of culture also plays an important role in keeping them engaged.
3. Advance: Continuous moving the talent is the last but an unending phase. It not only involves promoting the employees to a higher designation along with salary increments but also growing them in other tangible and intangible ways. Job rotation can help them grow in experience, responsibility and belongingness but only when it is done right. Advancing the employees in every aspect is it monetary or non-monetary, is the key to retain people and develop their overall personality.
1.1.6 Key Players in enhancing Employee Engagement
Most companies think that it is their performance management system and appraisal and reward strategies that enhance the levels of employee engagement. True but partially!
1. Immediate Supervisors and Managers
Lying on the bottom of the pyramid, immediate supervisors and managers play the most important role in enhancing the levels of employees. As they spend more time with them as compared to the HR people and senior leadership, they can easily determine their actions and find out what will keep them motivated.
Although the directions come either from top management or HRD but they are the one who execute the process and determine the satisfaction level of their workforce. They can interact with the employees and fill scorecards with columns such as actions of employees, what motivates them and job satisfaction level. This is the initial as well the most important step in the entire process.

1. Human Resource Department
Human Resource Department works on the data collected by the managers and determine the trend among the employees. They identify the most common factors that decrease the engagement levels among employees and the most common opportunities that can enhance it. They study all the cases thoroughly to identify the loopholes in the system and bring it to the notice of top management.

2. Senior Leadership or Top Management
They review the entire report and the process designed by the HRD or a management consulting firm to enhance the employee engagement levels. They support the process by deciding the priorities and making investments.

1.1.7 Types of Employees based on Level of Engagement
Not all employees in the organization work utilizing their full potential. There may be many reasons responsible for the same. They may not associate with the goal of the company, they may have problem with their team, the boss or the subordinate or it may be a general problem of attitude. This fact necessitated the classification of the people into three categories – engaged, not engaged and actively disengaged.
Although there are other classifications also, but this one is based upon the level of commitment or engagement of employees. A brief description about the three is given below:
1. Actively Disengaged: This is the first category of people who are unhappy and they spread unhappiness in the organization. They are the disease centres in the company and spread the negative word, provoking and convincing people to leave their jobs. However they are the ones who stay the longest and removing the perceived people competition is their thought of getting to the top or next level in the job.
2. Engaged: The second category of people are those who are can be identified with words like passion, alignment and innovation; which means that they are passionate, connected to the company and are innovative. They contribute new ideas and turn ideas into reality. These employees are positive in their outlook and they spread positivity. They are proactive; can anticipate the future market conditions are prepared well in advance.
3. Not Engaged: The third type of employees is the large majority present in organizations almost 50% in number. These do what is told only and they like only one instruction at a time. They put in time but not energy and passion. They may be either positive or negative in their outlook and opinion about the organization. They are not proactive and fail to anticipate what might be required next or what the next step is? They wait for instruction from their superiors.

1.1.8 Cost of Disengaged Workforce
The findings of the Gallup Study of 2008 show that while the engaged employees believe they can contribute to company’s growth, the disengaged employee believes otherwise, i.e. his job does not contribute to the organization. This belief of the disengaged employee creates a negative spiral that affects his work, co-workers, customers, productivity, and eventually both happiness of employee and company performance. Some effects are illustrated below:
1. Effect on Work – The disengaged employee tries to evade work, struggles to meet deadlines and is reluctant to accept additional responsibility.
2. Effect on Co-Workers – The negativity of a disengaged employee, demonstrated either through raves and rants or complete withdrawal from participation, affects the team morale. After all who has not heard of the proverb – one bad apple can spoil the whole bunch.
3. Effect on Customers – Every employee, whether an organization likes it or not, becomes its ambassador. And a disengaged employee either by actively de-selling the organization, or by complete apathy towards their work, product, process, organization help create disengaged customers.
4. Effects on Productivity – Disengaged employees seldom push themselves to meet organizational goals let alone contribute to innovative practices at workplace. Since, they do not believe that their work contributes to the organization; they evade completing tasks thereby affecting team productivity.
5. Effect on Company Performance – In the corporate world, time is money and organizations must innovate to stay relevant. A disengaged workforce by virtue of delayed completion of tasks and inability to improvise and innovate cost the company dollars which ultimately affects bottom line.
6. Effect on Personal Life of Employee – A disengaged employee is seldom able to shake off the lethargy and perform in the current organization or land a job of preference. This leads to pent up frustration which may ultimately affect his personal and family life.

1.1.9 Characteristics of Engaged Workforce:
The level of employee engagement can be measured by the willingness and ability of employees to contribute to the success of their organization. It is their discretionary effort which is an essential element for the good health and well being of a company.
A highly engaged workforce shows the high level of engagement in their work and is always keen to take up new challenges in order to bring a positive change or establish a highly conducive work environment. Various studies have shown that higher level of employee engagement is directly linked to high satisfaction among them, productivity and profitability of organization and satisfied and loyal customers.
The model below illustrates a few characteristics of an engaged workforce that play an essential role in the success of any organization.

1. Mutual Trust: Trust is the base of any organization. Letting people do their work without telling them how to perform it is one of the best ways to engage staff. Employees welcome each other’s opinions and find out a wide variety of ways to accomplish a particular task. A highly engaged workforce doesn’t need directions at each step. They can perform their jobs with mutual help and trust.
2. Job and Career Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is one of the main characteristics of an engaged workforce. The individual who is satisfied with their career and the way their career graph is raising prefers to stick to the organization for a very long period of time. Switching the organizations frequently is not a characteristic of satisfied employee.
3. Credible Leadership: As mentioned earlier, an engaged workforce doesn’t need directions for performing a specific job from time to time. Employees know how to do it in the best possible manner. They not only exhibit credible leadership qualities in routine tasks but also come up with innovative ways to deal with crisis or emergencies.
4. Focused and Keen to Take up Challenges: An engaged workforce is entirely focused and knows what to do and when. They are always keen to take up new challenges in order to solve the existing problems in the organization as well as acquire new skills. Not only this, they are always keen to learn new things and widening their horizon.
5. Better Performance: Employee engagement is directly related to better performance. Employee performance is the only way to measure the engagement, involvement and dedication of employees towards their jobs. If all these factors cannot be interlinked, there is no meaning of anything. It can be said that the workforce is not engaged or actively disengaged.
6. Problem Solving Attitude: Engaged workforce not only delivers its job responsibilities but also keeps a problem solving attitude always. A highly engaged employee displays a sense of belongingness towards the organization and makes every effort to solve the problems that pose a hindrance in the organization’s way of success.
1.1.10 Employee Engagement Strategies: To achieve this, the organizations can design effective employee engagement strategies on the basis of the model explained below.

1. Unify the Experiences: Conduct an employee engagement survey in order to find the factors responsible for engaging and disengaging employees. Unify the common experiences and problems and design employee engagement strategies accordingly.
Sharing of feedback in written is one way of communicating the experiences and problems.
2. Evolving Through Open Communication: Open communication or face to face communication in the form of discussions can really help in bringing the various issues and identifying the main problems in the organization. It is very essential to establish a proper communication where everyone can put their views and suggest a solution too. Most of the top organizations ask for suggestions and new ideas from their employees and then offer rewards on giving the best proposal.
3. Providing Proper Communication Channels: Some employees are comfortable with open face-to-face communication styles whereas there are some who want to give feedbacks and suggestions in written. Discovering the best channel of communication and establishing a proper route to share feedbacks and views plays a vital role.
4. Enabling Conversation Fluidity: Whichever way of communication you choose, ensure that it has required fluidity. There should not be any hindrance in the established method of communication. Not being able to provide feedback or share problems and experiences can lead to frustration and distress among employees. Therefore, ensure that there are no barriers to communication. This can also result in disengaging the engaged employees.
5. Manage Communication: Managing communication is the last but the most important step in the entire process. Managers should keep a check on the entire process in order to k ensure that it is not adversely affecting the health of the organization. They must make sure that it serves the desired purpose and is not being used negatively.

1.1.11 Drivers of Employee Engagement
Employee Engagement has transcended from being the latest business buzzword to being recognized by organizations as a tool that positively influences business performance. This linkage between organization performance and employee engagement was researched by ISR in 2006 by means of world-wide survey. While there is no one panacea for leveraging employee engagement, there are some broad drivers which are presented below:
1. Work/Job Role – Employees must see a link between their role and the larger organization goal. Understanding this linkage provides an intrinsic motivation and increased engagement. Most employees will come to work on time without possessing a sense of belonging and will try and complete assigned tasks even without possessing that sense achievement on completion of task..
2. Work Environment/Organization Culture – The bond between an employee and the organization is cemented when the employee identifies with the culture of the organization. An employee is engaged and motivated to stretch beyond the call of duty if he/she finds the work environment enabling and supportive.
3. Rewards and Recognition – The bottom line is that people work to earn which helps fulfill ambitions. Equitable pay coupled with rewards and recognition programs enhances motivation and leads to commitment and engagement.
4. Learning and Training Opportunities – As Lawyer (2006) put it – “People Enjoy Learning.” This is especially true in the case of today’s millennial workforce that constantly looks at enhancing knowledge and skill. Skill and Knowledge enhancement is not just important for the employees but providing a learning culture is essential for organizations to remain relevant in the constantly changing business landscape.
5. Performance Management – An effective performance management system contributes positively to employee engagement. Goal setting lies at the root of any performance management system. Clearly articulated goals, a fair and just means to judge performance and timely, rational feedback are critical elements in creating a bond between the employee and his/her organization.
6. Leadership – It is a well recorded fact that most resignations happen because the employee is not satisfied with his/her ‘boss.’ An organization that spends time and effort in grooming leaders who are aligned to its goals, culture and people invests well. New age industries have a young and dynamic workforce that looks for autonomy in decision making, increased responsibility and accountabilities.
7. Other Factors – Clear and open communication, quality of interaction with peers, collaboration, organization policy, organization performance are all contributing factors to employees

VARIABLES TAKEN FOR THE STUDY ARE:

I. EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
II. LIFE SATISFACTION
III. SATISFACTION WITH QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

All these variables statements are provided with five different responses of the employees. Each statement is given 5 options as:

5 – Fully Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Neither Agree nor Disagree
2 – Disagree
1 – Fully Disagree

I. Employee Engagement : The emotional commitment the employee has to the organization and its goals.

A. This variable is taken with 12 items scale as:

Table No 4.1: Awareness of work expectations

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 0 0
3 Neutral 0 0
4 Agree 25 17%
5 Fully agree 124 83%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table no 4.1 shows the employees’ awareness of their work expectations in the organization One hundred and twenty four employees representing 83% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Also twenty five employees representing 17% of the sample have positively agreed with the statement.
However no employee is disagreed partially or completely that they don’t know what the organization is expecting out of them.
The analysis shows a majority (83%) of respondents are clearly aware of what is expected of them at work.

Diagram 4.1:Awareness of work expectations

Table No 4.2: Material and equipment support

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 1 1%
2 Disagree 0 0
3 Neutral 6 4%
4 Agree 53 36%
5 Fully agree 89 60%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.2 reveals the employees responses as to the supply of materials and equipment that are required to do their works properly.
Also 60% of the respondents strongly agreed that they have material and equipment to do their works properly.
36% of respondents have agree with the fact.
While 4% of the respondents remained indifferent, 1% of the respondents have completely disagreed with the statement.
It can be inferred that 96% of employee’s are comfortable with the material and equipment support given by the company on their jobs.
However 4% are unhappy over the material support of the company.

Diagram 4.2: Material and equipment support

?

Table no 4.3: Opportunity to do the best work

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 0 0
3 Neutral 3 2%
4 Agree 82 55%
5 Fully agree 64 43%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.3 reveals the employee’s opinions to the statement,” At work, I have opportunity to do what I do best every day.
The table shows that 64 employees representing 43% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Also eighty two employees representing 55% of the sample have positively agreed with the statement, however 2% of the employees remained neutral.
The analysis shows that a majority such that 98% of respondents feel that they have the opportunity to do the best work.
The remaining 2% have some confusion in this regard.

Diagram 4.3: Opportunity to do the best work

Table no 4.4: Recognition In the past 7 days

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 49 33%
2 Disagree 9 6%
3 Neutral 12 8%
4 Agree 78 52%
5 Fully agree 1 1%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.4 gives the employee’s responses to the statement” In the last seven days I have received recognition or praise for doing good work”.
12 employees representing 8% of the sample agreed to the respondents remained indifferent, 6% of respondents have disagreed with the statement.
The analysis shows that 53% of respondents received recognition or praise for doing good work in the last 7days.
33% of the respondents did not receive any recognition.
Diagram 4.4: Recognition in the past 7 days

Table no 4.5: Personal care by supervisor

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 3 2%
3 Neutral 11 7%
4 Agree 70 47%
5 Fully agree 65 44%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.5 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” My supervisor, or someone at work seems to care about me as a person.
Sixty five employees representing 44% of the sample, strongly agreed with the statement.
Also 70 employees representing 47% of the sample have positively agreed with it while 2% of the respondents have disagreed with the statement.
Thus the analysis proves that a high majority of employees 91% are contended with the treatment give to them by the superiors.

Diagram 4.5: Personal care by supervisor

Table No 4.6: Encouragement at work

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 3 2%
3 Neutral 16 11%
4 Agree 57 38%
5 Fully agree 73 49%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.6 reveals the employees responses to the statement,” There is someone at work, seems to care about me as a strongly agreed to the statement.
While 11% of employees remained neutral, 2% of employees disagreed with the statement.
Thus it is clear that superiors in the company are acting as mentors for their subordinates.

Diagram 4.6: Encouragement at work

?

Table No 4.7: Acceptance of personal opinions

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 1 1%
2 Disagree 2 1%
3 Neutral 24 16%
4 Agree 65 44%
5 Fully agree 57 38%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.7 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” At work my opinions seem to count.
44% of the employees sample agreed with the statement. Also 38% of the employees sample fully agreed with the statement.
However 1% of the employees disagreed with the statement.
This analysis proves that the views of employees are given importance by the superior which is an excellent mark of participative management.

Diagram 4.7: Acceptance of personal opinion

Table no 4.8: Impact of mission

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 1 1%
3 Neutral 4 3%
4 Agree 68 46%
5 Fully agree 76 51%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.8 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” The mission purpose of your purpose of your company make me feel my job is important.
While 76 employees representing 51% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement, another 46% of the sample agreed to the statement.
However 3% of the employees remained neutral to the statement.

Diagram 4.8: Impact of mission

?

Table No 4.9: Quality work by associates

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 2 1%
3 Neutral 15 10%
4 Agree 69 46%
5 Fully agree 63 42%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.9 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” My associates (fellow employees) are committed to doing quality work.
While sixty three employees representing 42% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
And 69 employees representing 46% of the sample have agreed with the statement.
However 10% of the employees remained neutral while 1% of the disagreed with the statement.

Diagram 4.9: Quality work by associates

Table No 4.10: Best friend at work

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 3 2%
2 Disagree 7 5%
3 Neutral 13 9%
4 Agree 57 38%
5 Fully agree 69 46%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.10 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” I have a best friend at work.
69 employees representing 46% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Also 57 of the employees representing 38% of the sample agreed with the statement.
While 9% of the employees remained neutral, 5% of the employees disagreed with the statement.And about 2% of the employees say that they don’t have any best friend in the work place.

Diagram 4.10: Best friend at work

?

Table No 4.11: A feedback on performance

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 1 1%
3 Neutral 11 7%
4 Agree 64 43%
5 Fully agree 73 49%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.11 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” In the last six months, someone at work talked to me about my progress.
73 employees representing 49% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Sixty four employees representing 43% of the sample have agreed with the statement.
However 7% of the employees remained neutral to the statement.And 1% of the employees disagreed with the statement.

Diagram 4.11: A feedback on performance

Table No 4.12: Opportunity to learn and grow

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 1 1%
2 Disagree 1 1%
3 Neutral 12 8%
4 Agree 51 34%
5 Fully agree 84 56%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.12 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” In the last year, I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow.
84 employees representing 56% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Fifty one employees representing 34% of the sample have agreed with the statement.
However 8% of the employees remained neutral to the statement.
It can be inferred that a high majority (90%) employee’s are comfortable with the opportunity to learn and grow at work.

Diagram 4.12: Opportunity to learn and grow

?
II. LIFE SATISFACTION : Life satisfaction is the way people show their emotions and feelings and how they feel about their directions and options for the future.

Table No 4.13: Job satisfaction

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 4 3%
3 Neutral 3 2%
4 Agree 45 30%
5 Fully agree 97 65%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.13 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” Over all, I am satisfied with my job? All things considered, I am satisfied with my life as a whole these days”.
97 employees representing 65% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Also forty five employees representing 30% of the sample have agreed with the statement.
However 2% of the employees remained neutral to the statement.And 3% disagreed the statement.

Diagram 4.13: Job satisfaction

III. SATISFACTION WITH QUALITY OF WORK LIFE : The term Quality of work life broadly referring to the degree to which work provides an opportunity for an individual to satisfy a wide variety of personal needs to survive with some security, to interact with others, to have a sense of personal usefulness, to be recognized for achievement and to have an opportunity to improve one’s skills and knowledge.
IV.
Table No 4.14: Recommending company to job seekers
S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 1 1%
2 Disagree 5 3%
3 Neutral 1 1%
4 Agree 82 55%
5 Fully agree 60 40%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.14 depicts the employee’s responses to the statement” I recommend this company to someone who is seeking at job.
All the respondents have positively responded to the statement.
While sixty employees representing 40% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Eighty two employees representing 55% of the sample have agreed with the statement.
Thus it is proved that all employees have a positive attitude towards the organization.

Diagram 4.14: Recommending company to job seek

Table No 4.15: Organization is a desired place

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 1 1%
2 Disagree 3 2%
3 Neutral 7 5%
4 Agree 79 53%
5 Fully agree 59 40%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.15 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” My organization is a desired place for employment.
It is interesting to state that all employee respondents have consented with the statement.
59 employees representing 40% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Also 79 employees representing 53% of the sample have agreed with the statement.
While 5% of the employees remained neutral, another 2% of the employees disagreed and 1% completely disagreed with the statement.

Diagram 4.15: Organization is a desired place

?
Table No 4.13: Job satisfaction

S NO. RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
1 Fully disagree 0 0
2 Disagree 4 3%
3 Neutral 1 1%
4 Agree 53 36%
5 Fully agree 91 61%
TOTAL 149 100%

Table 4.13 reveals the employee’s responses to the statement” Over all, I am satisfied with my job? All things considered, I am satisfied with my life as a whole these days”.
91 employees representing 61% of the sample strongly agreed with the statement.
Also 53 employees representing 36% of the sample have agreed with the statement.
However 1% of the employees remained neutral to the statement.And 3% disagreed the statement.

Diagram 4.13: Job satisfaction

SUMMARY
Employee engagement is a route to business success. Employee engagement means involvement of employees in all the decision making processes like policy formation, change in policies and so on. An engaged workplace encourages commitment, energy and productivity from all those involved which will ultimately result in the improved business performance.
Employee engagement is a relationship between an organization and the employees. An “engaged employee” is defined as one who is fully absorbed by and enthusiastic about his work and so takes positive action to further the organizations reputation and interests.
Employee engagement first appeared as a concept in management theory in the 1990s, and became widespread in management practice in the 2000s. It stands in an unspecified relationship to earlier construct such as morale and job satisfaction. Despite academic critiques, employee-engagement practices are well established in the management of human resources and of internal communication.
The project work has been carried out with the following objectives:
1. To know whether the employees have recognition for the work done.
2. To know whether the employees have fair treatment in the company.
3. To assess whether the employees are emotionally engaged in their jobs.
4. To assess the job satisfaction of the employees in the company.
5. To identify problems, if any, in the employee engagement and make suggestions.
The information for the study has been collected from two sources, viz; Primary and secondary sources.

Primary data:
1. Primary data have been obtained from the discussions with the HR
2. Executives.
3. As part of primary data collection, a survey has been conducted on the Employee Engagement.
4. A sample of 22 employees is selected randomly.
5. A structured questionnaire consisting of 15 statements designed on Likert’s 5 point scale has been administered to them.
6. The responses are tabulated, interpreted analyzed and inferences have been drawn.
Secondary data:
1. Secondary data have been gathered from the NSIC records, reports, journals and text books.

ELEMENTS OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT :
The term employee engagement has been defined by various researchers. A commonly agreed upon definition would be physical, psychological or emotional involvement of the employee while at work.
Four things are important when we talk about employee engagement; commitment, motivation, loyalty and trust. Their level determines the quality of engagement of an employee. Each one is briefly discussed in the coming paragraphs.
1. Commitment: Commitment means the degree to which individuals associate themselves with the job, the responsibilities and the organizational objectives. Engaged employees are those who are fascinated by their work and committed to face every challenge to attain their goals. They are dependable and highly productive and therefore, are accountable for what they do.
2. Motivation: Up till recently it was believed that the biggest motivation is achievement. The reverse is also true, which means achievement results in more motivation. If employees put in their 100 percent efforts to take their organization to the next level, this attained status motivates them more than anything. Proper rewards and recognitions can further motivate them to achieve more and more for their organization. Motivation and achievement go hand in hand and act as the burning fuels for the success of any organization.
3. Loyalty: Employees who are actively engaged in their work show more loyalty towards the organization. The best part is that they need less focus and attention of managers to perform their task as they themselves feel accountable for their job responsibilities and results attained. However, it doesn’t take much time for actively engaged employees to turn into disengaged employees if the organization doesn’t have a well established reward system. Recognition is a basic necessity of individuals to remain steered up towards their job.
4. Trust: High Levels of employee engagement can be fostered only when trust prevails in the organization from both the sides. As they share strong emotional bond with the organization, the latter should also show trust in their abilities. Employees must be given autonomy to perform their tasks their way. They should not be restricted to a specific rules and regulations and therefore, should be motivated to experiment to perform their task in a different and innovative manner
All these elements play a vital role in determining the fate of an organization. Besides this, two-way communication to discuss challenges, potential consequences, vision and values and organization’s future should be established. In fact, communication is the backbone of any organization without which it can’t survive for long. Having an open conversation with employees can solve the problems that they are facing in executing their job.
TYPES OF EMPLOYEES BASED ON LEVEL OF ENGAGEMENT:
Not all employees in the organization work utilizing their full potential. There may be many reasons responsible for the same. They may not associate with the goal of the company, they may have problem with their team, the boss or the subordinate or it may be a general problem of attitude. This fact necessitated the classification of the people into three categories – engaged, not engaged and actively disengaged.
Although there are other classifications also, but this one is based upon the level of commitment or engagement of employees. A brief description about the three is given below:
1. Actively Disengaged: This is the first category of people who are unhappy and they spread unhappiness in the organization. They are the disease centres in the company and spread the negative word, provoking and convincing people to leave their jobs. However they are the ones who stay the longest and removing the perceived people competition is their thought of getting to the top or next level in the job.
2. Engaged: The second category of people are those who are can be identified with words like passion, alignment and innovation; which means that they are passionate, connected to the company and are innovative. They contribute new ideas and turn ideas into reality. These employees are positive in their outlook and they spread positivity. They are proactive; can anticipate the future market conditions are prepared well in advance.
3. Not Engaged: The third type of employees is the large majority present in organizations almost 50% in number. These do what is told only and they like only one instruction at a time. They put in time but not energy and passion. They may be either positive or negative in their outlook and opinion about the organization. They are not proactive and fail to anticipate what might be required next or what the next step is? They wait for instruction from their superiors.

FINDINGS
Following are the findings of the study conducted on the Employee Engagement of employees at National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), Hyderabad. NSIC which is the government of India enterprise set up to oversee the functioning of micro, small and medium enterprises has been working to promote Aid, and foster the growth of micro small and medium enterprise in the country.
A survey has been conducted on 22 employees, selected randomly, to assess their engagement on the job. A structure questionnaire consisting of 15 statements arranged sequentially on a five point scale has be designed and given to the employees. The responses have been tabulated and analyzed.
The following are the finding of the survey.
? It is found that more than 68% of the respondents are aware of their Work expectations in the company. However 18% of the employees said that they are not aware of work expectation.
? It is observed from the response of 73% of the employee’s that employees are supplied with proper material and equipment required for doing their works properly. However a few respondents are not happy (9%) over the supply of material and equipment.
? A high majority of employee’s (86%) stated that they have a great opportunity in their jobs in order to bring out their potential to do their best every day.
? 50% of the respondents stated that they have recognition for good work every week, the organization.
? 72% of the respondents opined that there superior’s take personal care for them.
Majority of respondents revealed that their superior encourage them at work at act as mentors.
? It is found that the views of employee’s are given importance by the superior which is an excellent mark of participative management.
? 73% of the respondents stated that the mission of the company is making them to developed belongingness to the company.
? 68% of the respondents revealed that their associates in the company are committed in doing the quality work. Which has a positive impact on organizational health.
? A high majority of employee (91%) stated that they are given feedback on their performance.
? 86% of respondents opined that they have an opportunities to learn and grow in the company.
? 59% of respondents revealed that they have job satisfaction in the company. However 23% didn’t reveal their feelings and another 18% express their dissatisfaction and their job.
? 77% of the respondents stated that they are happy to recommend their company to potential job seekers.
? A good majority of employees (81%) stated that the company is desirable place for employment. However 9% of employees disagreed with the statement.

SUGGESTIONS
? The company has to provide awareness to all employee’s with respect to their work expectations.
? It has to given proper material support to all employees.
? Though majority of employees are happy over the care and attention of superiors, the company has to increase personal care and concern for all employees.
? It must given equal chances to all employees and consider the personal opinions of them.
? The company has to improved the feedback mechanism.
? The company has to initiate measures to improve job satisfaction of employees.

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8. Thiagarajan, B., ; Renukadevi, V. (2011). Employee Engagement Practices in Indian BPO Industries: An Empirical Investigation. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business , 134-142.
9. Khan, W. (1990). Psychological Conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal , 33, 692-724.
10. Xu, J., ; Thomas, H. (2010). How can leaders achieve high employee engagement? Leadership ; Organization Development Journal, 32 (4), 399-416.
11. Moureen, F., ; Bakker, A. (2010). Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conductive work environments, psychological health problems and employee engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 579-599.
12. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A., Nachreiner, F., ; Schaufeli, W. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (3), 499-512.
13. Saks, A., ; Gruman, J. (2011). Getting new comers engaged: the role of socialization tactics. Journal Of Managerial Psychology, 26 (5), 383-402.
14. McBain, R. (2007). The practice of engagement research into current employee engagement practice. Strategic HR Review, 6 (6), 16-19.
15. Sla°tten, T., ; Mehmetoglu, M. (2011). Antecedents and effects of engaged frontline employees: A study from the hospital industry. Managing Service Quality, 88-197.
16. References of l s :
17. 1) Martikainen, L. (2008). The Many Faces of Life Satisfaction among Finnish Young Adults.
18. Journal of Happiness Studies .DOI 10.1007/s10902-008-9117-2.
19. 2) Bradley, R.H. ;Corwyn, R.F. (2004). Life Satisfaction among European American, African,American, Chinese American, Mexican American, and Dominican American Adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development 28 (5), 385-400
20. 3) Beutell, N. (2006). References ; Research: Life Satisfaction (2006). Retrieved January 15,2009, from the World Wide Web: http://wfnetwork.bc.edu/encyclopedia_entry.php?id=3283
21. 4) Chow, R. (2009). Happiness and Life Satisfaction Lead to Better Health. Retrieved April 9,2009 from the World Wide Web: http://www.naturalnews.com/025352.html
22. 5) Iverson, R.D ; Maguire, C. (2000). The Relationship between Job and Life Satisfaction :Evidence from a Remote Mining Community .Human Relations 53(6), 807-839
23. 13. Consult Judge, Locke ; Durham (1997); Judge, Locke, Durham ;Kluger (1998); Heller, Judge ;Watson(2002) and Rode (2004) for further details on core evaluations.
24. 14. It has to be noted that although these three theoretical models are employed to specify the relationship between job and life satisfaction, Wilensky’s conceptualization of the overlap between job and life was originally intended to reflect activities rather than emotions and attitudes (Judge & Watanabe, 1994).
25. 15. Explanations of the three theoretical models have been based on Judge & Watanabe (1994)

QUESTIONNAIRE
A Study on Employee Engagement in

1. Designation: 2.Gender: 3.Age:
4. Department: 5.Monthly salary: 6.Total length of service:
7. Higher educational qualification: 8. No of friends on facebook:

9. No. of connections in Linkedin:

11. No. of hours spent daily in workplace:

12. No. of hours spent daily in reading for learning:

Please write score in the brackets against each statement depending on your level of
agreement with the statement. For example:
5 = Fully Agree; 4 = Agree; 3 = neither agree nor disagree; 2 =Disagree; 1 = Fully disagree
Employee Engagement
1. I know what is expected of me at work. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

2. I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )
3. At work, I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )
4. In the last seven days, I have received recognition or praise for doing good work. 5-4-

3-2-1 ( )

5. My supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about me as a person. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )
6. There is someone at work who encourages my development. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

7. At work, my opinions seem to count. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

8. The mission/purpose of your company make me feel my job is important. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

9. My associates (fellow employees) are committed to doing quality work. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

10. I have a best friend at work. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

11. In the last six months, someone at work talked to me about my progress. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

12. In the last year, I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

Life Satisfaction:
13. Overall, I am satisfied with my job? All things considered, I am satisfied with my life as a whole these days. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )
Satisfaction with QWL: 5-4-3-2-1 ( )
14. I recommend this company to someone who is seeking a job. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

15. My organization is a desired place for employment. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

16. Overall, I am satisfied with my job. 5-4-3-2-1 ( )

1. Sometimes it is difficult to understand data if you do not know what the numbers represent. Provide short definitions of two words: sepal, and petal.
A sepal is a noun that describes the outer most aspect of a flower that protects the developing flower, usually appearing as “white or green in color” (Cambridge English Dictionary, n.d.).
A petal is a noun that describes the most common part of the flower that varies in colors and surrounds the reproductive parts of the flower (The Free Dictionary, n.d.).
2. There is a cumulative relative frequency table printed above for petal lengths (using rounded values for petal length). Below the number 3 in that table is the number .35. What does .35 represent?
The value of .35 represents “d. Of all the flowers measure in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths)”. The table is a “cumulative frequency table” meaning that this table accumulates the current relative frequency to the previous relative frequency for each value in the table (Yakir, 2011).
3. Using only the cumulative relative frequency table printed above combined with some simple paper-and-pencil calculations, which petal length occurs most frequently?
To find the answer, see the graph and rationale below.
Value: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Cumulative
Relative
Frequency (CRF): 0.16 0.33 0.35 0.58 0.81 0.97 1.00
How arrived at RF 0.16 0.33-0.16= 0.35-0.33= 0.58-0.35= 0.81-0.58= 0.97-0.81= 1.00-0.97=
Relative
Frequency (RF): 0.16 0.17 0.02 0.23 0.23 0.16 0.03

As you can see, there are two (2) petal lengths that occur most frequently which is value 4 and 5.
4. Describe how you determined your answer to the previous question (describe the calculations that you used).
I started at the 7 value with the Cumulative Relative Frequency (CRF) of 1.00 and deducted the CRF for the 6 value (i.e., 1.00-0.97=0.03) meaning that the Relative Frequency for the 7 value is 0.03 or (0.03 x 100 = 30) 3% of the total observations of that variable (Yakir, 2011).
5. Assuming that you read the flowers.csv file into an R object called flower.data, run the following R code (do not paste the “>” character into R) and paste both the command and the output into you answer:
>names(flower.data)
>names(flower.data)
1 “Sepal.Length” “Sepal.Width” “Petal.Length” “Petal.Width” “Species”
6. The number of observations in the “flower.data” data frame is 150 observations.
7. List the variables in the data frame (you can do this by entering the name of the R object that holds that data that you read using the read.csv command—you should have called it flower.data). For each variable identify the type of the variable (factor or numeric).
Name of Variable Type of Variable (factor or numeric)
1st variable Sepal.Length Numeric
2nd variable Sepal.Width Numeric
3rd variable Petal.Length Numeric
4th variable Petal.Width Numeric
5th variable Species Factor

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8. Round the data for the variable Sepal.Length so that it contains integers, then find the frequency of the value 7 (not the relative frequency):
This answer took me a while and I utilized the help menu in R to figure it out but I found the answer by the following process:
>datsepal=round(dat$Sepal.Length,0)
>table(sepal)
Sepal
4 5 6 7 8
5 47 68 24 6
Resulting in the answer “find the frequency of the value 7 which is 24.
9. What is the sum of the first three frequencies in the frequency table for septal width?
The sum is found by adding 1 + 3 + 4 = 8. 8 is the sum of the first three frequencies in the table.
10. What does your answer to the previous question represent (in terms of sepal width and frequency and the percentage of all sepal measurements)?
It reflects the number of observations of the frequency of the variable (sepal width) within the sample of the population.
11. What is the sum of the last three frequencies in the frequency table for sepal width?
The sum is found by adding 1 + 1 + 1 = 3. 3 is the sum of the last three frequencies in the table.

12. How many flowers in the sample had sepal widths less than 4?
This is found by summing all the first 19 relative frequencies since they reflect all of the numeric observations for sepal widths less than 4. (i.e. 1+3+4+3+8+5+9+14+10+26+11+13+6+
12+6+12+6+4+3+6+2=146). 146 flowers had sepal widths less than 4.
13. What does the tallest bar in the plot represent? (Multiple choice)
b. mode – the relative frequency that occurs the most (Khan Academy, n.d.)
14. Create a frequency table that shows the frequencies for each species of flower in the sample. Paste your R command and output into your answer.
>table(flower.data$Species)
setosa versicolor virginica
50 50 50
15. Explain two things about the table that you created for the previous task:
Why did the frequency table for flower species contain words in the first row as opposed to numbers?
The reason that words are contained in the first row is because this variable was a factor or qualitative data which described that factor or data regarding the observations made of the sample within the population.
What is the meaning of the numbers in the second row of the table?
The second row containing numeric data shows how many of the observations made of the sample within the population represented that particular species. Interestingly enough, each species represented 1/3 of the total population (i.e. 50 + 50 + 50 = 150). 150 was the total number of observations made.
References
Khan Academy (n.d.). Mean, median, and mode review. Retrieved November 27, 2018, from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/statistics-probability/summarizing-quantitative-data/mean-median-basics/a/mean-median-and-mode-review
petal. (n.d.) American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. (2011). Retrieved November 27 2018 from https://www.thefreedictionary.com/petal
sepal. (n.d.) Cambridge English Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2018, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/sepal
Yakir, B. (2011). Introduction to statistical thinking (with R, without calculus). Retrieved November 26, 2018.

1. Name and describe three legal structures for doing business in Ireland. What are the disadvantages and advantages for all three structures that you have described.
What structure do you think best suits their business plan? Set out the reasons why this structure suits their plan by reference to the relevant case law and or statute law applicable.

There are many legal structures for doing business in Ireland. The three mentioned below have both advantages and disadvantages to them.
Partnership
A partnership is where two or more people agree to run the business as a team. An agreement should be drawn up. The two or more partners are all equally responsible and committed to running the business. If the business fails all the partners are equally responsible for it.
Advantages of a partnership
Cost Savings
More Capital
Disadvantages of a partnership
Liabilities
Emotional Issues
Lack of Stability
Limited Company (LTD)
In a limited company, the business is a separate legal entity. The owners or investors in the business are liable to only what they have invested into the company. In other words, if the company comes into debt, the creditors only have a claim on the assets of the company. Limited companies can be divided into public or private businesses.
Advantages
Limited Liability
Separate Entity
Tax
Complete Control
Disadvantages
Higher Disputes

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Sole Trader
A sole trader is a simple business structure. It consists of one person owning and running the whole business. Sole traders are legally responsible for the whole business.
They are self-employed, AQ\ but they may not be the only one working for the business. The sole trader may have employees.
Advantages
Full control of Decisions
Quick and Easy Start
Private Financial Data

Disadvantages
Full Liability
Hard to accept larger contracts
Must scale a business on your own

There is a lot of structures that the friends could have chosen to suit their business plan. I Believe that a Limited Company would be the structure that best suits the friend’s business plan.
The Limited Company structure would be the best choice because they will only be liable to what they have all invested into the company. All their personal assets will be safe. If they do come into debt, they will only have to give up their business assets.
They will also have a lower tax rate of 20% until 2026 according to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. And they will have complete control of Financial matters, so you do not have to risk your money with a third-party officer

2. Discuss social media law generally. Advise the friends specifically on the law of Defamation applying this to their plans, referring to decided cases and statute law.
Social Media has taken over a huge part of our lives and businesses rely on social media to get their business out in the world. There are some general social media laws that should be followed in a business.
The Defamation Act 2009:
Defamation is the act of ruining the good reputation of someone. It is any intentional and untruthful information written or spoken that would harm somebody’s reputation. It could even ruin the respect and the confidence of the victim of this. Defamation can be criminal charges or a civil charge.
For example, Barbulescu vs Romania:
Mr Barbulescu was dismissed after his electronic communications were being monitored. Mr Barbulescu’s right for his private life and his employer’s responsibility to make sure of the smooth running of his business failed to have a balance between the interests at stake.
The court figured out that the Romanian courts didn’t know if barbulescu had prior notifications of such monitoring. They did not say if he had prior notice is the nature of the monitoring. The national courts also failed to get this information or to determine it. They failed to determine the reasons for this monitoring and whether the monitoring was without his permission the right to Mr. Barbulescu’s private life was not adequately protected by the national authorities.

In the case of the friends, they are planning on giving false negative reviews of there competition on social media sites.
I would advise the friends to not do this social media campaign that they have planned as it can harm their competitor’s reputation. As their negative reviews and comments are false the friends can also get their own reputation ruined because it was intentional what they had planned to write. If this gets out, they will be facing criminal charges or civil charges. Then when people find out the friends newly established business will have to be shut down as people will not trust a business that intentionally tried to ruin their competitor’s business. They can get in a lot of legal trouble for writing false claims about competitors

3. What rights do consumers have in respect to Data Protection law and discuss their proposal in light of these laws.
Data protection is about an individual’s right to privacy. When you give your details to a business, they must keep the details you supplied them with safe. You can access the data a business has and change it. Businesses or people who have your personal details must obey a certain set of data protection principles. We call those who use your personal details data controllers. You have the right to data protection when your information is held on computers, paper, photographs or any type of recording.
The Data Protection Rights that consumers have in terms of the law are as follows:
The Right to have your details used in line with data protection.
They Data controller should use the consumers information fairly. They should also gain the information in a fair manner. They should also only keep it for the purposes accepted by the consumer and to make sure that all the information is correct and up to date.
The friends will be using the information they took of consumers from there last jobs to get there business known. They need to let the consumers know they have there information and make sure the information is correct.
The Right to information about your personal details.
Data controllers have to give you the name of the person/business getting your details and why they want them. If a different business gets your details of another business who has your details, they must tell you what exact details they have.
The friends will need to ask their past employers tell the person whose details they want to have.
You have the right to access your personal details.
You have the right to access all the data a company has of you by emailing or sending them a letter of request.
They need to be able to give each person that they have details on all the information they hold about them if it is requested.
You have the right to know if your details are being held
You can ask if an organisation has a hold of your details and what details they hold of yours.
The friend has to let the consumer know that they have there details as it is a right.
You have the right to remove/change your details
If you feel that a data controller has information on you that is not correct you have the right to ask them to change it. Also, if you don’t want a person having your details or if they don’t have a reason to having it you can get them to remove you.
If the consumers do not want the friends new wedding event company to have their information, they have the right to request them to remove it. They also have the right to request them to change certain details if they wish.
Right to prevent use of your personal details
You have the right to only have your details used to the agreed use. You can ask them not to use them for other purposes.
If a consumer asks not to have their details for the desired purpose the friends will have to obey their wishes.
Right to remove your details from direct marketing list.
You can ask a data controller to remove you from there direct marketing list.
If the friends have requests to be taken off the direct marketing list they will have t take the person requesting this off it.
You have the right to object.
You have the right to object to the controller wanting to use your details for official purposes or in the publics interest if u feel it will not be beneficial.
This right will not apply if you already have given permission that the data controller can use your information, or if they need your details for legal reasons.
The consumers may object to the friends using their details for official purposes. They will have to apply this request.

Right to freedom of decision making
Decisions about you from your personal details should have a human input.
Right to refuse direct marketing calls ; emails
If you do not want direct marketing calls and emails you can opt out by contacting the company, they will note your request on the National Directory Database. It is an offence to make any calls to people in the NDD.
If the Consumers do not want to be on the direct marketing list, they have the right to be taken off. The friends will have to put a note in the National Directory Database.

4. Advise the friends on Occupiers Liability, analysing the friends plans, by reference to the applicable case law and statutory provisions
The Occupiers Liability act is about the liability of occupants in respect of the dangers on the property for injury or damage to people and the property itself while on the premises.
The office that the friends are using is unsafe. They are liable to accidents and damage. The office they are renting is a public front office. A front office of there company is where the friends deal with the public in a room. As there will be customers entering their offices they will be open to accidents or damages. The office the friends are leasing for their business is in ‘very bad state’. The only access to the office is by stairs. There is no handrail and it has poor lighting.
These friends have a duty to ensure that there were no dangers within the premises. However, the friends are opening themselves up to future claims from customers. If the customer gets injured on their premises the friend’s new business can become in great legal trouble. This will lead to a lot of financial spending to hire lawyers to help their case that was against them. These friends need to rethink about there business office. They should either find a safer office to rent or fix up their current office to banish all of the dangers that are visible.
The occupiers are responsible for who is allowed in and out of the office. For example, If they reported the danger on a Tuesday and the landlord cant get workers in on the same day and someone gets injured, the landlord is liable for the loss of the business from the people renting off him but the friends in this case will be liable if they know about this an still open for business when the risks are still there. The friends should keep the premises closed until all risks are fixed.
The friends need to reconsider looking at this law and come up with a plan of action on how they will make themselves a lot safer from being prosecuted.

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO FERRITE:
Magnetic materials play an important role in electronics devices. It has many technological and electrical applications in the present civilization .1Ferrites have relevant value in the class of ceramic oxides which exhibit magnetic and electrical properties .2Ferrites are ferromagnetic material which have double oxide of iron with other materials.(K).Ferrites have widely used in modern civilization .The main cause of widely used of ferrites in the magnetic field is the ability to the outfitter material with outstanding magnetic properties which compared to bulk system because of their construction. 1 The characteristics of ferrites depend on the chemical composition cation distribution and the formulation of preparation method. Ferrites are significant branch of ferromagnetic which are most important material both application and theoretical view of point. Ferrites have high resistivity which varies from 102 to 1010 ohm-cm which are 15 times higher than that of iron. Because of these magnificent properties of ferrites ,it make them more demandable for high frequency application .(K) Ferrites have high frequency , low heat resistance, high corrosion resistor ,which make them more demandable for electromagnetic devices .The ferrites which behave as soft magnetic materials due to their exchange interaction among the cation of polyhedral sites. The rare earth cation have 4f orbital totally screened by 5s and 5p orbital these play an important role to explain electrical and magnetic properties of ferrites. The rare earth substituted ferrites have an important contribution in modern communication and electronic devices.3Nano-crystalline ferrites are most important because of their unique electric, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties which have a remarkable application both theoretical and technological sides. In ferrites strong degrease in the saturation magnetization (Ms ) and of coercivity (Hc ) in comparison to the bulk modulus have been studied. Ferrites nanoparticles are widely used in electronics, bioprocessing magnetic resonance imaging Ferro fluids. Spinel soft ferrites are specially important because they are relatively inert and their properties can be tailored by chemical multiplication .In recent years number of chemical and physical methods include mechanical milling, severe plastic deformation consolidation and inert gas condensation .4 Spinel ferrite have a significant application in electrical components such as memory devices and microwave devices and these ferrites have wide range frequency because of their high resistivity and loss behavior .5 Ferrites are used as high purity metal oxide which are prepared by ceramic technology .In these method the ferrites which are prepared are bulk material .In the modern nanotechnology, by using many different methods ferrites have been made Nano size particle.(Chapter 7,5).
1.2: IMPORTANCE OF FERRITES
Ferrites have many important application in magnetic materials at higher frequency, lower price, greater heat resistance and higher corrosion resistance. These materials have many technological importance at variety of areas ,the use of ferrites have increased day by day .Because of their good magnetic properties and high electrical resistivity over a wide range frequency which start from a few hundred Hz to several GHz , polycrystalline ferrites have great importance in magnetic field . Among the soft magnetic materials .They have high magnetic permeability and low magnetic losses so that spinel ferrites are used in many electronic and magnetic devices. 6
Ferrites have many importance in magnetic materials .These are-
1. High resistivity
2. Wide frequency range (10kHzto50MHz)
3. Low cost
4. Large selection material
5. Shape versatility
6. Economical assembly
7. Temperature and time stability
8. High Q/small package
In magnetic circuit ferrites are intended for both low level and power application because they have high frequency act of other circuit components continues to develop .They have advantageous arrangement of low cost ,high Q ,high stability and lowest volume so that these are finest core material choice for frequencies from 10KHz to %0MHz .In magnetic and mechanical considerations ferrites deal unmatched flexibility .7In recent years ,many consideration has been paid to Nano magnetic materials that response many magnetic properties .Ferrites have many promising characteristics .The important properties of High quality factor such as brilliant magnetic and electrical enactment ,low sensitivity to difference in the ambient temperature ,good sensibility with time ,satisfactory performance over the vital frequency band ,large number of controllable parameters i.e, their electrical magnetic properties can be organized by changing the relative percentage of numerous can constituents of cautions and they are cost effective. 8
1.3: APPLICATIONS OF FERRITE
Ferrite materials technology is in an on new aged now, in which the design engineers control the properties to enormous amount, to uniform the particular device .In recent year technology depend a lot to ferrites industry .Ferrites have great impact on ranging from the very ordinary radio sets to the complex and extensive hardware’s involved in computer .The first attraction of ferrites which is outstanding property is their very high electrical resistivity as compared to that of other metals .Eddy current losses are negligible at high frequency application ,in ferrites necessary materials telecommunication and in electronic industry where frequency range 103 to 1011 .Around 1950 ,new magnetic material was urgently need for telephone industry which was used as load coils of their long distance lines and magnetic in band pass filters .For these necessity ferrite introduce new requirement .Another important use of ferrite is in resonance circuit .For inductors ferrite core was used .As it control and minimize the various loss factor ,ferrite core become very efficient inductor which have high initial permeability and reduced physical size .Ferrite cores have high saturation induction and low hysteresis losses for these case core are used as power transformers . 8To control microwave transmission path ,frequency ,amplitude ,and phase microwave signals ,spinel ferrites are broadly used .To contribution in the production of ferrite ,perfect dielectric and magnetic property measurement at the operational frequency and temperature ranges are required for elevated improvement of theses metal. 9Magnetic materials have many possible application from information technology to biotechnology so that the structure of these materials are interesting field of study .9Magnetic materials have many possible application from information technology to biotechnology so that the structure of these materials significant field of research .10Now a days for development of the fabrication of multilayer chip inductors MLFCI as surface mount devices for miniaturized electronic products such as cellular phones ,digital diaries ,video camera recorders ,floppy drives, etc are greatly used of Ni-Cu-Zn spinel ferrites substituted rare earth iron .11To manufacture multilayer chip inductors thin sheets made of ferrite or special ceramics are used on which coil patterns are printed with metal paste .A spiral shape electrode pattern is designed by organizing these sheet in multiple layers .The coil was formed by using multilayer technique which is in a three dimensional space without the need to wind wire on a core and its facilitates miniaturization and mass production .At the time of flowing current through the coil magnetic flux is formed .The number of magnetic lines is known as inductance which is the intensity of the flux .The number of coil windings squared proportionally increased with the increased of inductance and proportionally to the cross section area. For higher magnetic permeability ferrites are used as a core results in higher inductance. The concentration of magnetic field lines are affected by higher magnetic permeability of core. As Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites have lower sintering temperature rather than other ferrites, these are potential material for the MLCIs. Different types of ferrites have been used in audio and visual tools such as liquid crystal TV set, head phone stereos, computer and telecommunications devices such as personal wireless communication system and automobile telephones.12 ,13
Ferrites have many important application. Those are given below
1-For modern electronic device such as cellular phones, video cameras, note book, hard temperatures and floppy drives ferrites are used.
2-Ferrites have oxides which can sintered at relatively low with a wide range composition so that these are used for manufacturing multilayer-type ships.
3-For low power and high flux transformers ferrites are used in television.
4-Ferrites rod are used for producing small antennas which are used for radio receiver .
5-Ferrites made nonvolatile memories of computer .It collection information if power supply fails.
6-Ferrites have been used for developing microwave devices such as circulators, insulators, switches.
7-Because of their high frequency ferrites are used as transformer core and computer memories such as computer hard disk, floppy disks, credit cards, audio cassettes and recorder heads.
8-For preparing low frequency ultrasonic waves ferries are used.
9-Nickel alloys have high frequency for these reason these are used as high speed relays, wideband transformers and inductors. These precise voltage and current transformers and inductive potentiometers.
10-At low dielectric values ferrites are used as electromagnetic wave absorbers.
1.4: CLASSIFICATION OF FERRITES
According to magnetic behavior ferrite materials are classified into two categories-
1. Soft ferrites
2. Hard ferrites
Soft Ferrites: The ferrites which have low coercivity are called soft ferrites. These ferrites are combination of nickel, zinc, or manganese compounds. It is easy to magnetized and demagnetized soft ferrites. Because of their relatively low losses high frequency soft ferrites are widely used in core of switched-mode power supply (SMPS) and radio frequency (RF) transformers and inductors.
Hard Ferrites: The ferrites which are permanent known as hard ferrites. Hard ferrites have high remanence after magnetization and these are combination of iron and barium or strontium oxides. They have high magnetic permeability and conduct magnetic flux good in magnetically saturated state. It stores stronger magnetic field rather than iron so that it called ceramic magnet. These are used as magnet in radios. Hard ferrites have magnetic field strength near 30 to 160 KA turns per meter and magnetic field B is about 0.35. These ferrites are divided in M-, X-, W-, Y- and Z- kinds of ferrites and contain hexagonal structure.7
According to crystal structure ferrites are classified by four type-
1. Spinel Ferrites
2. Garnet
3. Ortho-ferrite and
4. Hexagonal ferrites
1) Spinel ferrites
Spinel ferrites are also known as cubic ferrites. It is most famous ferrites because of their high value resistivity and low eddy current and for these properties spinel ferrites are ideal for microwave frequencies (Chapter 7). The chemical formula of spinel ferrites is MFe2O4. Here M means divalent metal ions. Spinel ferrites have two interstitial sites one is tetrahedral (A) and other is octahedral (B). The properties of ferrites differ by adding different kind of cations at tetrahedral A site and octahedral B site. Here for get number of spinel ferrites M can be exchanged by other divalent ion metals. The divalent metal ion are Co2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Cd2+,Cu2+.Spinel ferrites have eight formula per unit cell which is known as FCC unit cell. Here the big anion create FCC lattice.
According their distribution of cation on tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites spinel ferrites are classified into three different types. These are –
a) Normal Spinel ferrites
b) Inverse Spinel Ferrites
c) Intermediate Spinel Ferrites
a) Normal spinel ferrites
The spinel is normal when the octahedral B site has only one cation. In these case the trivalent cations are on octahedral B site on the other hand divalent cations are on tetrahedral (A) sites. Square brackets specify the ionic circulation of the octahedral B sites. Normal spinel ferrites have been symbolized by the symbol (M2+)AMe3+BO4. Here M symbolized divalent ions and Me symbolized trivalent ions. ZnFe2O4 is a typical symbol of normal spinel ferrite.
b) Inverse Spinel Ferrites
In spinel inverse ferrite partial of the trivalent ions are on the tetrahedral (A) sites and partial are on the octahedral B sites, the lasting cations are on arbitrarily distributed among the octahedral B sites. These spinel ferrites are symbolized by the formula (Me3+)AM2+Me3+BO4. Fe3O4 is the usual pattern of the spinel inverse ferrite.14
c) Random spinel Ferrites
The middle stage between normal and inverse ferrite with spinel ionic distribution known as random spinel ferrite. MgFe2O4 and MnFe2O4 are example of the random spinel ferrites.
2) Garnets
Garnet ferrites are second type of ferrite having cubic structure which represented by the formula R33+Fe53+O12. Here R is the symbol of the rare earth element such as dysprosium (Dy3+), gadolium (Gd3+), samarium (Sm3+) etc. Fe3+ is replaced by trivalent metal ion such as Cr, Al etc 2. These metal ions are distributed over three different sites

The metal ions
are distributed over three types of sites. The Me ions occupy the
dodecahedral sites (called c sites), where they are surrounded by eight
oxygen ions, the Fe3+ ions distributed over the tetrahedral and octahedral
sites in the ratio 3:2

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3) Ortho Ferrite

1 M. Kaiser, “Effect of rare earth elements on the structural, magnetic and electrical behavior of Ni-Zn-Cr nanoferrites,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 719, pp. 446–454, 2017.
2 “Ferrie: structure, properties and applications.”
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4 S. Gubbala, H. Nathani, K. Koizol, and R. D. K. Misra, “Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Zn, Zn-Mn, and Ni-Mn ferrites synthesized by reverse micelle technique,” Phys. B Condens. Matter, vol. 348, no. 1–4, pp. 317–328, 2004.
5 R. S. Yadav et al., “Structural, magnetic, optical, dielectric, electrical and modulus spectroscopic characteristics of ZnFe2O4spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 110, pp. 87–99, 2017.
6 T. Giannakopoulou, L. Kompotiatis, A. Kontogeorgakos, and G. Kordas, “Microwave behavior of ferrites prepared via sol-gel method,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 360–365, 2002.
7 R. Srivastava and B. C. Yadav, “Ferrite materials: Introduction, synthesis techniques, and applications as sensors,” Int. J. Green Nanotechnol. Biomed., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 141–154, 2012.
8 G. Aravind, D. Ravinder, and V. Nathanial, “Structural and Electrical Properties of Li – Ni Nanoferrites Synthesised by Citrate Gel Autocombustion Method Structural and Electrical Properties of Li – Ni Nanoferrites Synthesised by Citrate Gel Autocombustion Method,” vol. 2014, no. October 2014, 2015.
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10 D. Bahadur, J. Giri, B. B. Nayak, and T. Sriharsha, “Processing , properties and some novel applications of magnetic nanoparticles,” vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 663–679, 2005.
11 M. A. Gabal, “Effect of Mg substitution on the magnetic properties of NiCuZn ferrite nanoparticles prepared through a novel method using egg white,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 321, no. 19, pp. 3144–3148, 2009.
12 H. Yang, H. Su, X. Tang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and Y. Jing, “Effects of Co2O3concentration on high Q-factor NiCuZn ferrites for 13.56 MHz radio identification communication,” Ceram. Int., vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 13830–13833, 2016.
13 K. Sun et al., “Rietveld refinement, microstructure and ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of iron-deficiency NiCuZn ferrites,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 681, pp. 139–145, 2016.
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1.Introduction
The cognitive radio (CR) forms a technique for sensing the vacant bands and enabling the use of the available bands to transmit data. It can operate in the licensed spectrum band, where the CR refers to the secondary user (SU) and acquires access when not used by the primary user (PU). The philosophy of dynamic access gathers interest to foster the cognitive radio enabled devices engage the spectrum efficiently with the available bands.
A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) constitutes a multichannel network capable of transferring data between a source and a destination. It inherits two main differences from a traditional wireless sensor network (WSN) in the sense that the number of available channels differ from time to time and the set of available channels differ for each node in the CRSN. The nodes of a single network in the WSN usually use the same set of the available channels.

While the challenges in WSN that include low energy and hardware limitation increase the complexity of spectrum management, the CRSN does not consider the energy and hardware limitations as constraints. Though the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offer a fault tolerant nature, serve to be flexible, and find wide spread use, it experiences the constraints of link connectivity, limited bandwidth and processing capability. Besides the theory of clustering allows an efficient way to design efficient network architecture and facilitate effective routing schemes. It reduces the communication overhead, increases reliability and being a structured topology serves to increase the system capacity and stability.
However when thechannelexperiencesfadingandshadowing, a co-operativespectrumsensingapproach gathers strength to augment the degraded performance. It encompasses twosuccessivestages, where inthesensingstage,everycognitiveuserperforms spectrumsensingindividually and inthereportingstage it communicates the localsensingobservations toacommonreceiver and allows thelatter to makeafinaldecision either ontheabsenceor thepresenceoftheprimaryuser. It selects the most favourableuser(clusterhead)withthelargestreportingchannel gaintocollectthesensing resultsfromtheother usersinthesameclusterandforward themtothecommon receiver.

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1.1 Related works
The CR enabled WSN has been seen to reduce congestion, increase the throughput of the network and offer a reliable performance 1, 2. It has been operated with fixed spectrum allocation characterized by resource constraints in terms of communication and processing capabilities. The CR enabled sensor nodes have been endowed with the potential ability to access the multiple alternative channels.
The clustered CRSNs have been formed with a number of clusters and periodically transmit their sensed data to the sink through hierarchical routing 3. The sensor nodes have been equipped with sense and switch facility with the licensed channel by dynamic channel access to reduce the energy consumption.
The sensing strategies have been related to the sensing order optimization and acquiring the stopping time in sequential manner in the event of the channels being sensed one after the other 4. A time schedule has been assigned to each secondary user for sensing each particular channel at a particular instant. A co-operative spectrum sensing approach has been implemented to increase the efficiency of sensing and reduce the sensing time 5 for allowing multiple SU’s sense the same channel at the same time.
A cluster based cooperative spectrum sensing has been proposed in cognitive radio systems for reducing the reporting errors by the fading channels. The decision fusion and energy fusion schemes have been orchestrated to circumvent the drawbacks 6.
An online decision scheduling algorithm has been suggested to determine the sensing period together with a sequential detection for spectrum sensing, suitable for short term channel change 7.
Two problems have been witnessed due to spectrum sensing and channel state estimation and augur efforts for maximizing the secondary user (SU) throughput. It has been solved by means of the secondary user (SU) reporting their sufficient statistics to a fusion centre (FC) and enabling a level triggered sampling 8.
The primary user has been facilitated to transmit its information to the PU’s receiver directly or assisted by the SU depending on maximization of the throughput of the secondary user and primary user in each time slot 9.A game based spectrum allocation mechanism has been proposed for the different number of channels and the dynamic bidding game based spectrum allocation strategy developed 10.
A co-operative sensing scheduling embedded in partially observable Markov decision process has been analyzed as an efficient method of spectrum sensing for decreasing the transmission time of the secondary user for exploiting the other channels effectively 11. An energy efficient spectrum sensing technique has been outlined for reducing the sensing duration for each user 12.
In group based co-operative spectrum sensing, the secondary users have been grouped such that different groups become responsible for performing different sensing rounds. Three efficient adaptive assignment heuristics have been explained to perform the assignment of users to the group and the assignment of groups to the sensing rounds in a way that the throughput efficiency remains maximized 13.
A partially myopic access strategy has been articulated to prove that it allocates SU traffic to idle spectral bands on an energy efficient framework 14. The TDMA/round-robin fashion has been used to ensure that the secondary station efficiently shares the specific resources and exhibits perfect coordination. 15.
The cooperative spectrum sensing embedded with energy harvesting secondary user has been showcased to reduce the sensing time and decrease the energy efficiency with increased throughput 16. A prioritized ordering heuristic has been developed to order channels under the spectrum and a scheduling assignment included for achieving optimal solution 17.
Two heuristic algorithms have been put forth for spectrum sensing and compared with the optimal one-convex concept as applied in the design of an algorithm to solve the heterogeneous scenario optimally18.An ant colony based energy efficient sensor scheduling algorithm has been elucidated to provide the required sensing performance and increase the overall secondary system throughput19. The CSMA-CA has been laid to achieve fair and efficient throughputs in multi-hop networks by characterizing the worst case bounds for CSMA-CA in one-hop neighborhood topology 20.

The probability of collision has been applied to vari-ous traffic patterns thus relaxing the assumption of saturated conditions 21. A new carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) protocol has been outlined based on the interference of power measurements in the chan-nels to facilitate the use of a distributed channel selec-tion scheme 22.
Despite the continuous efforts, still the influence of a cluster of the routing scheme and its subsequent benefits on the performance invites attention.

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