1. Describe the general background/context and importance of the research question (Some background information that familiarizes the reader with your research question and helps him/her to understand the importance of your topic).

The cement manufacturing industry is one of the chief, major and essential industries all around the globe. In today’s world, due to more availability of resources the usage of cement has increased immensely since the 19th century. The cement industry is one of the major markets for industrial fans. The industrial fan is essential in the cement production line. Industrial fans or blowers are machines, whom primary function is to supply air or the removal of exhaust gases and material handling to various parts of structures. This is achieved by rotation of a number of blades, mounted on the shaft and driven by a motor or turbine. These fans or blowers are available in the different range from 5.7 m³ to 57,000 m³ per minute. In the meantime, the centrifugal fan can consume more power compared to other equipment. “According to statistics, it consumes about 15% of the total capacity of the plant.” In this world of rocket technology, the requirements of industrial fans has drastically increased over the years. The variety of problems that need to be solved when handling with dust, gases, small raw material particles and cement particles in a cement plant requires the wider range of fans to enhance the variety for each particular application. Due to this purpose, it is mandatory that the fans should be economical and within the budget of the company. There are myriads types of fans with defined applications in this industry such as raw mill fans, induced draft fans, cooling fans, raw mill exhaust fans, coal mill fans, exhaust fans and many more. This is a highly energy rigorous industry which make the correct air flow systems vital to make the most of production and profitability.

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Industrial fans can be categorized in mainly two parts:
1. Centrifugal Fan
2. Axial Fan
These two major parts are also sub-classified as given below:
Centrifugal Fan:
i. Airfoil fan
ii. Backward curve fan
iii. Backward inclined fan
iv. Radial blade fan
v. Radial tipped fan
vi. Paddle-wheel fan
vii. Forward-curve fan
viii. Industrial exhausters fan
ix. Pre-engineered fan
x. Pressure blower
xi. Surgeless blower
xii. Mechanical vapour recovery blower
xiii. Acid gas blower
xiv. Specialty process gas blower
Axial Fan:
i. High-temperature axial fan
ii. Tube axial fan
iii. Vane axial fan
iv. Variable pitch axial fan
v. Variable pitch on-the-fly axial fan
vi. Cooling fan
vii. Mixed-flow fan
Among all of these fans, centrifugal fans are most suitable for the cement industry due to their functions including combustion, cooling, exhaust, ventilation, aeration, particulate transport, air-cleaning, drying and many more. From all of the centrifugal fans “Airfoil Centrifugal Fan” is most popular for this industry.

2. Write a clear and focused research question.
“How to stamp out the testimony of cement and other dust particles from the surface of the centrifugal fan and to what extent can the flow rate be increased?”

3. Look at your research question and answer the following:
a. How have you focused your research question to make sure you can undertake this research with a reasonable expenditure of time, money and effort?
As mentioned earlier, Industrial fans can be divided into two major parts. By gathering research and analyzing different sources I have been able to manage my time efficiently and have prioritized the important concepts in order to perform effectively. For this reason, the focus of this study will be purely on ‘Centrifugal Fan’ which is most common in the industry. By analyzing sources and developing knowledge on the properties of each fan is an alternative option. Well, in this research I will focus on basic designs of the centrifugal fan which requires a lot of research work.

b. Will the process of solving this problem be more than a simple exercise in reviewing some existing information or will it involve some investigation?
As previously mentioned, Industrial fans are in the cement industry from the 19th century. Due to this, there is existing knowledge and advancement in this arena since long and that means there is many more to be discovered. To undertake this, study will be required to research further into the availability of other industrial fans and attain more knowledge on their function. If they are suitable for the same application, then to what extent? If the application results are positive then I will advance towards the improvement phase.

1. An Open Society Should Have Open Borders.
All over the news, politians, citizens and news journalists believe the U.S. immigration system is broken. If this current system of cutting off immigrats via wall is broken, new solutions should be considered. Capital and goods are exchanged across borders due to the North American Free Trade Agreement; it made it easier for business owners to invest in Mexico for goods to flow freely across the U.S.-Mexico border. However, repercussions of this put millions of Mexicans out of work and weren’t permitted to cross the border in search of jobs created here.The United States can learn from Europe and how well its countries harmonize. Europe opened many of its bordersAs Bill Hing points out, when the European Union was created, effectively allowing the free movement of EU citizens across the common market’s borders, a funny thing happened. Countries once known for their high output of immigrants, like Spain, Portugal and Ireland, became immigrant-receiving countries — a pattern that held until the worldwide economic crisis in 2007. Neither party can boast a record of fiscal responsibility when it comes to the border. The U.S. spends more on border enforcement than on all other federal law enforcement agencies combined. Americans are proud of their country’s history of harboring Irish families fleeing famine in the late 19th century, as well as Jewish refugees from World War II. Why not refugees from Mexico and Central America?

1.0 Introduction.

Students nowadays used to communicate with people because they are expecting the continuous connection of information. Against the way they live their lives to put away their personal technology during class session because there are a few reason for student expect what they learn at school have connection with the reality world(Kelley, 2009). Beside that, student can easily access the information by search from Google and a lot of relevant website will recently produces. Students todays grow up with gadgets and everything is on fingertips. That’s how technology conquer student mind and the way they are think. This evolution of the study can lead to the generation of innovative students.

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Live in twenty-century era fully change the ways of working in all area in life. Modern technology hundred percent influenced the changes in education system. This revolution era need a concrete development plan in education, but over time it must have some factor that will defect the plan which is can be a factor that limits of the contemporary role of education management. The educational institution that applied this new environment will be more modern and successful where people in there does not look like having a traditional way of teaching and learning such as only using book as their available sources of knowledge .Innovative happen when the people has a creativity of ideas, can do something that are outside of the box and keep the task to be practice. Creativity and innovation are more important at twenty first century whereby the knowledge society has been developed so well(Mishra, 2014). One of factor that people can reveal their creative and innovative skill is by education. It is show because in education have a learning process where it is can help especially student to hit the road by showing what they have.

The nature of online instruction does not allow instructor to perceived important non-verbal cues that signal in order to be understanding. Other than that, successful online student can be describe self-motivated, self-directed, exhibiting an internal locus of control with above average executive functioning, communication, interaction and technological skills(Kauffman, 2015). When new idea has been generated, created and developed it show that hat how the innovative behavior been described and the process of a student learning. According to research done by (Thurlings, Evers, and Vermeulen (2015) state that there are a few reason that lead to the changes of teacher behavior because form teaching it can affect the creation of innovative student. Firstly is keep up to date with a quickly changing especially with the community of people. This is because it will lead to demands in knowledge where in fact will increasing for both students and teacher. The next reason is upcoming new technologies and understanding of deep things about the teaching require. It is important because it will lead to have a creative idea by apply it with the connection of technologies. Third is the school itself need to show a good example and act which is as the starting point for more innovative behavior of people who is lawfully live a country so they can stay competitive. Education is extremely important in order to help student showing their ability in order to create interesting new things and creative ideas.

All technologies are a group of people or devices that are made up of smaller parts of other technologies. That is how the change try to get better and how they are built through combination and recombination. Some of those technologies in assembly will be harder and more pre-decide, some softer and open to change by the end users. Softer technologies are those that combine humans in their design and putting into law, where allowing tools to be used in any ways(Anderson ; Dron, 2014). Social technologies are basically and mostly soft. Other than that, the application of social technology are unable to be separated from the processes, rules, normal behaviors and ways of doing things that are grouped together with them. The technologies provide opportunities and the users as a people, groups, and networks decide how the best use for selfish reasons.

The students become an independent learner and critical thinker when they carefully study, figure out the worth, amount, or quality of and the combination of information from variety of sources and present their own reasonable understanding(El-shaer ; Gaber, 2014). This is known as employing ‘higher order thinking skills’. Learning higher order thinking-related abilities such as critical thinking has always been the final goal of education. Although the word critical can mean to find fault or to criticize, critical thinking is not a negative activity. Critical thinking was define as the identification and process of figuring out the worth, amount, or quality of something to guide decision making.

2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Innovative Student ( Dependent Variable)

Teachers know all too well the constant challenge of how best to use technology when helping students learn. With the increased availability of the internet and computer applications over the past 20 years, college and university professors have strengthened their loyalty to use computer technology to improve classroom learning(Strayer, 2012). As with any educational tool, there are many success plans for using computer technology. One such a way of reaching goals depends on technology to introduce students to course content outside of the classroom so that students can engage that content at a deeper level inside the classroom. Innovative student behavior will occur when there is something new or unique of idea from student towards their learning process.

The fast moving ahead of computer and network technologies has attracted people who work to find information to develop tools and success plans for managing and doing computer-helped learning activities. With these new technologies, innovative student learning content becomes rich and many different kinds of people because of the use of hypermedia and combining video, sound, words, and pictures together presentations. Researcher have pointed to that hypermedia systems are good for providing decorated with a personal touch learning supports or guidance by identifying the personal qualities of students and adapting the presentation styles or learning paths in the same way(Yang, Hwang, ; Yang, 2013). In the past ten years, different decoration with a personal touch ways of doing things have been proposed for developing is able to change and get better hypermedia learning systems, and have showed the benefit of such an approach. For example, an able to change and get better learning system by taking students’ knowledge levels as the main factor for adapting the learning that composes decorated with a personal touch learning content by thinking about people knowledge level and the difficulty level of the learning objects.

Teachers thinking ability were still in love with the lecture method, so people found ways to include the newly developed technology into their classes, basically making it less likely that students would simply sit and without trying to stop or change what’s happening that they are listen. Probably the most fancy or smart approach is the interactive lecture demo (ILD) which has students in a lecture hall or a classroom but not a lab watch an act of showing or proving then describe a possible future event the kind of data that would soon be gathered from teacher-operated computer sensors(Kelley, 2009). Studies have shown relatively large learning gains when instructors carefully follow the explained ILD instructions. Innovative student can be detect by the way of their learning process where from that their learning process will conquer and influence the way of their thinking of getting new and unique ideas.

Sources: http://ignatiawebs.blogspot.my/2014/07/linking-k12-to-mlearning-networked.html
The graph above is showed an innovative pedagogical practices where it stated the vital process that are needed in order to approach an innovative student. The teacher and students intensively used technology. They made use of technology as an device that makes music to complete different tasks. For instance, they used the computer as an effective presentation tool, communication tool, production tool for data retrieval and storage. Sometimes, the technology itself could be a part of the learning conditions. For example, the Internet could be a very rich source of information in which students learned many things. This technology-embedded learning conditions can be used to improve students’ learning in terms of wasting very little while working or producing something and effectiveness(Tong & Trinidad, 2005).

Tries to use the technology development such as smartphones, tablets as well as laptop have a wide chance in helping increase the right way of practices on teaching and learning in college. Improving effectiveness and wasting very little while working with worldwide became visible to the online learning, any approach to fulfill the needs in improving the learning quality process to provide information from many sources refers to adopt the way which helps in getting teaching and learning useful things supplies(Huda, Haron, Ripin, Hehsan, & Yaacob, 2017). Helping this process committed in testing/evaluating online learning supported easily through the recommendation improves the whole effort to begin on doing something to change the sources. More than that, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) with the process in preparing practical basis with the standard is putting into use the solid basic structure on which bigger things can be built of big data should be transmitted into the particular job to help the related to social pressure, how people act toward each other concern in terms of teaching and learning, running for business, and communication purposes.

Students are expected to master the knowledge that clearly connected with or related to the problem to be solved(El-shaer & Gaber, 2014). Then, students conduct a group where they are working in a group to get ideas and discussion session. They exchange and share their information with all the learning issues and educated guesses, and should reach an acceptable definition that is agreed upon by all members. From the discussion, student can built their innovative idea in order to be one of innovative student where can think outside of the box.

2.2 Creativity (Independent Variable)
Being soft, social software is rich with grouping together possibility of human activities, and may be deeply laced together with social and organizational processes(Anderson & Dron, 2014). Unlike more made to do one thing very well tools that are designed for particular purposes and have little flexibility, if any at all, for other choice uses, social software enables to showing the ability to create interesting new things with the uses and purposes that its designers probably never dreamed of. It is this way for a change and ability to create interesting new things in learning and teaching.

Describes how the municipality are created on sections of the provisions of the charter of the Republic of South Africa,1996 and similarly law.

On this assignment the categorisation, composition, capabilities, public officials and other huge topics referring to municipal councils are defined in greater detail. The council is the legislative and government organisation inside the activities of each municipality. Therefore, its far critical that councils and their activities in relation to the power of municipalities must be handled as comprehensively as possible in additional the integrated improvement making of plan by the municipalities to meet the desired need of the public/ communities of which they serve them by providing goods and services.

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2.1 Constitution of the republic of South Africa
According to Thornhill and Cloete (2004:68) The Municipality Structures Act affords for options and powers of municipalities. These provisions also because the large provisions of the constitution at 3 spheres of government (Class A, B and C municipalities), were handled in chapter a pair of. it’s way necessary to deal additional especially with the division of capabilities and powers between district and local municipalities. Municipality that has municipal executive and legislative authority in an exceedingly giant region that has some of local municipality. A local municipality are going to be outlined as a municipality that exercise its government and legislative authority geographical location of a part municipality.

Every municipality has the capabilities an influence appointed thereto in terms of section 156 and 229 of the Constitution of 1996. Those functions and powers should be divided just in case of the district municipality and native municipalities within the location of each district municipality as started in section 84 of the municipal Structure Act. A part municipality ought to obtain a acquire the incorporated , property, equitable, social, and economical improvement of its space as an entire by method of constructing positive incorporated development planning for the district as a whole, building the capability of native municipalities in its space to perform their capabilities and effort their powers wherever the capability is missing and promoting within the equitable distribution of resources among the native municipalities in its location to confirm appropriate levels of municipal services within the area. These square measure operate that square measure offered for the district and are appointed to district municipalities encompass moveable water delivery systems, bulk delivery of electricity consists of the aim of such provide. Every local municipality has been selected functions, powers, other than those options and powers preserved by district municipality (Thornhill and Cloete 2014:68).

3.1 Types of municipalities
According to Thornhill and Cloete (2014:55) In chapter 2 it’s same that phase 155 of the Charter provides for 3 categories (A, B and C) of municipality and also the legislation glided by parliament can make a case for the distinctive forms of municipality that will be found out at each category. To provide impact to those provisions, parliament exceeded the Local Government: Municipal Structures Act 117 of 1998. To be classified as Category A municipality which is known as metropolitan municipalities and it must comply with the following criteria:
A conurbation featuring
Areas of high population
Slightly movement of people, goods and services between areas inside the municipality
A very strong movement
Traveling to and from the working place on a continuous basis
A centre of economic activity with a complex and diverse economy
A single area for which integrated development planning is desired
Strong interdependent social and economic linkages among its constituent units
Eight metropolitan municipalities were so far being established in south Africa. The Municipal Structure Act provides for the following different executive systems for municipalities:
Collective executive system-provides the exercise of associate degree government authority through an executive committee in which the executive management of the municipality is cooperatively provided.

Mayoral executive system- provides the exercise of associate degree government authority through an executive mayor in whom the executive management of the municipality is provided and who is helped by a mayoral committee.

Plenary executive system- that limits the exercise of associate degree government authority to the municipal itself.

Sub councils participatory system- that permits for delegated powers to be performed by the sub council established for geographical areas of the municipality.

Ward participatory system- that permits for the difficulty of local concern to be delegated to wards to be handled by the committees that embody inhabitants of a ward.

3.2 Categories of municipalities
According to van der Wadlt, Khaolo, Phutiagae, Van den Walt, Van Niekerk and Venter (2014:57) The Act give that each of the 3 categories of municipalities might build use of 1 the subsequent types of government systems. (Bear in mind that the legislative and executive power is provided in council) The member of the provincial government council determines the type of government to be utilised by every municipality:
Types of category A executive’s systems available to metropolitan municipalities:
Collective executive system.

Collective executives system combined with a sub council participatory system.

Collective executives system combined with a ward participatory system.

Collective executive system combined with a sub council and a ward participatory system.

Mayoral executive system.

Mayoral executive system combined with a sub council participatory system.

Mayoral executive system combined with a ward participatory system.

Mayoral executive system combined with both a sub council and a ward participatory system.

Types of categories B executive systems available to local councils:
Collective executive system.

Collective executive system combined with a ward participatory system.

Mayoral executive
Mayoral executive system combined with a ward participatory system
Types of categories C executive systems available to mainly district council:
Collective executive system
Mayoral executive system
Plenary executive system
4.1 objectives of councils
According to Thornhill and Cloete (2014;59) Each municipal council should work towards achieving the objectives intended in Section 152 of the constitution. Therefore, the council should review the subsequent yearly:
The needs of the community.

Its priorities to meet those needs.

Its process for involving the community.

Its organisational and delivery mechanisms for meeting community’s needs.

Overall work in achieving the objectives intended.

4.2 Qualification of Councillors
According to Thornhill and Cloete (2014:61) in terms of the charter it’s the proper of every and each citizen who’s qualified to vote, to face as a candidate in associate election for the council and stays a member if he/she isn’t disqualified. The MEC could to boot exempt an individual from disqualification to be a member of a municipal council in question if there’s no vast battle of interest or unreconcilable conflict between the responsibilities as a municipal council member. The question is display on the viable conflict of interest inside the case of employee (Country wide or provincial sphere) acting as council member. The provision of such a council member for municipal, if in full-time employment of a department, to boot raise queries.

4.3 Election of Councillors
The charter and local government: Municipal Electoral Act 27 of 2000 (here when the municipal Electoral Act) provide for the election of councillors. during a district municipality the council include people appointed through totally different municipal councils to symbolize those council councils on a district council. The election of members of a municipal council must be in accordance national legislation as already alluded, supported that municipality’s section of the national common voter’s roll.According to Thornhill and Cloete (2014:61) The voting system guarantees that elected candidates from each party reflects the total share of the votes recorded for those events. If the voting system consists of ward representation, the bounds of wards ought be executed by using an impartial authority (presently the municipal demarcation board). someone might take a municipality handiest if that character is registered there on municipality’s section of the country wide commonplace voters roll. The gadget permits parties and pursuits pondered in the municipal council to be fairly represented within the municipal to which the appointment is made.

Important provisions for election are:
Only registered political parties may take part in the electoral process
A party may contest an election only if it has, in the prescribed format, given notice of its intention to contest the election.

Requirements to be met by ward candidates are satisfactory
Voting stations have been established by the electoral Commission
The boundaries of voting stations have been determined
Presiding officer have been provided to perform prescribed duties
Voting and counting officers as well as counter have been appointed
Parties contesting an election have appointed their agents
4.4 Meetings and activities of councils
According to Thornhill and Cloete(2004:66) The Municipal Structures Act 1998 provides for conferences of municipal councils- the speaker (e.g. the presiding officer of council meetings) of a municipal council can choose the place and time the council need to meet however the council ought to meet a minimum of quarterly, but a majority of councillors may additionally request the speaker in writing to convene a council assembly and also the speaker ought to convene a gathering at the time began within the request. The municipal manager, or once the manager is inaccessible, someone selected by the MEC for local government within the province, should call the first meeting of the council of the municipality in four days once the council is appointed or it’s a district council, on balance the members to be electoral through local councils were electoral.

4.5 The role of Metropolitan Sub-Councils
According to Thornhill and Cloete (2004:68) Best the category A municipality will have started metropolitan sub council. To ascertain sub councils, a metropolitan council should once a way of public consultation, bypass by the simplest way of law to work out the vary of sub councils, the area for each sub council that include a cluster of contiguous wards and totally different applicable matters. Every municipal sub council include the councillors representing the wards enclosed in its place additionally to those verify by means that of the metropolitan council A Metropolitan sub council is assigned such responsibilities and powers because the metro council delegate to it.Thornhill and Cloete (2004:69) The sub council should build tips to metropolitan council and may also propose the council on the functions and powers that delegated to it, one in each of its members it to be its presiding officer. Participants of the metropolitan council are appointed for a fundamental degree finishing whereas consecutive metropolitan council is alleged electoral. A member of sub council leaves his/her workplace by resignation as a member or by change of integrity to be a council. A metropolitan sub council might, with the serving to vote of most of its contributor’s gifts, set its own approaches concern to commands of metro council.

According to Thornhill and Cloete (2014:72) An executive committee is the major committee of the council of a municipality that is authorized to set up an executive committee. An executive committee gets review collectively with its recommendations to the council where as it cannot get rid of the problem in terms of its delegated powers.
The executive committee must:
Identification of needs of Municipality
Review and evaluate those needs in order of priority
Recommended to the municipal council strategies, programmes and services to address priority needs through the integrated development plan and estimates of revenue and expenditure, considering any applicable national and provincial development plans
Determine the best methods, including partnership and other approaches to deliver those strategies, programmes and services to the maximum benefits of the community. It could thus be stated that an executive committee has policy-making functions in these regards.
According to Thornhill and Cloete (2014:75) To market community participation in local government, provisions is formed within the municipal structures act for the institution of ward committees. solely metropolitan and local municipalities of the sorts observed within the applicable act is also establish ward committees. If metropolitan or local municipalities favour to came upon ward committee then explicit conditions ought to be administered. If ward committees are established a committee ought to became upon for every ward at the municipality. A ward committee consist of:
The councillor representing that ward in the council, who must be chosen by the committee
Not more than 10 people
A council that establish ward committee must also not forget the circumstances beneath that participants got to vacate work, and often presenting of ward committees. A council may also make administrative arrangements to ward committees to perform their roles and use their powers effectively. A council may e.g. supply secretarial support, offer mobile phones or create provision for allowances. Committee individual aren’t paid (Thornhill and Cloete, 2004:75).

Local Government: Municipal Finance Management 2003 (Act 53 of 2003) section 80 states that councils may in addition or in some cases area are grateful to point committees aiding the to hold out their functions. Most councils have variety of council committees that specialises in specific location. Councillors then get an opportunity to dedicate time to talk on problems and to finish up professionals within the ones region. Committees create tips that could council and save the council from having to handle all topics intimately. Committees do no longer take very last decisions to the fact most alternatives would like very last approval by the council as an entire. The following committee could be established by the municipal council:
Portfolio committees- These are the most common and usually have the same names as the different departments in council e.g. Health committee, Planning committee and Finance committee.

Geographically-based committees- These are set up to deal with matters in a specific area. This system is utilised in huge metropolitan municipalities consisting of sub councils.

Issues-related committee- The committee is set to deal with matters in specific areas in a way that involves people from different communities. This helps to solve problems from being treated in isolation.

According to Thornhill and Cloete (2004:74) This committee is appointed in terms of section 166 of the Local Government: Municipal Finance Management (Act 56 of 2003) (hereafter the MFMA) is an independent advisory frame to recommendation the council, the political workplace bearer, the accounting officer and the control personnel of municipality on topics associated with:
Internal financial control and internal audit
Risk management
Accounting policies
Performance management
Effective governance
Compliance with the act
Other matters referred to it by the municipality
6.1 Mayor
According to Thornhill and Cloete (2014:76) The Municipal Structure Act 1998 represent for election and capabilities of mayors. Mayors don’t need to be confused with the manager mayors. it’ll be evident that a politician inside the new municipal device has restricted powers and capabilities. The municipal council victimization govt|the chief|the manager} committee system should decide variety of its executive committee as a politician and if the MEC for regime within the province therefore approves, each different member of the manager committees as elective or while its so much necessary to fill empty positions. the way for the election of a politician or deputy politician is set in regulation. A politician and deputy politician ar elective throughout that individual’s term as a member of government, but he/she vacates workplace at some stage in a very period if he/she resigns as politician or deputy politician, is eliminated from the workplace as a member of government committee. somebody can even keep workplace as a politician or deputy politician for not further than 2 consecutive terms. once the expiration of 2 consecutive terms, a politician might not at once be elective as a deputy politician. The functions of the mayor consist of:
Presiding over meetings of the executive committee
Performing the duties, including any ceremonial functions
Exercise the power delegated to the mayor by the municipal council or the executive committee
6.2 Executive Mayor
Thornhill and Cloete (2014:77) stipulates that in terms of Municipal Structure Act, the executive mayor must:
Identify the needs of the municipality
Review and evaluate those needs in order of priority
Recommend to the municipal council strategies, programmes and services to address priority needs through the integrated development plan, and the estimates of revenue and expenditure, considering any applicable national and provincial.
Recommend or determine the best way, including partnership and other approaches to deliver those strategies, programmes and services to the maximum benefit of the community.

In performing duties of office, the executive mayor must:
Identify and develop criteria in terms of that progress on the implementation of the ways, programmes and services of the municipality are often evaluated, as well as key performance indicators that square measure specific to the municipal and customary to government generally.

6.3 Municipal councillor
Thornhill and Cloete (2017:79) States that, The Municipal structure act 1998 offers for a speaker of a municipal council. every municipal council should accommodate a presiding officer who’s referred because the speaker. A municipal council ought to elect a speaker from a couple of councillors as its 1st sitting when a municipal election or whereas a emptiness occur. The municipal manager of the municipality or, if the municipal manager isn’t to be had, somebody selected by the MEC for regime inside the province, presides over election of a speaker. A council member might not preserve workplace as a speaker and city manager or govt city manager at the equal time, but municipalities specific within the applicable municipal legislation, speaker is thought because the city manager.

The functions of the speaker consist of:
Presiding at a meeting of the council
Performing the duties and exercising the powers delegated to the speaker in terms of section 32
Making sure that the meetings of the council are conducted in accordance with rules order the council
Making sure compliance in the council committees with code of conduct
Coordinating the activities of ward committees
6.4 Municipal manager
According to Thornhill and Cloete(2014:80) The Municipal Structure Act 1998 ( as amended by Act seven of 2011) affords that a municipal council should use municipal manager World Health Organization is that the prime of management and to boot the accounting officer for the municipality and while necessary, associate showing municipal supervisor, brooding about the reality that the municipal supervisor is that the chief officer he/she is accountable to the council for the proper management of the council finance.

Features of Municipal Supervisor:
Acting with fidelity, honesty, integrity and in the best interest of the municipality.

Disclosing to council and the mayor any material facts that may influence the decisions or actions of council or the mayor.

Managing the financial administration of the municipality and ensuring that the resources are, used effectively, efficiently and economically.

Managing and providing assets and liabilities of the municipality
Assisting and providing the mayor with administrative support in performing the budgetary functions assigned to him/her in terms of the act
7.1 Integrated development planning (IDP)
Local Government: Municipal Systems Act, 2000 (Act thirty two of 2000) states that IDP may be a 5year amount arrange, got to manual all designing and improvement and selections regarding planning, management and improvement in municipality. Bind municipality within the sweat of its government authority and to boot binds different persons.

Reasons for developing IDP
Fundamental cause- primary developmental responsibilities been located to municipalities (quality of existence for citizens to be progressed)
7.2 Characteristics of integrated development planning
According to Van der Waldt, Khalo, Nealer, Phutiagae,Van der Walt, Van Niekerk and Venter (2014:108) The integrated improvement planning process must display the characteristics set out within the headings under :
• Horizontal or sectoral integration-
This includes co-ordinating of land use and spatial development with sectors like housing, education and transport.

• Environmental integration-
This includes the co-ordination of policies associated programmes inside an atmosphere.

• Vertical integration-
This includes the Cooperation of national, provincial, district, and native government policies and programmes and on the municipal level. The integrated of tries by individual, residents, non-governmental or organisation, the non-public sector and different stake holders to formulate objectives and to follow a thought of the community and of the country as a hole.

• Time integration-
this includes the thought of future dynamic trends, pressure, objective and target with a strategic horizon of a minimum of twenty-five years.

• Resource integration-
This includes co-ordination with funding sources, programme and comes so as to fulfil coming up with objectives
• Institution integration-
This includes the institution of partnerships and agencies with the capability for implementation.

7.2.1 Participatory
The integrated improvement designing technique relies on the principle of inclusive and representative session or the participation of all residents, communities and stakeholders within the municipality, additionally to representatives from alternative sphere of state, sector professionals and regardful resource person. Because of the huge length of the amalgamated municipalities, the session/ participation process many additionally observe the concept of:
Structure participation through organisations and legitimate representatives (or advocate, in the case of non-organised disadvantaged or marginalised population groups) rather than participation
Providing prerequisite and opportunities for participation, rather than proactively encouraging and organising participation by municipal government
7.2.2 Strategic
IDP must empower municipalities to prioritise and strategically focus their activities and resources, a strategic technique includes:
Prioritising a few crucial issues rather than dealing in a comprehensive manner with all issues.

Focussing analysis rather than wasting resources collecting useless information
Addressing root causes of problems, rather than only symptoms
Taking given resources and the relevant context into consideration.

Identify the analysing alternative strategic options.

The municipal surroundings are changeable, often in unpredictable approaches. Integrated development planning as a strategic planning and control tool stresses the significant of creating decision that will make sure of municipality’s ability to successfully and effectively respond to the changes within the government (Van der Waldt, et el, (2014:109).
7.2.3 Implementation orientated
IDPs are simplest true if they assist municipal management enhances and fast-track transport and improvement. An implementation-oriented manner has the following requirements:
The project proposals must be concrete and specific with regard to quantitation, targets, quality, timing, cost and response implementation agencies.

Integrated development planning must comply with the financial resource framework
A link between the planning and budgeting process must be ensured
Consensus amongst all role players and stake holders on planned projects must be reached to avoid delays in implementation
These characteristics correlate with the key ideas of a local Agenda 21 process to be mentioned within the next section (Van der Waldt et el, 2014:109).

Van der Waldt et el (2014:112) stipulates that viewing incorporated development preparing as a strategic management method has many essential implications. first off Associate in Nursing alternate in any part can result various or all the various stages, in any strategic management model to with the flow of facts is often reciprocal. A Second implication is that the need to treat it as a dynamic system. the thought ‘dynamic’ may be outlined the unceasingly changing things that result reticulate and mutualist strategic activities. a 3rd implication is that levels area unit serial. The system starts usually with things analysis, ascertained by suggests that of the formulation of a vision, the formulation of goals and techniques, the identification and implementation of comes and sooner or later analysis.

7.3.1 Phase 1: Analysis
This section offers with the present state affairs inside a municipal place. Its so much the catered analysis of the matter baby-faced by approach of a municipality and its communities. It’s necessary that the municipality acknowledge not solely the symptoms, but in addition the causes of the difficulty to be ready to create knowledgeable selections. The analysis entails associate analysis of the external and inner atmosphere. The analysis of the outside surroundings considers political, economic, legal and technological elements, and that of the inner surroundings considers elements such as the municipality’s inner procedures and practices together with its structure, management fashion and asset (Van der Waldt et el, 2014:112-113).

7.3.2 Phase 2: Strategies
According to Van der Waldt et el (2014:113) Once the municipality understands the problem affecting the human beings of its region and the reasons of those problems, it must the formulate the answers to deal with them. This phase includes components of the following capabilities:
• Vision –
The vision roadmap of the municipality options the direction during which it’s bimanual, the position is intends to stake out and the capabilities it plans to develop. what is more, vision helps produce organisation purpose and identity
• Formulation of objectives-
Objective statement of what the municipality would love to attain within the medium term to deal with the issue/problems and additionally contribute to the realisation of the vision. it’s essential that the objectives should be quantitative and possible
• Formulation of strategies-
Objectives at the top results that a municipality need to attain, whereas ways ar the means and suggests that by that it desires to attain these objectives. though a complete vary of ways are out there, on those who are in accordance with the municipality’s development mandate should be developed.

• Project identification-
Once ways are developed, the end in the identification of the project.

7.3.3 Phase 3: Projects
According to Wan der Waldt (2014:113) The section offers with the planning and specification of the initiatives for implementation. The municipality should sure that the project known have direct linkage to the priority to the priority issues and also the objectives that had been known within the preceding phases. It must be additionally being clear on the following:
Target group
The location of the project
The date of commencement and the date of completion
The person responsible for managing the project
Funding sources

7.3.4 Phase 4: Integration
Once the task was known. The municipality must be compelled to confirm that the results of the task planning might be checked for his or her compliance with the vision, objective, methods and sources which they’ll be harmonized in terms of contents, space and turning with a purpose to reach consolidate and incorporated programmes (Van der Waldt at el, 2014:113).

7.3.5 Phase 5: Approval
Earlier than being followed by manner of the municipal council, all applicable stakeholders and in examined parties, as well as alternative spheres of state, must be compelled to be granted the chance to investigate the draft arrange, therefore giving the allowable arrange a sound basis legitimacy, guide and relevancy (Van der Waldt, 2014:114).

The chapter and the massive next law passed by using parliament and the provincial legislature introduced approximately evolutionary modifications within the municipal government of South Africa. The very last changes came into full elected best after the election of municipal councillor. It’s crystal clear that the national wide sphere of government will, through parliament branch if Cooperative Governance and the branch of Traditional affairs play key role inside the reformation and monitoring of the overall performance of municipal government and administrative institutions. The essential transformation to drastically reduce the number municipalities must allow to carry out satisfactory after the improvement have been brought into effect. However, economies of scale do not always mean that efficiency and effectiveness can be assured. The latter replies upon on the first rate of the municipal government and administration.

Financial analysis scandals has been disseminate as issued of public interest and has given impact that such fraudulent transaction have on society due especially to earnings manipulation. Look at the case of Enron, Xerox Corporation, Toshiba, Gowex or Pescanova which is concerning and the implication for stakeholders and as well as firms. It’s negatively impacted public confidence such as stock markets, bankers, auditors, corporate managers, investors and even as governments. For example, Enron Corporation has been proved conducted earnings manipulation which was performed manipulation by using agency auditors to growth profits drawing near $ 1 billion, which in reality by no means existed. As well as Xerox Corporation, enterprise has been proved carried out accounting income manipulation via revenues with amount USD 6 billion. The variety isn’t always similar to the U.S. Securities and alternate fee estimated that the current fee of 1997 to 2000 with amount USD 3 billion on that day.
Issues of earning management has been broadly discussed for the past decade and its should be a step of ideas of proper guideline and new regulators especially IFRS, GAAP as well as MFRS to advocate the fraudulent cases of earnings management. This is to minimize earnings management illegally and all the corporate organization will be on the positive side of their financial analysis in the eyes of stakeholders, investors as well as firms.
Accounting requirements regulators are worried about the implications of earnings management cause to facts excellent (Jaggi & solar, 2012). Therefore, the effects originated from earnings management practices have numerous implications for stakeholders and regulators. As such, the investors and auditors ought to analyze carefully the facts provided by using monetary statements which may also have been manipulated even as the top management and the traders must be privy to the opportunistic behavior that managers can adopt to beat the benchmarks. Consequently, this earning’s management issue term paper is to understand how is earnings management happens, type of earnings management, the techniques as well as that managers face and the implications of incurring in such manipulation.
1.1. Earnings Management Definitions
An organization’s primary aim is to make profits and the ultimate goals is to maximize the shareholders wealth. Not handiest do the company proprietors want to have a profit at the cease of every accounting length, however they also want the company financial statements to look as proper as they can. In any case, the monetary statements are what capacity investors and lenders look at when they make the decision whether or how not to lend the enterprise money or to become an investor. That is wherein the idea of earnings control comes into play. Profits control, in a nutshell, is the innovative use of different accounting strategies to make monetary statements look higher.
There are various definitions of earnings management observed within the present literature, it’s miles defined via Schipper (1989, p.92) because the “functional intervention in the external monetary reporting technique with the intent of acquiring some private advantage.”
Even as these definitions range, they’ve a few commonalities: they consciousness on the intervention within the monetary reporting process to gain some private benefit, that’s implicit of opportunistic practices. The definition of Schipper means that activities in which manager’s influence pronounced profits for non-public advantage are taken into consideration earnings management practices. This definition is alternatively broad and lacks deeper insights into the particular mechanisms and targets of profits management. However, Healy and Wahlen’s definition is targeted mainly at the judgement that managers can use in economic reporting and the structuring of transactions to modify monetary reports to lie to stakeholders. It indicates that manipulation is inherent inside the exercise of profits management by using stating that judgement is utilized in economic reporting misinforming stakeholders. The definition of Mulford and Comiskey emphases comparable manipulation however is greater unique regarding the motive in the back of earnings management, this is the need to fulfill predetermined goals or analyst forecasts. In addition, this definition makes smoother, greater sustainable profits a further goal of earnings management.
The phenomenon of earnings management is positioned beneath the umbrella of what has emerged as called innovative accounting. Mulford and Comiskey (2002) talk to creative accounting practices as any and all steps taken to engage in aggressive preference and application of accounting concepts, fraudulent monetary reporting, or earnings management. Although the definitions of income management may also imply that it’s far a fraudulent pastime, profits control differs from fraud due to the fact managers can engage in profits control within the barriers of the ability afforded via generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) without violating these requirements, making it a legal exercise. Managers can also engage in profits smoothing. This is a form of income management that is described via Mulford and Comiskey (2002) as a method by using which managers take away peaks and troughs from an ordinary profits collection in an effort to provide earnings a greater strong outlook. This includes steps taken to reduce and keep profits at some point of suitable years to be used in destiny, less profitable years.
1.2. What Earnings Management Issue
Earnings management occurs each time monetary selections are based totally on intentional judgment applied for transaction structuring and monetary reporting with the only reason of significant deceit, concealment or information spinning, it gives rise to earnings management. that is accomplished on the way to misinform the investors and stakeholders and impact favourable results from commercial enterprise contracts through manipulated accounting figures as stated by Healey and Wahlen (1999, p.368).

1.3 Type of earnings management

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Depending on to its motives, earnings management may have numerous implications on company’s share price and its going difficulty. At the same time as some consequences are exact for the organization but now and then it’s bad to others and can end result to insolvent or winding-up petition. There’re a controversies for the business enterprise and the researchers as whether the earnings’ management is ideal or not. However, this may not constantly be the case because impossible nowadays dynamic and challenging business environment to find a corporation that doesn’t practice earnings management since it’s allowed via GAAP. Apparently, there are two key form of earnings management particularly: 1) Accrual earnings management (AEM), 2) Real earnings management (REM) and each has been supported by means of GAAP.
1.3.1 Accrual earnings management (AEM)

Accrual earnings management takes place whilst managers interfere within the economic reporting method with the aid of exercise discretion and judgment to trade pronounced income without any cash glide effects (Kothari et al., 2012). Firms may be aggressive with their accounting selections through bringing forward profits from a future length, through the acceleration of revenues or deceleration of fees, thereby growing profits within the cutting-edge duration. This creates what is known as discretionary accruals within the literature. Due to the fact that accruals opposite through the years, earnings will be diminished robotically with the aid of the amount of profits that become brought forward inside the preceding duration.

Conversely, a company can be conservative and save up earnings for a destiny duration. As an illustration, conservative revenue popularity practices can be used to defer sales and reduce present day length profits. Within the literature, that is known as ‘cookie jar reserves’ wherein a company is able to shop earnings for future years whilst profits may be below the goal rate of boom (Mulford and Comiskey, 2002). A discount in deferred sales can also be made to enhance sales and income inside the following intervals.

1.3.2 Real earnings management (REM)

Real earnings management happens when managers intentionally make running choices which have real cash drift results with the goal of altering reported income. As an example, a firm may also offer price discounts and provide extra flexible credit score terms to customers to enhance income revenues briefly. In addition, managers can also opportunistically lessen research and development expenses in order to lessen fees in the income assertion (Dechow and Skinner, 2000). Similarly, managers can put off protection fees to growth suggested income.

Zang (2012) explains this sort of earnings management behavior as functional movement taken so that you can modify said earnings in a positive course by means of changing the timing or structuring of a funding, operation, or financing transaction, which is consistent with the definition of earnings control supplied with the aid of Healy and Wahlen (1999). Cohen and Zarowin (2010) provide an explanation for real sports-primarily based profits control as the movements managers take that deviate from normal commercial enterprise practices, and that these movements are manipulations that affect cash flows. The commonality between those one of a kind causes is certainly the truth that real activities-primarily based earnings control is practical in nature and has real cash flow results.

1.4 Strategies of earnings management

Earning management is a totally popular term utilized by control to manage earnings. However, it does no longer mean any illegal sports by using management to manipulate earnings. Managers can achieve earnings from accounting choices or by using operating selections. Managers can manage earnings because they have got flexibility in making accounting or running alternatives. The maximum a hit and extensively used earnings control strategies can be categorized into the top five strategies.

1. The big bath
Strategies that used while a business enterprise had a few losses or prices due to operations restructuring, problem debt restructuring, asset impairment and written-off, discontinued operations of a section and subsidiaries and they need to dispose of it in modern unique duration. This strategy is to make to be had for agency to file at the accounting evaluation in the event that they’ve a bad news of losses, it is higher to record all of it once.

2. Operating Expenses
This profits management approach occurs whilst managers plan certain occasions to arise in sure intervals. Which means managers can also decide to purchase new equipment in a length wherein income has been moderately excessive. They want to make sure that the profits is levelled out with prior intervals in order that there might not be a spike in a few months and dramatic decline in others. Despite the fact that they are rearranging the timing of the purchase to fine gain the monetary reviews, they’re nevertheless as it should be reporting the rate.

3. Cookie jar reserve
The cookie-jar method deals with estimations of destiny occasions. GAAP states that control has to estimate and record responsibilities so that it will be paid within the destiny due to activities or transactions in the present day financial year primarily based on accrual foundation. However, there is usually uncertainty surrounding the estimation system because destiny is not continually sure. There’s no correct solution; there may be reasonably viable solutions. Management has to pick an unmarried quantity in step with GAAP so there may be a hazard of taking the advantage of earnings control. Beneath the cookie-jar technique, the organization will try to overestimate charges in the course of the current period to manage profits. If and while actual costs turn out lower than estimates, the distinction may be put into the “cookie jar” to be used later when the company desires a boost in earnings to meet predictions. Some examples of estimation to manipulate profits are: sales returns and allowances, estimates of terrible debt and write-downs; estimating stock write downs; estimating warranty prices; estimating pension rate; terminating pension plans and estimating percent of completion for long term contracts and many others.

4. Big Bet on the Future Technique
While an acquisition happens, the organization acquiring the alternative is stated to have made a large guess on the destiny. Under generally accepted Accounting principles (GAAP) rules, an acquisition should be pronounced as a buy. This leaves doorways open for profits control. Within the first instance, an employer can write off continuing R;D expenses in opposition to cutting-edge earnings in the purchase year, protecting destiny income from those prices. Which means that when the prices are sincerely incurred within the destiny, they’ll no longer need to be mentioned and for that reason future earnings will acquire a lift. The second one method is to say the earnings of the currently obtained corporation. When the obtained corporation consolidated with discern employer income, then straight away acquire a lift inside the cutting-edge 12 months’ earnings. Via acquiring some other agency, the parent corporation buys an assured increase in contemporary or destiny earnings through massive guess technique.

5. Changing the GAAP technique
This approach includes control judgement in volunteering for a new accounting preferred, converting revenue and different costs popularity rules. For instance changing depreciation approach from lowering balance to instantly line approach.

1. Introduction
1.1 Introduction to System:-
Nowadays, customer service oriented companies facing difficulties of lengthy queues. These problems often occurred in the banks, post office, Restaurant, Super mall and airport and it became worsen when the time reached peak hour. In general, queuing is a line of people waiting to be serve and the movement is from a central to a specific place. Thus, a queue management in our system must handle and organized queue formation in the most efficient way and Crowed Analysis also perform for the better way to provide customer services.

We are going to use the Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence to solve this problem and provide efficient services to customers. Basically, this is an analytics project, use to enhance the services provided by the department and fulfil the requirements of customers.

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1.2 Objectives Of Project:-
Objectives of this project to enhance the customer services that build up customer satisfaction and decrease the average waiting time. The objectives of this project to:-
Investigate the current approaches that manage the Queue.
Design a working system for queue management system.
Design a system that work for crowed control.

Implement the system that provide suggestions based on analysis and detection.
Implement the system using mechatronic solution.
Evaluate the system for effectiveness.

1.3 Problem Specification:-
Many companies provide queue management system for controlling queues of people in various situations and locations in a queue area. Most of the techniques used are manually for a small space and simple flow and take decision after the situation arise. On the other hand, in this project has hybrid way to deal for a larger space and complex flow. The System produce the alert notification for manage queue before it become wide. These can be see widely used in banks, hospitals or clinics, super mall, airport and post offices.

2. Requirement Analysis
2.1 Study of current System:-
Many times, we have to wait in long queues for the getting services, which in return waste a lot of time and greater level of patience. Sometimes customers can miss some offers etc. Many companies provide queue management system for controlling queues of people in various situations and locations in a queue area. Most of the techniques used are manually for a small space and simple flow and take decision after the situation arise. System can’t provide suggestions before the situation become worst.

2.2 Requirement of new System:-
As in new system Artificial Intelligence is used so that it will analyze the customer’s activities and then take decision automatically from the detection and provide some effective suggestions to improve customer satisfaction. This system optimizes your on-time services to ensure customer satisfaction and make important business decisions based on real-time data. The aimed of data Analytics to provide guidelines for queue formation and organising it in most efficient way and provide some special offers. It is useful for estimate future bottlenecks and peaks thanks to predictive analytics.

2.3 Technology used
Artificial Intelligence:-
Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. In computer science AI research is defined as the study of “intelligent agents”: any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”.

Machine Learning:-
Machine learning (ML) is a category of algorithm that allows software applications to become more accurate in predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed. The basic premise of machine learning is to build algorithms that can receive input data and use statistical analysis to predict an output while updating outputs as new data becomes available. The processes involved in machine learning are similar to that of data mining and predictive modeling. Both require searching through data to look for patterns and adjusting program actions accordingly. Machine learning algorithms are often categorized as supervised or unsupervised. Supervised algorithms require a data scientist or data analyst with machine learning skills to provide both input and desired output. Unsupervised algorithms do not need to be trained with desired outcome data. Instead, they use an iterative approach called deep learning to review data and arrive at conclusions. 
Computer Vision:-
Computer vision is an interdisciplinary field that deals with how computers can be made to gain high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to automate tasks that the human visual system can do. Computer vision tasks include method for acquiring, processing, analyzing and understanding digital images, and extraction of high-dimensional data from the real world in order to produce numerical or symbolic information,. Computer vision is closely linked with artificial intelligence, as the computer must interpret what it sees, and then perform appropriate analysis or act accordingly.

Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. Its high-level built in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding, make it very attractive for Rapid Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting or glue language to connect existing components together. Python’s simple, easy to learn syntax emphasizes readability and therefore reduces the cost of program maintenance. Python supports modules and packages, which encourages program modularity and code reuse. PyCharm is the most popular IDE integrated development environments used for Python programming language. In addition, in the Professional edition, one can develop Django, Flask and Pyramid applications. Also, it fully supports HTML (including HTML5), CSS, JavaScript, and XML: these languages are bundled in the IDE via plugins and are switched on for you by default. 
2.4 Hardware-Software used:-
Microsoft SQL server:-
Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database server, it is a software product with the primary function of storing and retrieving data as requested by other software applications—which may run either on the same computer or on another computer across a network (including the Internet).SQL server aims to make the data management self-tuning, self-organizing and self-maintaining. SQL server also include support for structured and semi- structured data, including digital media formats for pictures, audio, video and other multimedia data. In current version multimedia data can be stored as BLOBs(Binary Large Objects),but they are generic bit stream.

PyCharm is the most popular IDE integrated development environments used for Python programming language. In addition, in the Professional edition, one can develop Django, Flask and Pyramid applications. Also, it fully supports HTML (including HTML5), CSS, JavaScript, and XML: these languages are bundled in the IDE via plugins and are switched on for you by default. 
SQLyog is the most powerful manager, admin and GUI tool for MySQL, combining the features of MySQL Query Browser, Administrator, phpMyAdmin and other MySQL Front Ends and MySQL GUI tools in a single intuitive interface. SQLyog is a fast, easy to use and compact graphical tool for managing your MySQL databases. SQLyog was developed for all who use MySQL as their preferred RDBMS. Whether you enjoy the control of handwritten SQL or prefer to work in a visual environment, SQLyog makes it easy for you to get started and provides you with tools to enhance your MySQL experience. Build complex queries using drag-n-drop interface. Visually create SQL statements without the need to remember column names.

2.5 Hardware-Software Requirements:-
Hardware Requirements:-
External Hard Drive for Backup
Mobile device
Software Requirements:-
Notepad++, pycharm(editor)
SQL server
Web Browser (Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox)
3. System Design
3.1 Use Case diagram:-


3.2 Activity Diagram:-


3.3 Sequence Diagram:-


3.4 State Diagram:-


3.5 Class Diagrams:-


3.6 E-R Diagram:-

3.7 Data Flow Diagram:-
3.7.1 Context level Diagram:-

3.7.2 Level-1 DFD:-


4. Data Model and Description
4.1 Data Dictionary:-
Column_name Data_Type Length Constraint
Login_id Int – Primary Key
User_id Varchar 50 Not Null
Password Varchar 50 Not Null
User_Type Varchar 50 Not Null
Column_name Data_Type Length Constraint
User_id Varchar 15 Primary key
First name Varchar 15 Not Null
Last name Varchar 15 Not Null
Address Varchar 50 Not Null
Work-Location_id Varchar 20 Foreign key
Email-id Varchar 25 Not Null
Mobile no. Int – Not Null
Login_id Int – Foreign key
Password Varchar 20 Not Null
Column_name Data_Type Length Constraint
Video_id Int – Primary key
Video File – Not Null
User_id Varchar(10) 10 Foreign key
Table_ Work-Location:-
Column_name Data_Type Lenght Constraint
Work-Location _id Int 20 Primary key
Street_name varchar 20 Not Null
Landmark Varchar 10 Not Null
Area Varchar 20 Not Null
City Varchar 20 Not Null
Pincode Int – Not Null
State Varchar 20 Not Null
Country Varchar 20 Not Null
Column_name Data_Type Length Constraint
Complain_id Int – Primary key
Subject Varchar(20) 20 Not Null
Discription Varchar(50) 50 –
User_id Int – Primary key
Column_name Data_Type Length Constraint
Report_id Int – Primary key
Report File – Not Null
User_id Varchar(10) 10 Foreign key
Column_name Data_Type Length Constraint
Feedback_id Int – Primary key
Feedback Varchar(70) 70 Not Null
User_id Int – Foreign key
5. Canvas Sheets
5.1 AEIOU Canvas :-

Environment: –
Our project support multiple platform includes Linux, Windows.

Interaction: –
AdminWeb Portal
Mall Manager Web Portal
Customer Web Portal
AdminMall Manager
Mall ManagerCustomer
5.2 Empathy Canvas :-

By this Empathy Canvas we know about users, stakeholders and activities which are directly and indirectly related with stakeholders and users.

User: –
Mall Manager
5.3 Product Development Canvas :-

The purpose of our project is to queue control and queue analysis for provide the better services to customer. Another purpose is to find the best for manage and organizing queue in efficient way and to do the crowed analysis and provide some suggestions.
It is effective solution for minimize the average waiting time of customer and also provide fast billing facility.

Product Function:-
By using this web application service provider can manage queue and additionally get the alert notification bell for critical situation.

Product Features:-
User Logistic Analytics System has many features Some of them are Auto Detect Queue, Auto Billing Using Barcode, Face Detection, View Report, Alert Notification.

Components which are require to use User Logistic Analytics System are Mobiles, Tablets, Router, Computer, Modem etc.

5.4 Ideation Canvas:-

The main people are Mall Manager, Admin, Customer, Occupant, Bank, Hospital and compatible to any casual user, Professional users.
How are users related with domain, where and why are they related to domain is visualized through situation/Context/Location.

Queue Analysis
Offer Suggestions
6. Future Enhancement
Future Extension:-
Cash -;taking cash by the system itself.

Minimal use of humans resources-;We can make less human power at any retro.

7. Conclusion and Reference
7.1 Conclusion:-
Design and development of User Logistic Analytics System starts with the understanding of the queue system itself. which is very crucial to broaden the horizon of understanding. Then, the consideration of the control strategy and component to be use plays important role as guidelines to accomplish this project. In addition, several articles have been review to investigate the current approaches for managing queue control. Although the current approaches have proven to ease and give benefits to service providers, yet there are space of improvement in order for a queue system function efficiently and customer analysis and suggestions for offers.

There are some improvement can be made such as addition of sensors of cameras that can detect customers at a certain time. This method can improve the efficiency of a queue system as it alerts manager to counter fast on the situation.

7.2 References:-
www.tutorialspoint.comIntroduction to Machine Learning with python by Andreas C. Muller and Sarah Guido


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