1.10 Operational definitions
Water Supply Service: Providing water for domestic, commercial, industrial and social use.
Safe Water: the water protected from contamination.
Household: any unit of habitual residence where some consumption and/or production may be undertaken in common and where some members may recognize culturally defined relationships of kinship and/or affinity where the members are related in some way (asfaw 2006).
Kebele: the smallest administrative unit under city or town administration.
Potable water: water that is safe to drink.
Improved Water Supply: Provision of water in good quality or safe for health, good quantity or the required amount of water is available for use any time through out the year; and collection of water need not take much of your time and effort.
Infrastructure: is defined to denote the hard components that comprise all systems of urban physical structure that are mainly laid underground, surface and overhead to provide public services. Infrastructure in the context of this study includes the sheet network and utilities (electric, water, drainage and telephone, (UNICEF, 2006).
Coverage: refers to the proportion of people served with the adequate levels of water supply.
Urban: Built-up and populated area that includes a municipality and generally, has a population of 2000 or more
Water supply: supplying of clean water for human use.

CHAPTER TWO
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter deals with the conceptual framework, empirical framework and theoretical overview of urban water supply and distribution. It assesses the urban water supply, sources of water supply, approaches of water supply, urban water supply accessibility, challenges of urban water supply and distribution, urban water supply in developing countries in general and in Ethiopia in particular, benefits of access to safe, reliable, adequate and affordable potable water supply and impacts of inaccessibility of urban water supply and distribution facilities. In addition to these it assesses the Ethiopian government’s water supply policy, institutional arrangement and responsibilities at different levels.

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2.1 Urban water supply
Alaci and Alehegn (2009) stated that, water is important in a number of ways; these include domestic and productive uses. Domestic water use takes the form of drinking, washing, cooking and sanitation, while productive water uses includes those for agriculture, beer brewing, brick making etc. Safe drinking water matched with improved water supply contributes to the overall well-being of people; it has significant bearing on infant mortality rate, longevity and productivity. However, the majority of the world’s population in both rural and urban settlements does not have access to safe drinking water.

According to WHO, (2006) cited in Mengistu, (2008), only 16% of people in Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) had access to drinking water through a household connection (an indoor tap or a tap in the yard). Not only their poor access to readily accessible drinking water, even when water is available in these small towns there are risks of contamination due to several factors like inappropriate waste disposal and lack of water supply infrastructure such as pipe line for water.

2.1.1 Sources of water supply
According to Sijbemsa (1989), and Tesfaye and Zeyede (2004) water sources fall in to three categories. These are:
Surface water; It originates from rain water. Surface water is found non-uniformly distributed over the earth’s surface. As the rain reaches the surface of the earth, it becomes surface water or runoff. Surface water includes rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, tanks, manmade reservoirs and sea water. The quantity and quality of surface water depend upon the conditions of the surface or catchment area over which it flows. It is the main source of water supply in many areas. Surface water is prone to contamination from animal and human sources. As such it is not safe for human consumption unless subjected to sanitary protection and purification before use.

Rain water; It refers to rain is that collected from surfaces (by roof or ground catchment) and stored in a container, ponds, tank or cistern until used. This water is the purest water in nature yet
it tends to become impure as it passes through the atmosphere. It picks up suspended impurities from the atmosphere such as dust, soot and microorganisms and gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and ammonia. In regions where rainfall is abundant and frequent, rainwater can be a good source of water supply for individual families and for small communities. The storage of rainwater is particularly important in areas with a long dry season.

Ground water; It may be defined as that portion of the total precipitation which has percolated downward into the porous space in the soil and rock where it remains, or from which it finds its way out to the surface. It is water used by humans comes mainly from land such as wells, springs, etc. It tends to be of higher microbiological quality having undergone natural soil filtration. However, it is relatively difficult to extract. Compared to other water sources more technology and energy is needed to bring water from within the earth up to the surface.

UN-HABITAT (2006) stated that, water service provision options are standpipes, yard and house connections.
Household connection: Household connection, is a water service pipe connected within house plumbing to one or more taps (e.g. in the kitchen and bathroom) or tap placed in the yard or plot outside the house.
Public tap or standpipe: Public tap or standpipe is a public water point from which people can collect water. Many low-income households that are unable to afford a household connection are relying on public water points.
Domestic reseller: Increasingly, households with a private connection are selling water to their neighbors.

In addition to this, UNICEF (2008) stated that, population using improved sources of drinking water are those with any of the following types of water supply: piped water (into dwelling yard or plot), public tap or standpipe, tube well or borehole, protected well, protected spring and rain water collection while unimproved sources are unprotected dug well, unprotected spring, surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channel), vendor-provided water (cart with small tank or drum, tanker truck), bottled water, tanker truck provided water.

2.1.2 Urban water supply accessibility
Accessibility connotes physical availability of a service or facility. It establishes the extent to which factors like distance, time and cost have decayed. Optimum accessibility in the case of water means effectively over coming access indicators of distance, time and affordability (Alaci and Alehegn, 2009).

According to Adeyemo and Afolabi (2005), accessibility is the balance between the demand for and the supply of consumer services over a geographic space and narrowing or bridging the gap between geographic spaces is the all significance of transport. Accessibility can be seen within the context of the ease with the people can obtain the services of a facility and function. Accessibility increases with decreasing constraints both physical and social.

According to UN-HABITAT (2003) access to safe water is the share of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of safe water. In urban areas the water source may be a public fountain or a stand pipe not more than 200 meters away from households and the adequate amount of water which is needed to satisfy metabolic, hygienic and domestic requirements usually about 20 liters of safe water per person per day. This minimum quantity however vary depending on whether it’s an urban or rural location and whether warm or hot climate.

2.1.3 Water supply accessibility indicators
With regard to water accessibility WHO (2008) stated basic indicators of measuring water accessibility. These indicators show four paramount levels of water accessibility that include optimal access (water supply through taps continuously), intermediate access (water supplied through multiple taps continuously within less than 100m distance travel and within 5 minutes), basic access (between 100m and 1000m distance and 5-30 minutes time) and no access (more than 1000m distance travel and more than 30 minutes time). These are indicators of the level of water availability which is a measure of the quantity available for use. Basically, they reflect the extent to which accessibility challenges time, distance and affordability etc.

2.1.3.1 Time and distance travel to fetch water
Time and distance traveled to fetch water are the key indicators of water accessibility. As WHO (2008) standards if households travel more than 200 meters far away from house in urban areas, there is no access. In relation to time, if the time is within 5 minutes, 5-30 minutes and more than 30 minutes, there is intermediate access, basic access and no access respectively.

2.1.3.2 Affordability
The affordability of water has a significant influence on the use of water and selection of water sources. Households with the lowest levels of access to safe water supply frequently pay more for their water than households connected to a piped water system. The high cost of water may force households to use small quantities of water and alternative of poorer quality that represent a greater risk too (Public Health Protection, 2000). Private access to tap water is the cheapest for the consumer. Dependence on a shared standpipe increases prices four times. Private water

1. The purpose of this memorandum is to recommend SSG Scott for NCO of the year. He arrived at Hohenfels DES in March 2018 and assigned to Traffic Management Collision Investigation. In the time assigned to the DES, he has been performing far above his peers. He is a hard charging, dedicated and motivated NCO who takes any mission head on. SSG Scott graduated Military Police Advanced Leaders Course, earning the title of Distinguished Honor Graduate.

2. He earned the Army Physical Fitness Badge for Excellence on his Army Physical Fitness Test. He demonstrated self-development by earning a bachelor’s degree with a 3.8 GPA from Colombia University. He constantly displays extreme professional work ethic and sets the example for others to emulate. Through a rigorous and challenging process, he was inducted into the Sergeant Morales Club (SMC). He has mentored and coached two NCOs to compete and become members of the SMC.

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3. I believe he has what it takes to compete in NCO of the year board. SSG Scott motivated five Soldiers within DES to achieve Commandants list in Basic Leaders Course. He stressed professional development and inspired Soldiers to complete over 25 semester hours of college. SSG Scott demonstrates exceptional leadership and knowledge that disseminates amongst Leaders, Peers, and Subordinates alike. He made a visitor sign-in tracker that decreased actions for violations by 50 percent.

4. He supervised security for the Volksfest, resulting in a safe event for over 32,000 patrons. SSG Scott qualified and earned the German Armed Forces badge in Gold for weapons proficiency. He’s ready to take on this challenge and become USAG Bavaria NCO of the year. I ask that you take this into consideration when selecting the NCO to represent Hohenfels. SSG Scott is focused, lives by the Army Values, NCO Creed, and the NCO Vision.

5. SSG Scott is the epitome of the Warrior Ethos and demonstrates it every single day. He always places the mission first and never accepts defeat due to his strong will.

1. Introduction
Increasingly, mobile banking (MB) has been growing phenomenally over the banking
sector and has become an integral banking channel alongside internet banking,
telebanking, and ATM (Lee et al., 2007). As an innovative banking channel, MB enables
customers to carry out financial transactions (i.e. balance enquiries, fund transfers,
payment of bills) using mobile devices, smartphones, or Personal Digital Assistants
24 hours a day, seven days a week (Zhou et al., 2010). The prevalence in MB could be
attributed to the ability of such technology to launch a variety of financial services over
a wider geographical area, especially where there is a problem regarding internet
connections, or where setting up branches is difficult and not feasible (Cruz et al., 2010;
Wessels and Drennan, 2010). Moreover, by introducing MB services, banks aim to
provide customers with a better service by means of more friendly and cost-effective
channels, thereby enhancing their satisfaction and loyalty (Alalwan et al., 2015;
Gu et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2014; Lin, 2013; Wessels and Drennan, 2010).In Jordan, mobile technology has evolved significantly over recent years; this is
evidenced by the increasing penetration rate of the mobile service which had climbed to
140 per cent by 2012 (The Jordan Times, 2013). Therefore, under intense competition, MB
has received particular attention from the Jordanian banks as about 15 banks out of
26 had implemented MB services by the end of 2012 (Migdadi, 2012). Nevertheless, in
both developed and developing countries, the evolution in MB services is not in line with
the boom in mobile technology, and the growth in the adoption rate of this technology is
still sluggish (Alalwan et al., 2015; Hanafizadeh et al., 2014; Lin, 2011; Püschel et al., 2010).
For instance, Cellular-News (2011) reported that the highest rate of adoption of MB
services were 25 and 22 per cent in China and USA, respectively. In the same way, these
rates go down dramatically in developing countries (Cellular-News, 2011).
The adoption of MB in Jordan is not on the desired level because Jordanian banking
customers are still sluggish in accepting these technologies (Awwad and Ghadi, 2010).
For instance, statistics provided by some of the largest banks in Jordan (Arab Bank and
HSBC) suggest that only 1.65 per cent of Jordanian bank customers have adopted MB
up to 2009 (Awwad and Ghadi, 2010). Hence, Jordanian banks have begun to express
concern regarding the low adoption rate of MB, as well as questioning the feasibility of
introducing such a channel, especially given the large amount of resources being
invested in this regard (Migdadi, 2012).
In effect, persuading customers to switch their behaviour from using traditional
banking channels to MB is not an easy process, especially as there is a lack of
understanding of this phenomenon from the customers’ perspective (Dwivedi and Irani,
2009). Thus, understanding the factors that might be responsible for the sluggish
adoption of MB could help the banks speed up the adoption rate of such technology.
However, as it is in the early stage of deployment and implementation, MB-related
issues are yet to be examined empirically in the Jordanian context. For that reason, this
study is motivated to fill this gap by empirically examining the main factors
influencing the adoption of MB from the Jordanian customers’ perspective.
The remaining sections of the paper are structured as follows: the next section
provides an overview of the relevant literature; a proposed conceptual model and
associated hypotheses follow in Section 3. Section 4 outlines the research method. The
results are then presented in Section 5 followed by a discussion in Section 6. Finally,
Section 7 outlines the key conclusions and briefly discusses the main research limitations
and future research directions.
2. Literature review
TheMB-related issues have recently been the focus of attention for many researchers (i.e.
Hanafizadeh et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2014; Lin, 2011; Purwanegara et al., 2014; Zhou
et al., 2010). However, examination of the usage patterns of MB (i.e. behavioural intention
(BI), usage behaviour, adoption, and continued intention to use) has received considerable
interest over prior literature of MB (e.g. Lin, 2011; Mishra and Bisht, 2013; Purwanegara
et al., 2014; Zhou et al., 2010; Zhou, 2011, 2012). Theoretically, in their endeavours to
provide an in-depth understanding of customer intention and adoption of MB,
researchers have formulated and integrated many theories and models from information
systems (ISs), information technologies, and disciplines relating to human behaviour
(Dwivedi and Irani, 2009). For instance, the Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Rogers,
2003) has been employed by along with perceived ease of use (PEOU) and trust (i.e. Lin,
2011; Hanafizadeh et al., 2014), and customer experience with cell-phone technology,
self-efficacy (SE), and facilitating conditions as proposed by Brown et al. (2003).
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The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis et al., 1989) has also been proposed
bedside system quality and social influences by Gu et al. (2009), Hanafizadeh et al. (2014),
and Akturan and Tezcan (2012) to predict the customer intention and acceptance of MB.
The Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) was formulated by Luarn and Lin (2005)
accompanied by perceived credibility in one single model. Püschel et al. (2010) modified
their model based on factors extracted from the Decomposed Theory of Planned
Behaviour and the IDT. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
(UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al., 2003) has been used by Zhou et al. (2010) in the company of
trust to predict the actual adoption of MB as well.
Nevertheless, there is a dearth of literature addressing BI and adoption of MB in
Jordan (Awwad and Ghadi, 2010; Khraim et al., 2011). Based on simple regression
analyses, both Khraim et al. (2011) and Awwad and Ghadi (2010) have found that
innovation attributes – trialability, complexity, compatibility, relative advantages, and
risk – are the key predictors of Jordanian customer intention and adoption of MB. Even
though these studies enriched the current understanding regarding the main predictors
of the adoption of MB in Jordan, there is still a necessity of selecting a theoretical
framework appropriate to the customers’ perspective as well as being able to capture
the most important aspects that could formulate the Jordanian customers’ intention to
adopt MB. Therefore, this study is motivated to fill this gap by proposing a parsimony
conceptual model being able to provide a better understanding regarding the adoption
of MB from the perspective of Jordanian banking customers.
3. Conceptual model and research hypotheses
The TAM was considered as an appropriate theoretical foundation for developing the
conceptual model utilised in this study. Indeed, the TAM has been considered as one of
the most popular and acceptable models within the IS field (Rana et al., 2013; Venkatesh
et al., 2003). For instance, according to a Google scholar report, 7,714 citations have
been recorded for the original study of Davis et al. (1989) by the end of June 2010
(Bradley, 2012). Further, as reported by Rana et al. (2013), Venkatesh and Davis (2000),
and Irani et al. (2009), the TAM is one of the strongest and rational models to predict the
individual’s intention and acceptance over the last two decades. It is worthwhile to note
that the TAM has been the most adopted theory to explain the customers’ intention
and usage of different kinds of electronic banking channels such as internet banking
(i.e. Al-Somali et al., 2009; Curran and Meuter, 2005) and telebanking (Sundarraj and
Wu, 2005; Curran and Meuter, 2007). By the same token, the TAM has successfully
been used by different MB studies to predict the customer intention and adoption
towards this technology (i.e. Gu et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2007). Furthermore, this study
aims to propose a parsimonious model which is able to capture the most important
aspects that could shape the Jordanian customers’ intention and adoption of MB.
Therefore, the TAM was found by the current study to be more suitable theoretical
foundation to propose the conceptual model rather than the TAM2.
Building on the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), TAM was
proposed to examine the individual behaviour towards computer usage (Davis et al.,
1989). In accordance with the TAM, two main constructs – PEOU and perceived
usefulness (PU) – are identified as main predictors of the BI towards using the specified
technology (Davis et al., 1989). Therefore, both PEOU and PU were proposed in the
current study model as key factors influencing the Jordanian customers’ intention to
adopt MB (see Figure 1). Nevertheless, PEOU and PU would not be able to provide a
clear picture of explaining individual intention and behaviour-related technology
120
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1.0 Executive Summary
The main objective of this business plan is to provide investors information which necessary to evaluate the scope of Inferno Company in the market and the potential future growth in the global market. The market trend analysis and research has shown that there is great and sufficient room for business like Inferno Company to run. Inferno Company will have an energetic, young, inventive, responsible and progressive management style. The ethics and responsibilities toward environmental protection of the management and employees eventually stipulate and accelerate the growth and improvement of Inferno Company.
Inferno Roof Tiles is an invented roof tiles made from waste plastics and sand. This results in an eco-product which re-engineered waste into a new functional product. The gap between building construction and environmental friendly can be closer with the launching of Inferno roof tiles as a new building material for Malaysian construction. Inferno Company will work closely to the private construction sectors, as well as the government sector for the implementation of the Inferno roof tiles in their new and developing projects.
Inferno Company strives to compete with the current commercial roof tile companies and manufacturers and become the major supplier of green roof tiles in Malaysia followed by Asia and worldwide. This ambitious target is set once the company noticed about the increasing trend and demand in green building materials and tends in solving the environmental issues which is increasing in an alarming rate.
The company is seeking for a moderate investment from investors with the intention to launch and start-up the business to provide building and constructions industry the best alternative and solution. Inferno Company is expected to achieve profitability within a year.

Figure 1.1: Comparison chart for sales, gross margin and net profit in future 3 years.?
2.0 Company Description
Inferno is a freshly established company which was formed to create a supreme quality green roof tile manufacturing brand aimed at the Malaysian market. The company was formed with an intention to have strong focus on the development of green technology and materials as well as the development of skills at the same time creating job opportunities. With this aspiration, the company seeks to infiltrate the Malaysian market with the blue ribbon recycled roof tile solutions distributed through few platforms, notably E-Commerce, direct supply in large quantities to construction companies (both private and government) and retailed stores such as hardware stores.
There has been an increasing demand for roof tile in developing countries like Malaysia. However, commercial roof tiles nowadays are usually not environmental friendly and require greater energy to produce or manufacture. This has prompted the materials engineers to develop a greener roof tiles which can be manufacture or produce in a lower consumption energy and eventually reduce the burden of exploiting raw materials for production of roof tiles.
The product is named Inferno Tiles. It is made of a composite material which comprises recycled HDPE plastics and sand. Plastics are the major issues now and by using plastics as raw materials in the product can reduce the environmental impacts. The embodied energy in plastics allows the possibility of low energy consumption rate in manufacturing and hence lower cost is required to produce a piece of roof tile as compared to the commercial one which made from virgin materials. However, the performance of the roof tiles has been conforming and outstand the commercial ones.
Mission
Inferno Company strives to be the dominant provider of supreme green roof tiles. With this intention, strict quality control program, competitive pricing, timely response towards customers, after sale services and lean manufacturing will be implemented.
Vision
The company not only strives to provide green roof tile but also other green building materials in future. Green building materials can provide a better and more environmental friendly construction. Eco-house which is environmental friendly will be the vision of the company.
Team Description
Inferno is a partnership, owned and operated by five materials engineers who had associated with the composite material projects for years and with the extensive research conducted as well as collaborations of the composite material projects ranging from biodegradable food packaging to building and constructions. Two of the materials engineers had experienced in invention of new materials specifically for buildings and constructions. Another three materials engineers had years of experiences in designing composite materials for multipurpose applications in diverse industries.

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3.0 Product
Our product, Inferno roof tile is a green and affordable building construction material. Inferno roof tile are made from the combination of HDPE plastics and sand with a ratio of 7 to 3 respectively. Our company collects or buys the waste plastics from recycle centers and categorizes all the recycled plastics according to their recycle grades. After categorization, the HDPE plastic is heated to its melting point. Then, sand is added into melted plastic and stirred by a mixer. The mixture will become a paste-like compound and it is poured into a roof tile mould to compress it to desired shape. Inferno plastic roof tile is formed after cooled.

Unit Selling Points (USP)
1. Recycling and re-engineering. Recycling is one of the effective ways to reduce the amount of plastic to be landfilled. Plastic bags used in this world per minute are 1,000,000 (Our Product, 2017). However, plastic takes more than 600 years to decompose (Our Product, 2017). Inferno roof tile utilizes the plastic wastes as one of the major materials. This case the waste plastics are re-engineered into a new functional product. Therefore, possibility of reduction in the waste plastic being landfilled or burned is greatly increased and accelerated.

2. Environmental friendly. The manufacturing process of Inferno roof tiles does not create waste because the process is reversible as the excess from trimming will be collected and reuse in the melting process. After all, the main ingredients for Inferno roof tiles are most industrial and commercial wastes.

3. Long lifespan. The Inferno roof tile can last for at least 100 years because both plastic and sand does not decompose easily and it may have a lifespan of more than hundred years. This is a credit when this material is used for refurbishing and the maintenance of the historical buildings and important buildings which represent the culture and identity of certain countries or communities.

4. Great performance in strength. Inferno roof tile is having superb performance in strength than commercial clay roof tile. During installation process, the Inferno tile will not easily break when impact exerts from a height while the commercial clay roof tile breaks in no time. The reason behind this outstanding performance is Inferno roof tile has good impact absorption and good tensile strength compare to commercial clay roof tile which is a brittle material. Inferno roof tile can withstand the force more than human weight; this indicates that worker can step on it without the fear of breaking the roof tiles during installation.
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5. Water, weather and flame resistance. Inferno tile is water resistance because plastic is having low water absorption properties. UV resistance of Inferno roof tiles are tested and proven to be effective when exposed under a hot weather in certain country especially those Asia country. The colours of Inferno tile will maintained under hot sun. Inferno roof tile aids in prevention of the flame spread out along the roof.

6. Soundproof. The noise can be reduced by Inferno tile during raining day. The impact of rain drop is absorbed as compare to a metal roof tile.

7. Light weight. The Inferno roof tile has an average weight which is approximately 1.3 kg which is 70% lighter weight compared to traditional roof tiles. The load applied by the roof tile to the framework of the roofing system can be reduced, thus the roofing system reinforcement during building construction can also be reduced. During installation, the worker can install it easily. Besides that, transportation cost can be saved as lighter weight of products consumes less petrol during transportation.

8. Variety. Inferno roof tile can be moulded into many shapes such as slate, roman, slate ridge and etc. It also comes in a wide range of colour choices and customization of colour choice by customer is also possible.
Inferno Slate Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 300 × 600 mm
Thickness 25 mm
Headlap 75 mm

Inferno Ridge/Hip Cap for Slate Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 300 × 600 mm
Thickness 25 mm
Headlap 20 mm

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Inferno Roman Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 330 × 420 mm
Wave height 40 mm
Headlap 50 mm

Inferno Ridge/Hip Cap for Roman Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 330 × 200 mm
Wave height 40 mm
Headlap 20 mm

Colour Available

9. Low cost. The major materials used are waste plastics and sand. The material cost and energy consumption is much lower than virgin plastic. The maintenance and installation cost will be reduced because not easy to break as compare to clay tile and long lifespan of Inferno roof tile. The price of Inferno roof tile is RM 12 per square meter.

Table 3.1| The properties of Inferno Roof Tile.
Material Specifications
Compression resistance 14 MPa
Temperature range -60°C to +80°C
Lifespan >100 years
Density 1103 kg/m2
Flame spread No flame spread
Water absorption 0.3%
Fracture toughness 3.5 kgf/cm2
Biological stability Moss and mold spread resistance
Chemical stability No reaction with acidic and alkaline environment
UV-resistance Resistance to UV-radiation and colour will maintain
Heat conductivity 2800 J/m2s
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4.0 Industry Analysis
Roof Tile Manufacturing
According to Department of Statistics Malaysia, the population in Malaysia is estimated at 32 million in 2017 (Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2016-2017, 2017). With the growing of population, the number of households needed in the future will increase. The roof tiles industry is expected to increase in the future. The house owner will want to use the Inferno roof tiles which are cheaper and better strength and properties to replace the commercial roof tiles.

4.1 PEST Analysis
Political Factors: Politics can be one of the risk factors to roof tile industry. Recently Malaysia had been formed a new government, thus they can change business rules that bring positively or negatively impact to roof tile industry. Malaysia government had made announcement to abolish Goods and Services Tax (GST) and implement Sales and Service Tax (SST) start from 1 September 2018. Under GST, everyone need to be charged on the tax including supplier, manufacturer, whole seller and retailer (Sales and Service Tax (SST) in Malaysia, 2018). The range of taxable become lesser under SST can bring positively impact to Malaysian.

Economic Factors: Malaysia economic growth rate was increased from 4.2% to 5.9% in 2016 and 2017 (Malaysia Economic Outlook, 2018). The data showed that Malaysia current economy is in growing stage. More investments will come in to Malaysia to develop economic. Government is encouraging people to develop or create their own business.

Social Factors: Entrepreneurial spirit has been encouraged and promoted in Malaysia to own businesses. The strong competitiveness atmosphere causes people hard to find job. Creativities and innovative is what a company looking for. Inferno Company creates and design a new production line and product in Malaysia to survive in roof tile market.

Technological Factors: Nowadays, new technologies and high efficiency machines are sought by industry. The machines that use in roof tile industry need to be designed for faster and higher speed and also ensure the quality of product to be excellent at the same time. The industry need to be performed efficiency and effective at the same time. Old machines or second hand machines have lower performance rate and speed compared to new machines.
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4.2 Porter’s Five Forces
Competitive Rivalry: There are lots of roof tile manufacturers in Malaysia and the market is considered quite competitive. Inferno Company also created as roof tile manufacturer but have unique and different with other competitors. Inferno Company is using HDPE to produce an eco-friendly roof tile. The strength and properties of this HDPE roof tiles is better than clay and cement roof tile. The competitive rivalry is minimal because there is no manufacturer produce this kind of roof tile in Malaysia. Hence, Inferno Company has tremendous strength and profits in the market.

Supplier Power: The main raw material needed is the waste HDPE plastics and sand. There are quite a lot of waste plastic supplier can be found in Malaysia. Waste plastics or HDPE plastics have no much in value and can buy it at cheaper price. Since there are many suppliers can be found, comparison on prices between different suppliers can be conducted and survey to get the most suitable supplier.

Buyer Power: The potential buyers of Inferno roof tile are the private sector contractor and government sector contractor for residential construction and non-residential construction in Malaysia. Large amount of roof tiles are needed for one construction. The different between Inferno and other competitors is Inferno provide roof tile with better strength and lower price. This can help to reduce plastic waste as the raw material used is waste HDPE plastics. Nowadays, contractors and government are looking for beneficial and effective ways to reduce pollution and waste. Launching of Inferno roof tiles can accelerate this event.

Threat of Substitution: In roof tile industry, the requirements for roof tile are strict where a building and construction material must be safety and at the same time strength must be significant. It is not easy to invent a new material to substitute the roof tile. Hence, the industry will face lesser threat of substitution.

Threat of New Entry: This roof tile business requires changing technologies to improve the process, huge capital investment is necessary. Inferno Company faces threat from local and top roof tile manufacturers which they may also will develop this kind of roof tile in the future. To overcome this problem, partnerships and reputations are mandatory for Inferno Company which can help to secure the business in the market.
In past few years, construction industry has a robust growth in Malaysia due to expansion of economics and development sectors. According to the Malaysia Country Report by Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB), the collected data showed that the value of construction project awarded was recorded MYR 141.8 billion in 2015 increased to MYR 229 billion (Country Report Malaysia, 2017). In term of both value and number of project private sector have occupy 77.8% (RM178.1 billion) and 74.3% (5,091 projects) versus government sector at 22.2%(RM50.9 billion) and 25.7% (1,764 projects) (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Table 5.1| Value of Construction Projects Awarded by Sector and Type of Project (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Sector and type of Project Value (RM million)
In year 2014 2015 2016 2017
Total Private Sector 161,363.78 117,127.32 178,143.68 34,311.26
Residential 34,781.71 51,097.83 39,075.50 11,265.92
Non-Residential 91,973.73 49,374.63 38,964.58 15,072.84
Social Amenities 4,833.52 2,575.03 3,561.94 1,575.82
Infrastructure 29,774.82 14,079.83 96,541.66 6,396.68
Total Government Sector 23,653.56 24,724.12 50,882.08 6,045.07
Residential 2,139.25 2,677.18 1,560.38 909.06
Non-Residential 3,925.24 4,049.74 3,546.58 681.61
Social Amenities 3,343.55 2,940.88 5,110.49 1,047.74
Infrastructure 14,245.52 15,056.32 40,664.63 3,406.66
Grand Total 185,017.34 141,851.44 229,025.76 40,356.33
Note: As at 30 June 2017 Source: CIDB Malaysia

The tiles market has been greatly impacted by the growth in the construction industry in Malaysia. Nowadays, the amount of existing residential, commercial and government units increase continuously, this trend leads the market of replacement demand for tiles increase at the same time (Gupta, 2018). With growing of urbanization, the number of households and buildings are predicted to increase and cause the raising in the demand of tiles.

Table 5.2| Number of Construction Projects Awarded by Sector and Type of Project (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Sector and type of Project Number
In year 2014 2015 2016 2017
Total Private Sector 6,276 5,643 5,091 1,645
Residential 2,161 1,929 1,762 597
Non-Residential 2,677 2,316 2,005 665
Social Amenities 257 250 263 81
Infrastructure 1,181 1,148 1,061 302
Total Government Sector 1,800 1,901 1,764 488
Residential 160 164 92 45
Non-Residential 342 376 404 97
Social Amenities 445 476 414 127
Infrastructure 853 885 854 219
Grand Total 8,076 7,544 6,855 2,133
Note: As at 30 June 2017 Source: CIDB Malaysia

4.3 Market Segmentations
In regards to the distribution business, there are more than 2,000 construction related businesses annually in Malaysia. All these businesses could be the potential customers of Inferno roof tiles.
Private and government sector contractor: Nowadays, people concerns about the environmental pollution. By using Inferno roof tiles, it can promote the event and activities on recycling of plastic. This also can be a new and unique selling point of the construction project.
Local businesses: The hardware store and roof tiles suppliers can look for new roof tiles to promote and sell to customers. This new design can grab the attention and curiosity of customer to know more information of this roof tile. The customers may buy the roof tiles for self-replacement in household.

Figure 5.1: Market analysis in pie chart.

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4.4 Product and Business Analysis
The primary competitive advantage and selling point of Inferno roof tile is the unique and invention of roof tile which uses waste plastics as ingredient. This invention is currently cannot be found in market. As compare the Inferno roof tiles with commercial cement and clay roof tile, there are some advantages over the other competitors. The addition of plastic to the roof tiles gives the roof tiles considerable durability and it is environmentally safe and does not emit harmful substance. Besides, the Inferno roof tiles do not absorb moisture easily, thus it can last for a longer time and easy to clean. Another advantage is the price of Inferno roof tile which is cheaper than commercial clay and cement roof tile as the material cost and production cost are lower. According to a study in Science Magazine, Malaysia is the eighth worst country worldwide for plastic waste and Malaysia was estimated produced almost one million tonnes of mismanaged plastic waste (Jenna R. Jambeck, 2015). As using waste plastic as main material to make this tile, the mismanaged plastic scenario can also be reduced.

4.5 Competitor Analysis
In current roof tile market in Malaysia, there are many roofing tiles manufacturers, distributors and wholesalers that provide clay and cement roof tiles on a regular basis. There are no manufacturers and distributors produce this type of recycled plastic roof tile in Malaysia like Inferno. Majority roof tile manufacturers are using clay or cement as raw materials in production of roof tile. However, there are some roof tile manufacturers in oversea had started the businesses of recycled plastic roof tile:
• Resintile (EA) Ltd (South Africa): The primary objective of this business is to reduce the contamination and pollution of the environment and at the same time provide a product that is safe, light and easy to install. This roof tiles are not only cheaper but also eco-friendly to environment.
• Zhangjiagang Aicheng Machinery (China): China is the top country worst country for plastic waste which have around 8.82 million tonnes of mismanaged plastic waste (Jenna R. Jambeck, 2015). Thus, most of the company started to develop and manufacture product by using plastic waste. Zhangjiagang Aicheng Machinery has developed a recycled plastic roofing tile extrusion line. The industry produces PVC corrugated roof tile by extrusion.
Inferno Company creates a similar production line as the competitor to produce the recycled plastic roof tile. The production cost and material cost are lower because the production line and raw materials are readily available in Malaysia and no import fees are needed. Inferno roof tiles can supply to local market with lower price and may export to other countries in the future.

1. April 3, 1948 – MARSHALL PLAN

George C. Marshall, the United States Secretary of State, called for a plan to rebuild Europe after World War II. The Marshall Plan was started to help rebuild the economy in Western Europe and to discourage them from turning to communism. The Economic Cooperation Act was passed by Congress in 1948 to help promote world peace.

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2. May 1948 – FIRST ARAB-ISRAELI WAR

The UN General Assembly adopted the Partition Resolution. This would split Great Britain’s former Palestinian between the Jewish and Arab states. The Arabs didn’t approve of the deal. The United States tried to seek a middle ground by supporting the UN and encouraging the Arabs and Jews to work it out between them. But cease-fires were reached but never lasted.

3. June 24, 1948 – BERLIN AIR LIFT

The German forces put up blockades to controlled areas of Berlin. They hoped this would help West Berliners to reject their allies in the West. The Berlin Airlift began to bring food and other needed items to West Berlin by air. The Soviet forces stopped the blockade and allowed access to Western Berlin when they saw it was not working the way they had hoped.

4. June 25, 1950 – KOREAN WAR

The Republic of Korea was attacked by the Communist North Korea.
Sixteen nations sent troops to aide South Korea. China and the Soviet Union supported North Korea and The United States sent an army to support South Korea. An armistice was agreed to and brought an end to the war after three deadly years.

5. July 26, 1953 – CUBAN REVOLUTION

The Cuban Revolution was a armed revolt that Fidel Castro started to try to overthrow the government led by President Batista. Castro finally overthrew the President and took over control of Cuba. This ended the U.S. dominance over Cuba’s economy.
6. November 1, 1955 – VIETMAN WAR

The Viet Cong and North Vietnamese government wanted to reunify Vietnam. SEATO and the United States joined together with the Republic of South Vietnam to stop communist forces. The Vietnam War was the longest war in US history at that time. It was known as the only war that the US ever lost and its still a controversial topic that affects military decision today.

7. October 29, 1956 – SUEZ WAR

The Suez War starts because the Egyptian President Nasser nationalized the Seuz Canal after mounting political tension between Egypt, Britain, and France. The Israelies struck and British and French military forces joined in. British and French forces withdrew and Israel gave in to US pressure.

8. 1958 – GREAT LEAP FORWARD

The Communist Chinese Leader Mao decided to change the agricultural practices of rural China to make China more financially stable. Mao said communes would make China a self-reliant, industrialized nation. Great Leap Forward ended but not before it resulted in the most deadly mass killing of human history.

9. 1960 – Congo Civil War
The Congo Civil War started days following Belgiums granting of Congolese independence in 1960. It lasted 4 years and claimed about 100,000 lives. The first prime minister Patrice Lumumba and UN secretary was killed in a plane crash while they were trying to medicate the crisis.

10. September 1960 – OPEC

This stands for “organization of the petroleum exporting countries”, which is 14 countries brought together to keep from the oil crisis happening again. The headquarters is in Vienna. The main goal of this organization is to keep the oil prices stable and not inflating again.

11. August 13, 1961 – THE BERLIN WALL

East Germans would flee to the democratic West so the Communist East Germans built a wall that encircled West Berlin. The wall was built overnight to stop the emigration. They wanted to stop the fascists from entering East Germany and undermining the socialist state. The Berlin Wall is one of the most powerful symbols of the Cold War.

12. October 16, 1962 – CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

The Cuban Missile Crisis only lasted thirteen days and it was between the United States and the Soviet Union. It was caused because of ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey and the Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. This was the closest the Cold War has ever come to being a full-scale nuclear war. A Moscow-Washington hotline was established to reduce US and Soviet tensions for several years.

13. 1969 – Golda Meir

Meir was an Israeli teacher, statesman, politician and prime minister of Israel. She was called by some Israelis as one of the best women leaders of Israel, ever.

14. July 20, 1969 – Moon Landing

A moon landing is when a spacecraft lands on the surface of the moon. United states was the first to have a manned spacecraft land on the moon, beating the soviet union during the space race. As of that time, we were the only ones to land on the moon with a man.

15. 1971 – Bangladesh Liberation War

This event was a conflict between the nationalists of Bangladesh and the supporters of the determination movement. This war gave the people of Bangladesh rights and freedom. Most of the united nations now see them as a sovereign nation.

16. April 10,1971 – Ping Pong Diplomacy

A group of american ping pong players were the first americans allowed across the border of communist china. This happened during the very intense time of the cold war, and with this it helped ease tensions between china and america. This lead to president Nixon being able to go to china and visit there leader and country.

17. 1971 – Formation of Zaire

Zaire was at this time called the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The ruler at the time, Gen Mobutu se se Seko thought the DRC needed a more African name so he changed the name to Zaire. This would later come to pass by the ending of the rule of Mobutu Se Se Seko.

18. 1972 – SALT

The strategic arms limitation talks are arms control between the united states and the soviet union. These talks led to the anti ballistic missile treaty. The treaties limited how many of each kind of arms that both countries could have.

19. May 29, 1972 – Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev started the Brezhnev Doctrine giving the Soviet Union the right to use military force to keep the communist party in nearby socialist countries. They justified the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the rules of the Brezhnev Doctrine.

20. October 6, 1973 – Yom Kippur War

This was an attack on Israel by leaders from Egypt and Syria. They wanted to gain some land back from Israel that they had lost to them in the third Arab-Israeli war. With these surprise attacks, it showed Israel had weakness’ and could lead to more attacks like this one.

21. October 1973 – Oil crisis

The organization of Arab petroleum exporting countries started an oil embargo to all countries they thought were supporting Israel. This led to inflation in gas prices that lasted for almost a decade. This also led to a search for an alternative energy source in place of oil.

22. January 1978 – Islamic Revolution in Iran

The leader of Iran was one of the many leaders of Iran from over the 2500 years of them being lead by an anarchy. The revolution began when Ayat Allah Khomeini wanted to overthrow the anarchy and government of the time. This resulted in hostilities between the U.S. and Iran, still to this day.

23. 1979 – Margret Thatcher

Thatcher was the conservative party leader and prime minister of Britain. She was the first woman prime minister. She cut social welfare programs, cut down trade union power and privatized certain industries. She was later nicknamed the “Iron Lady”.

24. November 4, 1979 – Iran Hostage Crisis

This started when Iranian students took over the American Embassy and took 52 americans hostage for 444 days. President carter then negotiated with them giving the Iranians everything they wanted but they never budged. They finally let the Americans go when Reagan became president.

25. December 25, 1979 – Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

The soviets decided to invade Afghanistan in the middle of the cold war. They did this to stabilize the communist party of Afghanistan. America wanted to end the communist party of Afghanistan, so we decided to side with Afghanistan.

26. 1980 – Indira Gandhi

Gandhi was born in India. She became her fathers personal assistant while he was prime minister. She would later be elected president and the first female prime minister of India and second longest prime minister. She was a ruthless leader, but was later assassinated by one of her own bodyguards.

27. September 22, 1980 – Iran-Iraq War

Iraq invaded Iran, starting an armed conflict. The war was started by Saddam Hussein in September 1980. This was had hardly no good affects for either side of the war, but it led to a seize fire by the UN Resolution.

28. 1983 – Grenade Invasion

Grenade is a nation in the carribean. They had problems within their government which lead to them starting a preliminary government, and the murder of the last leader. The US attacked the island which led to us winning and making a democratic government there.

29. 1987 – First Intifada

This was a group of Israeli people who refused to work by doing boycotts, and by using rocks to attack violently. This led to a negative impact on the tourist population and it was a negative for the whole country of Israel.

30. August 11, 1988 – Al- Qaida
Al-Qaida is a radical Sunni Muslim organization that works to eliminate all western presence in Arab countries. The international terrorist network was founded by Osama Bin Laden in the late 1980s. One of the principal goals of Al-Qaida was to drive the US armed forces out of Saudi Arabia.

31. April 15, 1989 – Tiananmen Square Massacre

This was the capital of china, which is in the center of Beijing. In 1989, many Chinese students and workers protested in the square about there work and pay. The protests lasted for 6 weeks. This event resulted in a shocking amount of brutal actions by anti-protestors, which made the US put sanctions on China.

32. November 9, 1989 – Collapse of the Berlin Wall

The collapse of the Berlin wall was a mistake by the Soviets. The announcement was made a day before it was supposed to be mad, and when the announcement was made, the wall construction started immediately. Then a mob of people came to the wall and there was to many for the officers to hold back. The wall wasn’t completely taken down until 1990.

33. March 15, 1990 – Mikhail Gorbachev
Gorbachev was a soviet politician and the last leader of the Soviet Union. He graduated from Moscow State University with a law degree in 1955. That is where he became very active in the communist party. He presided over the collapse of the Soviet empire and in the process ending the Cold War.

34. December 22, 1990 – Lech Walesa
Walesa was born in Poland. He grew up to be a politician and an activist. Walesa is best known for beginning and leading of the first independent trade union solidarity. He later got the Nobel piece price for peace in 1983.

35. 1990 – Mujahedeen

These are Islamic guerilla fighters known for fighting for non-Muslim forces. They took arms from Afghanistan to fight the soviet invasion. They were local soldiers brought to help the Afghan people fight the Soviets.

36. August 2, 1990 – Persian Gulf War
The Persian Gulf war started when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August of 1990. Saddam Hussein, the Iraq leader ordered the invasion and occupation. He defied the UN security council to withdraw and the war began when the US sent in a massive air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm. The war ended on February 28, 1991. UN security council placed embargo and sanctions on Iraq and the US ground war.

37. 1991 – Apartheid
Apartheid is a system of a racial segregation and discrimination that existed in South Africa from 1948-1990s. The first apartheid law prohibited mixed marriage. It was illegal for most south African citizens to many across racial lines. The people were divided into 4 racial groups. 3.5 million nonwhite south Africans were removed from their homed and put in segregated neighborhoods. Apartheid legislation was abolished in mid-1990.

38. October3, 1993 – Black Hawk Down
The Black Hawk Down was a Task Force Ranger that was created in August of 1993. They were sent to Somalia. There were several elite special operations units from the army, air force, and navy. The assault was supposed to be over in one hour but they Somali militia and armed civilians shot down the Black Hawk helicopters. The crews of the helicopters extended the operation overnight where many were wounded and some killed.

39. April 7, 1994 – Rwandan Genocide
The Rwandan Genocide was a mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda. During a 100 day period approximately 500,000 and 1 million were killed. The Rwandan presidents plane was shot down above the Kigali airport. The RPF captured Kigali the government collapsed and RPF declared to cease fire.

40. May 10, 1994 – Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela was born July 18th, 1918. He was a political leader and president of South Africa. Mandela was the first black head of state, spending his life working to dismantle the apartheid, racism, and racial reconciliation. He was deeply respected in South Africa and referred to as the “father of the Nation”. Dying from a respiratory infection at the age of 95.

41. October 10, 1994 – Taliban
Osama Bin Laden was given sanctuary by the Taliban after the 9/11 attacks on the US. The Taliban are muslim extremist that call itself the Islamic emirate of Aghanistan that is currently waging war within the county.

42. July 11, 1995 – Balkan Genocide
The Genocide ethnic cleansing campaign was against Muslim Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats and was carried out by Bosnian Serbs. The campaign included many cruel things against the people, property, and places of worship. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic and president of the republic SRPSKA was found guilty of Genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. They were sentenced to 40 years in prison.

43. 1999 – ISIS
The Islamic State is one of the most dangerous jihadist groups and it stands with al- Qaeda. The al-Qaeda has disavowed ISIS but it has still one of the main jihadist groups fighting government forces in Syria and Iraq.

44. September 11, 2001 – 9-11
On September 11, 2001 4 airplanes were hijacked by Islamist extromists. They flew one into the Pentagon, 2 into the World trade center in New York City and 1 was crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. 2,997 victims were killed in the terrorist attacks including 412 emergency workers in NYC.

45. September 11, 2001 – Global war on Terror
The United states started a military campaign after the 9/11 attacks on the US to help fight terrorism called the Global War on Terrorism. President Bush said this was a war against all those who seek to export terror, and a war against those governments that support or shelter them.

46. February 26, 2003 – Darfur Crisis
The Sudan Liberation movement and the Justice and Equality movement rebel groups acused the government of sudan of opperssig Darfur’s non-arab population, so they attacked them. In return the government carried out a campaign of the ethic cleansing against Darfur’s non-arabs. This ended in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and an indictment of Sudans President.

47. March 20, 2003 – Operation Iraqi Freedom
A military conflict in Iraq started in 2003 when the U.S. forces resulted in overthrowing Saddam Hussein’s regime. The operation removed Saddam Hussein from power and stopped his ability to develop weapons of mass destruction. On December 18,2011 the last US troops in Iraq cross the border in Kuwait.

48. 2008 – Gaza War
The Gaza war only lasted 3 week between the Palestinians in the Gaza strip and Israel. Israel wanted to stop the Palestinian rocket fire and the smuggling of weapons into the Gaza strip. TUN special mission gave a report that accused both Palestinian militants and the IDF of war crimes and maybe crimes against humanity. The report later said they did not believe that Israel has intentionally targeted civilians in Gaza.

49. December 18, 2010 – Arab Spring
Arab Spring is also referred to as Arab Revolutions. It was a wave of demonstrations protests, riots, foreign interventions, and Civil Wars. Some violent, some non-violent, that took place I the North Africa in the middle east.

50. May 25, 2018 – saddest event of them all

This day marks a new chapter of Mr. Dameron’s life. Even though you are one of the best teachers I have ever had, I understand your reasoning of why you have to leave. All of us students will miss you, but we all hope you do good at your next job and maybe come back to teaching one day. Good luck and thank you for all the things you have taught me.

1. Describe the terms and conditions of your employment as set out in your contract of employment or employment agreement.

• the terms and conditions of my employment in my contract are my job roles as a dental nurse, the start date, end date of my apprenticeship, wage, agreed hours which shifts and days, managers name, place of work, how many weeks of annual holiday I am entitled to, when the holiday year starts and ends and how long my probation period is.

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2. . Describe the information which needs to be shown on your payslip/statement.
• Gross amount of pay for the pay period since your last pay slip
• Tax deducted from pay
• National insurance contributions deducted from pay
• Any other deductions from pay such as pension contributions or student loan repayments
• Net amount of pay for the pay period
• How the wages are going to be paid

3. Identify two changes to personal information which you must report to your employer.

Change of address and change of Bank

4. Describe the procedure to follow if you wanted to raise a grievance at work. You may describe in writing or produce a flow chart or diagram.
1. Try to resolve the matter myself
2. Talk with the person(s) concerned try to sort it out between us
3. Talk to practice manager about situation
4. If there is no improvement advise practice manager that no improvement has been made
5. Make a formal complaint
6. Speak to practice owner

5. Explain the agreed ways of working with your employer in relation to the following areas:

– Data protection

-Grievance
-Conflict management

-Anti-discriminatory practice

-Health &safety

-Confidentiality

-Whistle-blowing

• Data Protection – it provides accurate, current information concerning the care of the patient. It also keeps a record of any issues and action that needs to be taken. Also that I need to record if there are any factors that may effect the patient. This also has a purpose to make sure we are accurate in whatever is written down, and anything that happens should be noted down as soon as it has happened. It needs to be dated, timed and signed. I must provide clear evidence of the treatment planned, decisions made, treatment delivered and information shared. Everything needs to be written clearly so that the text can’t be erased.
• Grievance – the employer should always let the employee know who is there contact if they would ever need to raise a grievance. It should be designed to fairly and evenly resolve any conflicts between the staff or with management. We have a 3 step grievance procedure: 1. Statement of grievance, any grievance should first be dealt with informally, if this does not work then I must write a formal letter explaining my grievance and send it to my manager who isn’t the subject of or related to the grievance in any way. The I must invite the employee with who I have the grievance to a meeting. The employee has the right to be accompanied by another colleague or a trade union representative. The colleague who accompanied the employee is protected from dismissal. It should be held at a reasonable time for all attendees. After the meeting has been held the employer has to notify the employee of the outcome and let them know if they have a right to appeal if they feel that it hasn’t been dealt with in a satisfactory way. An appeal meeting must then be held, for this I must inform my employer that I have decided to appeal and have a right to be accompanied. After the meeting the employer must inform me of their final decision.
• Conflict Management –conflicts must be identified and handled sensibly, fairly and efficiently. This is to help the flow of work stay as smooth as possible. To solve a conflict I must help my manager in any way that I can and be ready to resolve the issue not matter the outcome
• Anti-discriminatory practice – this is so that every staff member has the right to work in the practice free of racial discrimination. Racial harassment may include commenting on their race, colour, ethnicity or national origin which is unwanted by the recipient. If I were to hear of receive racial discrimination, I must complain as it is well within my right and should be protected from racial harassment and to be free of false accusations or harassment. If found guilty you could be dismissed. All new staff should read up on the policy as part of their induction.
• Confidentiality- patients put a lot of trust within the staff to keep their private, clinical and verbal information private. Patients should feel confident to reveal personal details and information knowing that anything that has been said will be treated with respect and confidentiality. I must not talk about the patients with anyone once outside the work building. You may be telling private personal matters and it may spread around. If staff were to freely talk about personal issues they should be prepared to accept the repercussions for their actions.
• Whistle blowing- this is designed to help prevent the victimizing of employees by the employer, so they will whistle blow on any wrong doing. Works should try to create an environment suitable for staff to be able to raise whatever concerns that they have. Staff are reassured that genuine concerns under the policy will not be at risk of any negative action being taken against them, though the same can’t be said for someone maliciously raising a false issue. I can make a disclosure based on the following : a criminal offense, damage to the environment, breach of legal obligation, danger to health and safety of an individual, miscarriage of justice, fraud or corruption or trying to cover up any of the previous. This policy however does not apply to someone with personal grievances, or bullying/harassment.
7. Explain how your role contribute to the overall delivery of the service provide:

There are many things that I do that contribute to the overall delivery of  the service provider, for example I provide the best possible care I can give to the service users & families of those service users by communicating effectively & being involved in their day to day activities and personal needs I may also write their daily reports in deep detail. I read and sign all the service users care plans to ensure I can provide the correct and safest care. To give the best contribution to the service provide I need also to :

-help to safeguard the individuals

-provide a quality service

-promotes well-being and empowerment

-working in line with CQC essential standards
-continuity of care service

-follow best practice

-keep updating with trainings and any changes in the sector
-keep updating the legislations to keep in line with the practices policies
Overall I assist the practice to provide oral health care for patients in the best possible way. As an apprentice I will work with my mentor to make sure that I can provide the correct and safest care possible for the individual patients.

7. Explain how you could influence the quality of the service provided by;
a) following best practice within your work role

Following best practice within your work role; by following the best practice I am ensuring that the practice is providing the best possible care for the patients resulting in happy customers. This also helps the practice obtain a good reputation within the community and trust with not just patients but also their friends and family.

b) not carrying out the requirements of your role

If I do not carry out the requirements of my job role as a dental nurse, I could seriously harm myself, my co-workers and patients, as I will not be looking out for their best interests and making sure I am thinking about everyone’s health and safety the whole time that I am at work. Also if I didn’t carry out what was required of me then I may make the patients feel like I haven’t treated them with respect and dignity. Also it would reflect badly on the manager and the practice and complaints may occur.

8. describe how your own work must be influenced by National factors such as Codes of Practice, National occupational Standards, legislation and government initiatives.

These National factors such as codes of practice and National Occupational Standards are there to give you guidance, standards and rules to follow in your work place. The legislation and government initiatives are there to tell you what you must and mustn’t do in your work place.
9. a) identify two different representative bodies which influence your area of work.

GDC (General Dental Council)
CQC (Care Quality Commission)

b) describe the role of the two representative bodies you have identified.
GDC – The General Dental Council regulates dental professionals in the UK, maintaining standards for the benefit of patient
CQC- monitor, inspect and regulate health and social care services. they publish what they find, including ratings to help people choose care.

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