1. At the beginning of the 20th century, almost the entire territory of Africa was colonized by France, Germany, England, Spain, Portugal and Belgium. Only Ethiopia and Liberia were independent.
2. Africa has the largest desert in the world, the Sahara. Its area is larger than the US area.
3. There are 54 states in Africa.
4. In Africa, there are more than 2000 languages.
5. Africa has the lowest life expectancy. Women on an average live for 48 years, men for 50 years.
6. Africa has the second largest freshwater lake in the world- Lake Victoria.
7. Africa is the richest deposits of gold and diamonds.
8. Africa is the hottest continent in the world.
9. Africa is crossed by the equator and the prime meridian. Therefore, the continent can be called the most symmetrical of all existing.
10. In Africa, live most of the rare animals that are not found elsewhere, for example, hippos, giraffes, okapi and others.
11. Algeria has a unique lake. Instead of water, it contains real ink.
12. Africa produces half of all the gold that is sold in the world.
13. Nigeria is the fourth largest exporter of oil in the world and the largest oil producer in Africa.
14. More than 25 million people in Africa are considered HIV-positive.
15. The largest country in Africa is Sudan, and the smallest is the Seychelles.
16. The Sahara desert is increasing every month.
17. Sand dunes of the Sahara desert can be higher than Eiffel Tower.
18. Only in Africa does the insectivorous plant, Hydnora africana grow. The fruits of Hydnora africana are consumed by local people.
19. More than 240 million Africans suffer from chronic malnutrition.
20. Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and the second largest freshwater lake in the world.
21. Islam is the dominant religion in Africa and some follow Christianity.
22. Sand of the Sahara desert can be heated up to 80 degrees Celsius.
23. In Africa, lives the world’s largest land animal – an African elephant.
24. At the beginning of the 20th century, almost the entire territory of Africa was colonized by France, Germany, England, Spain, Portugal and Belgium.
25. The most common spoken language in Africa is Arabic.
26. Africa has the second longest river in the world – the Nile.
27. The highest mountain in Africa is Kilimanjaro.
28. Africa has more than 30% of the Earth’s mineral resources.
29. Africa is the second driest continent after Australia.
30. Approximately 90% of all malaria cases in the world occur in Africa.
31. Egypt is the most popular tourist destination in Africa.
32. Africa is the largest supplier of diamonds.
33. There are around 3000 ethnic groups living in Africa.
34. The most dangerous African animals are hippos.
35. The area of Africa is 29 million square kilometres. But four-fifths of the territory is occupied by deserts and tropical forests.
36. Some African tribes hunt hippopotamuses and use their meat for food.
37. Africa is home to the coldest volcano in the world Ol Doinyo Lengai.
38. Most of the best runners in the world come from one tribe in Kenya, known as Kalengjin.
39. The African population is 12% of the world’s population.
40. Lake Malawi contains the largest number of fish species.
41. During the Second Congo War, more than 5.4 million people died! It is the second deadliest conflict after World War II.
42. On the Africa, more than 1 million Chinese citizens.
43. Equatorial Guinea is the richest country in Africa.
44. Many of the poorest countries are found in the Africa.
45. Africa is the oldest inhabited part of the planet Earth.
46. About 40% of the adult population in Africa do not have a secondary education.
47. Africa is the second largest continent of all; its area is about 22% of the entire land area occupied on earth.
48. In between 15 to19 century about 7-12 million Africans were transported to America as slaves.
49. Among the population of Africa are the smallest and the tallest people in the world.
50. Africa and Europe are separated by only 14 kilometres.
51. Women from the Mursi tribe wear lip plates.
52. The most populous country of the African continent is Nigeria.
53. There are more Internet users in New York than in all of Africa.
54. South Africa has the cheapest electricity in the world.
55. On average, people living in Africa have to walk about four kilometres to get water.
56. About 50% of Africans are under 25 years of age.
57. South Africa has three capitals: Cape Town, Pretoria, and Bloemfontein.
58. On the island of Madagascar live animals that are not found anywhere else.
59. South Africa is the second largest fruit export in the world.
60. The highest rate of albinism in the world is in Tanzania

1. ABSTRACT
Customer churn, also known as Customer attrition, customer turnover, or customer defection, is when an existing customer, user, player, subscriber or any kind of return client stops doing business or ends the relationship with a company. Churn prediction is essential for businesses as it helps you detect customers who are likely to cancel a subscription, product or service. To predict whether a customer will be a churner or non-churner, there are several techniques applied for churn prediction, such as artificial neural networks, decision trees, and support vector machines. The past studies in this area indicate that Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) gives more accurate results to predict the customer churn. Therefore, this study will use the ANN to predict customer churn. The data will be collected from the telecom companies and ANN will used to predict the customer churn.
2. INTRODUCTION
The project contains of two main ideas and one particular connecting link between them. We will explain the ideas in simple way then progressively we will get to the details.
The first idea is the customer churn. The customer churn definition is any regular customer to company that depends on the regularity have stopped or cancelled the business or service with them. the term of churn has a lot of meaning but they are all agreed with when your customers or your subscribers stop, canceling their business or services with your product and also for customer loyalty it is an enemy and the sickness that will kill the business. It is calculated by number and the list of customers who left your company, also known as attrition. Why companies must take care of churn to have an idea with the customer who is with your side and to decrease the churn.
Second idea is the neural network the neural network is a computer system influenced by brain nervous.
After defining those two main ideas and accomplish them we must work on the very specific part that represent the main concept of the project which is the prediction. At the prediction we do the most of the art as we go from the neural network into the customer churn.

1. Theoretical part
1.1. The role of idioms
Cognitive mechanisms reflect the work of human consciousness and give an idea of the ways of analysis, structuring of specific objects and abstract entities. Particular attention is paid to the study of the metaphor by cognitivists, believing that it occupies a central place in the cognitive model of speech.
Idioms are a necessary unavoidable cognitive and linguistic tool in English. They usually contain two layers of meaning: literal and extended. Literal meaning can be directly obtained from the literal meaning of constituent parts of the idioms, while extended meaning is generalized and abstracted on the basis of literal meaning.
In accordance to Kövecses,Chen and Lai in cognitive linguistic view majority of idiomatic expressions are based on conceptual metaphors and metonymies. This means that they are “conceptually motivated” by metaphors and metonymies. Cognitive linguistics views metaphor and metonymy as helping mechanisms to structure the human conceptual system.
The human conceptual system is largely metaphorical and controls systematic metaphorical mappings between abstract and concrete conceptual domains. Abstract structures are meaningful only indirectly, and can be understood due to their systematic relationship to directly meaningful structures. Conceptual metaphors and metonymies that help import structure to certain abstract domains of our experience, are motivated by, and grounded in, our bodily experience. This grounding provides the experiential basis of metaphor and metonymy. Idioms, which make use of parts of the human body, are more predictable than other idioms, simply because as human beings, we are completely familiar with our perceptions of the shape, size, and functions of individual parts of our own bodies, and we experience them every day. This is why it is easier for us to interpret the meaning of idiomatic expressions containing parts of the human body than, for example, idioms which contain names of animals.
1.2. ?onceptual metaphor and conceptual metaphor theory
A conceptual metaphor is not used in language, but is rather a conceptual idea in our minds that allows us to create a multitude of metaphorical linguistic expressions based on this metaphor. Kövecses (2010) summarises this relationship efficiently: “We can state the nature of the relationship between the conceptual metaphors and the metaphorical linguistic expressions in the following way: the linguistic expressions (i.e., ways of talking) make explicit, or are manifestations of, the conceptual metaphors (i.e.,ways of thinking)” . Metaphors are conceptual ideas in our minds, and they underlie the linguistic expressions that we use when talking. In his discussion on idioms, Kövecses (2010) claims that “idioms are products of our conceptual system and not simply a matter of language … hence the meanings of idioms can be seen as motivated and not arbitrary”. According to him, it is no accident that idioms look the way they do; they have been motivated by conceptual mechanisms when they were coined. Kövecses (2010) goes on to list the three most common conceptual mechanisms behind idioms: “The kinds of mechanisms that seem to be especially relevant in the case of many idioms are metaphor, metonymy, and conventional knowledge” . These three aspects of our conceptual system seem to play a vital role in the formation of idioms, and it is important to understand what is understood by these terms.

Conceptual metaphor theory is one of the most important ones in cognitive linguistics. It holds that metaphor is not a mere matter of words, but also an important way of categorization and conceptualization of human beings; the aim of conceptual metaphor is to realise and experience one thing or entity in terms of another; metaphor is both linguistic and conceptual phenomenon; our thoughts, languages and action are constructed based on conceptual metaphors; metaphorical expressions are the representation of metaphorical thoughts; the essence of our thoughts is metaphorical, and the essence of metaphor is conceptual; metaphorical mapping operates between two different conceptual domains; the direction of mapping is from the source domain to the target domain, and the basis of metaphorical mapping is abstract image schema structures . Conceptual metaphor is an important cognitive mechanism, which plays a major role in the meaning extension of the idioms.

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1.3. Cognitive approach to idiom analysis
For instance, idioms can be approached in a cognitive linguistic way, which suggests that some idioms have analysable characteristics and the meanings can in fact be derived from the components . A comparative-contrastive description of the idioms is as necessary as useful since it allows a better understanding of their behaviour and of the boundaries conditioning their appropriate use. It becomes obvious that Cognitive Linguistics, with its experiential theory, has brought a completely new alternative analysis to the study of idiomatic language. Moreover, the cognitive linguistic approach is often thought of as one of the most useful methods in teaching idioms since the aim is to teach how to use the idioms and not only to learn them by heart .
?ognitive linguistics divides metaphors into two: conceptual metaphors and image metaphors . Image metaphors are conceptually simpler and are based on resemblance between two entities, whereas conceptual metaphors involve the mapping of rich knowledge and inferential structure which gives rise to a larger number of linguistic expressions . Besides, the cognitive semantic view can facilitate the learning and understanding of idioms for non-native speakers.
Cognitive linguistics claims that most idioms are motivated, where motivation arises from conventional images, conceptual metaphors and conceptual metonymies, which provide the link” between the idiom and its meaning.

1.4. System of idioms
Cognitive Linguistics has managed to successfully create a system in idioms. Cognitive linguists have grouped idioms and created a system based on their common concepts. As an example, expressions such as spark off and fan the flame have one common concept: fire. The idioms can be considered as motivated conceptually by general knowledge of the world, which entails a systematic structure that characterises a corresponding coherent system of the idiomatic structure . Chen and Lai (2013: 15) have brought an example of fire-related idioms used to describe the emotion anger, by using FIRE as the source domain and ANGER as a target domain and the connection made between the two ANGER IS FIRE.
This means that idioms can in fact be considered as motivated rather than arbitrary. Moreover, the connection between the concepts is called conceptual metaphor and it illustrates the connection between fire and anger. Conceptual metaphors are usually represented in capital letters . According to Chen and Lai it is easy to develop an understanding of the meaning of idioms through the awareness and knowledge of the conceptual metaphors behind them. However, according to Gibbs conceptual metaphors are not fixed, but rather created by the linguists following their intuition .
In other words, cognitive linguists follow their intuition to uncover language-mind links, image schemas and conceptual metaphors. Image schema is considered to be an abstract conceptual representation of the embodied experience of the everyday interaction and the observation of the world around us .
Gibbs (2007) questions cognitive linguists’ intuition-based approach because it focuses too heavily on introspection about matters of linguistic structure and behaviour, but agrees that intuition is a 13 necessary source for constructing hypotheses and suggests caution in creating conceptual metaphors, experiments etc. Stöver states that in order to have metaphoric understanding and not experience tension between the literal and non-literal while encountering a metaphor, learners should be made aware of metaphoricity (Moon 2009) and what it contains . In other words, using conceptual metaphors while teaching figurative language is not useful if the learners have not been familiarised with the concept and how it can be used.

1.5. Methods of idiom analysis
A comparative analysis of idioms is based on a confrontation of a source and a target language with the aim of finding parallel lexical items. According to Kvetko idioms of two different languages can be approached either from the systematic linguistic point of view (contrastive approach) or from the point of view of translating idioms in literary texts (translation approach).
In the contrastive approach idioms of L1 are compared with idioms of L2, the focus being placed on the mutual equivalence and language interference. Differences may occur in the form, content, meaning and usage of individual words and expressions. Contrastive phraseology reveals that when comparing idioms of two different languages, two types of equivalents are recognized – phraseological or non-phraseological (word, collocation or periphrasis). An idiom either has its idiomatic counterpart in the target language or an idiomatic equivalent is not available because it either does not exist or the reality described by the idiom is not known in the target language. Such an idiom can be then substituted by a non-idiomatic counterpart, periphrasis or calque. As far as the degree of equivalence is concerned, Kvetko proposes three basic types :
• absolute equivalence – idioms that literally correspond in several languages and come from the same source allowing for some variations, however, mutual correspondence prevails
• relative equivalence – idioms have identical or very close meaning but different lexical items
• non-equivalence – idioms that do not have their idiomatic equivalent and need to be substituted by a word, collocation or description
The idioms will be explored and sorted into these categories according to the type of their equivalence, based on distributional analysis and semantic meaning . The above listed categories will be more elaborated on in the practical part of the paper.

1.0 – INTRODUCTION
Our Galaxy, named the Milky Way, – and even though it contains billions and billions of stars – is swarming with exoplanets1. Exoplanets, known as planets situated outside of our solar system that orbit other stars, have become an active part in the research field of astronomy2. A multitudinous amount (over more than 3,500) of exoplanets have been discovered since 1992, orbiting stars other than our sun1, which has led scientists and astronomers to believe that the universe is flooded with other worlds. In January of 1992, astrophysicists Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail came across the first discovery of an exoplanet2. They founded three exoplanets orbiting the pulsar PSR1257+12 in an unforeseen environment2. In 1995, another discovery was made by astronomers Michel Mayor and DidierQueloz, who founded the first exoplanet around a main sequence (“normal”) star, calling it 51 Pegasi b (Fig 1.0)2. The planet, a gas giant, is believed to be about half the size of Jupiter4. By using a technique called microlensing, 2,000 extragalactic planets for every one star beyond the galaxy was founded by scientists at the University of Oklahoma (Fig 2.0)5. Since the first discovery of an exoplanet, which was founded two decades ago, the number of known exoplanets has doubled every 27 months6. As of this writing, approximately 3,588 exoplanets have been confirmed7.

1.1 – STATEMENT OF AIM
This purpose of this report is to go in-depth and discuss the current state of knowledge on exoplanets, as well as review two main themes: how exoplanets are studied and detected (what scientists look for in their search for exoplanets) and the importance of their study, including current and future proposed missions.

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2.0 THE SEARCH FOR EXOPLANETS
To get a better understanding of our universe, and to find out even more about the origins of life, research in the area of exoplanets is critical8. One thing that scientists and astronomers must address in the current search for exoplanets is to discover Earth-like planets that are in a star’s habitable zone8. The habitable zone (Fig 3.0) is a region where life can potentially exist, due to the planet’s surface temperature which allows for the formation of water in the liquid form to flow8. Agencies and other institutions including NASA are in search of a special kind of planet: One that is of similar size to the Earth, orbiting a sun-like star in the region of the habitable zone10. The Kepler Telescope (Fig 4.0) is known for identifying several small and rocky planets in this region1. Earth, for example, is in the habitable zone of the sun which explains why our planet has liquid water such as oceans and lakes6. Water, being the main support system for all life on Earth, is important, because as we know it, life on Earth began with water6. Techniques in observation have now advanced to a level where scientists are able to find “Super Earths” (planets that are less than 10 Earth Masses) that might be habitable11. Absorption features and the transmission spectrum of a planet can help to characterize a planet’s atmosphere and its habitability11. What creates a planet’s spectral fingerprint is its spectrum, which contains traces of atmospheric species11. In order to detect these species, biomarkers are used, and if a strong abundance is detected, it suggests a biological origin11. The investigation for the signs of life is wholly based on the supposition of extraterrestrial life and the fact that it may share essential characteristics with life on Earth11. Because life on Earth requires liquid water (as a solvent as well as a carbon-based chemistry), life based on a different chemistry would generate signatures in the atmosphere which would be considered foreign11. Therefore, it is assumed that there is potential for extraterrestrial life similar to life on Earth11. There are many things that are problematic about having a Super-Earth in a red dwarf’s habitable zone. Red dwarfs have generally not been considered feasible successors for hosting habitable planets12. Red dwarfs, characterized as small and dim, are relatively close to the habitable zone that surrounds them12. For one, it would be a difficult environment to live in because of radiation12. Another problem is the phenomenon of tidal locking, defined as when a planet keeps its side faced towards the sun, taking in almost all the heat12. Therefore, it would be too cold on one side because it would be dark with freezing temperatures, and too hot on the other because that side would be the one receiving all the sunlight, as well as being the side with hot temperatures. So, the habitable zone would have to lie somewhere in the middle, making it suitable for life13. Another problem with red dwarfs are solar flares, that shoot off a star several times per day, showing huge increases in UV radiation, which in turn could potentially sterilize the surface of a neighbouring planet12. With the advancement of technology, the search for Earth-like planets will continue, and the potential for finding exoplanets that have the ability to support life will increasingly become more likely to find.

3.0 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING EXOPLANETS

The hunt for other worlds like our Earth has brought upon intense excitement and interest surrounding the discovery of exoplanets7. The current and near-future approved missions (Fig 5.0) are helping to extend the frontiers of knowledge in the study of exoplanets, mainly to search for habitable worlds14. Some important exoplanet missions include: The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite15 (also known as TESS), and the future known mission: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to launch in 201915. The TESS Mission (Fig 6.0) is a satellite used to discover exoplanets by using the transit method, and during a two-year period, it will monitor the brightness of over 200,000 stars15. Designed to identify planets, it will recognize a wide range of planets, for example, from Earth sized planets to gas giants15. It will also search for temporary drops in brightness of stars and will cover quite a wide span of orbital periods15. The James Webb Space Telescope (Fig 7.0) will be optimized for infrared wavelengths and will be able to analyze the history of the universe, having the ability to find galaxies that formed in the early universe as well as the formation of other solar systems15. Space missions are now able to give us statistics, such as the number, size and orbital distances of planets, from terrestrial planets to gas giants11. By doing so, it will help to characterize other planets11. Future space missions are also said to characterize the atmosphere of a planet and the observation techniques that are being used will have advanced to the point where we could find planets of less than 10MEarth (Super Earths) which, around small stars, may be habitable11.

There are also great benefits that come with space research, such as the socioeconomic aspect. Space research has become a way to unify humanity by increasing connectedness, communication, and self-awareness through images such as “The Day the Earth Smiled”, shown in Figure 8.016.

4.0 – CONCLUSION
The study of exoplanets is truly interesting because exoplanets have the capacity to solve mysteries about our own Solar System. The approaches for finding life have certainly been centered on Earth life, its features, and characteristics because Earth is the only example of life as we know1. Space missions like the James Webb Space Telescope will aide in capturing images of distant planets with our ever expanding knowledge5. Not every planet is the same age and working out what a planet looks like when it’s still young will help to understand what Earth might have looked like, both physically and chemically. As we discover and learn more about exoplanets and what they can teach us about our own world and worlds beyond what we can understand, the potential for advancement as a human race will only increase in knowledge and advancement.

1.1
The CIPD Profession Map was originally launched in 2009 at the CIPD HRD Conference to set the standards within HR. According to the speech of chief executive of CIPD, Jackie Orme, “The HR profession is changing. More will be required of the HR professional of the future, and today’s practitioners need to be equipped with the capabilities to meet these demands” (Woods 2009). All these standards and competences have been designed through cooperation with HR specialists, academics, business leaders and their organizations describing the requirements for the HR professional development and increasing HR value at the organizational level.
The map covers 10 professional areas and 8 behaviours at 4 different bands of competencies. (as demonstrated in the figure below).
The professional areas
Referring to the definition given by CIPD, “The professional areas describe what you need to do (activities) and what you need to know (knowledge) for each area of the HR profession”. (CIPD 2013, pg 5).
On the figure it is shown that there are 2 core Human Resources areas (“Insights, Strategy and Solutions” and “Leading HR”) which are described at the center of the map. These areas are applicable for all HR roles in all sectors regardless organization type, location and etc.
• “Insights, Strategy and Solutions” area enhances understanding of organisation type and helps to create strategy and solutions to meet business requirements /
• “Leading HR” area plays a main role in extension of HR impact at all organizational levels by developing and supporting others through administration practices.
There are also 8 specialist professional areas shown on the CIPD Profession Map. These professional areas show knowledge and skills needed for HR practitioner to support HR activities.
• Organisation design
• Organisation development
• Resourcing and talent planning
• Learning and talent development
• Performance and reward
• Employee engagement
• Employee relations
• Service delivery and information
The behaviours
Below 8 behaviours give detailed explanation how HR professional should perform his duties:
• Curious – future oriented and looking for innovations;
• Decisive thinker – correct evaluation of the available data and capability to convert information through the best way to achieve a target;
• Skilled influencer – influencing and persuading people to get required the necessary commitment and support from diverse stakeholders in pursuit to gain organisation value;
• Personally credible – building and keeping profitable relationship to bring value to the organization and its stakeholders;
• Collaborative – working in a team effectively to achieve team results;
• Driven to deliver – correct and punctual application of the work instructions and standards;
• Courage to challenge – capability to demonstrate self-confidence while handling with complex problem and facing with others circumstances;
• Role model – consistently leads by example, act with a transparency and sincerity in line with organisational standards.
Bands
The ten professional areas are divided into four different bands with various levels of responsibilities and the hierarchy of the profession (as described in the below table):
Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Delivering fundamentals and client support Advising and managing HR issues Dealing with HR challenges at organizational level Developing the organizational and HR strategy

1.2
I am working as Training Specialist in Human Resources department. With reference to my position, currently I see myself at Band 1 at “Learning and talent development” professional area.
HR Specialist working at “Learning and talent development” area should ensure the development of the organisation resources through the creation of training activities which meet both individual and business requirements. Within this area HR practitioner requires knowledge of effective methodologies for planning, delivery and evaluation of training activities. Also HR specialists should have a good understanding of business type, sector of operations and internal and external factors which impact the business.
By applying the CPD Map, I would consider the below behaviours required for the future development within my HR/L&D role.
? Curious – This ability helps to collect all needed information and data and apply to learning and development activities. Additionally, it is important to practice innovative solutions to develop training programs (ex. improving distance learning tools).
? Decisive thinker – This behaviour is required to analyze and identify training needs of personnel and operation requirements to set individual training plans and training matrices.
? Driven to deliver – It is another behavioural strength necessary to arrange all training activities in timely manner to meet all project, client, organisational and legislation requirements.
In my working role, I have to work with the employees at all organizational levels and cooperate in a team to achieve target results as well as build a network of relationships. It is important to be well organized, have good analytical, communicational and leadership skills.
An effective L/D practitioner should ensure that the required person gets required skills and competencies within allocated time frame to meet organisational needs.
2.1
As a service department, HR deals with various customers (both external and internal). There are three main customers of HR department:
• Current employees – one of the employees’ needs is to receive appropriate training and development plans in line of his professional role within the company. HR/L&D practitioner is responsible to implement balanced training and development programs based on an employee’s performance and skill evaluations.
• Managers – one of managers’ needs is to have qualified and competent personnel able to perform their activities in an effective and timely manner to achieve business targets. HR/L&D practitioner is required to monitor employees’ performance, have a clear vision of the workforce, and proceed with required training arrangements in time.
• Future employees – need to participate in a fair recruiting program having a clear vision of applied job. Effective HR/L&D practitioner should establish right recruitment system, collect and sort necessary employee data (CVs, candidates’ available certifications).
Taking into account different requirements, customer needs may be conflicting sometimes. For instance, the managers’ need to involve the employees with the specific certification may be conflicting with the lack of required certification of the current employees due to workload of latter. In such situations, HR should support the organisation to achieve targets in time and ensure the employees satisfaction. Precisely for our case, it would be recommended to ease employees’ workload by replacing them for the training period and allowing taking the required certification, which, in turn, will meet both users’ needs.
The best way to prioritise needs is to be focused on an importance and urgency of the needs, hence, identifying the needs to be done first regardless the level of customers, and to be concentrated on the results, which will eventually impact on the organisation’s needs. HR/L&D practitioner should be flexible and patient while solving customer needs and be able to respond in the required time frame.
2.2
Communication is the process of sending / receiving information that allows people to share and exchange opinions. Effective communication is more than sharing information. Rather than that, it ensures that the required message is successfully delivered, received and understood.
Communication plays a key role within Human Resources department. Effective two-way communication through HR internal channels impacts on personnel morale, productivity and employee engagement. HR specialists have to ensure clear and timely communication between employees within the organisation. There are three categories of communication:
Verbal Communication – face-to-face conversations, telephone calls, trainings, meetings, etc.
Advantages Disadvantages
Direct Not documented / recorded
Provide immediate feedback Shared information may be forgotten
Allow for exchange of opinions Jargons / dialects may be poorly understood

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Written Communication – emails, reports, documents, minutes of meeting, policies, etc.
Advantages Disadvantages
Documented / recorded May not be read
Wide distribution list Does not provide immediate feedback
Can be written carefully Language barriers

Non-verbal (graphic) Communication – posters, banners, and social media channels, etc.
Advantages Disadvantages
Quick to interpret May not be looked at
Eye-catching Symbols may be unknown
Visual No feedback

2.3
HR deals with various services both internal and external. Due to fact that HR is involved at several areas such as training and development, recruitment, performance and reward, HR function should be proactive, innovative and responsive. As Mark Souter, HR Product Sales Lead at ServiceNow, explains that “HR service delivery is a perfect way to make a truly meaningful impact to the future of your business” (Souter 2017).
Below are some key components for effective service delivery.
? Delivering service on time – all HR services should be delivered within the agreed time frame to avoid conflicts. It can be achieved by correct planning of workload and identifying priorities.
? Delivering service on budget – can be achieved as a result of effective collaboration with Finance department. HR should keep records of allocated and spent budget and report it accordingly.
? Dealing with difficult customers – requires effective communication at all levels. HR/L&D practitioners need to stay calm, non-defensive, try to find compromise and respond in line with organizational policies and procedures.
? Handling and resolving complaints – all complaints should be reviewed and discussed in time, the customer should receive prompt and clear feedback. HR/L&D practitioners should ensure confidentiality and be proactive. It could be achieved by good communication channels to discuss and resolve the problem or difficult situation at the early stages before the conflict occurs.

1. The graphic includes a map of the minimum wage laws in the United States. Before then, the minimum wage was set to correspond with productivity in the economy. If the federal minimum had kept that pace, the minimum wage would have been nearly under $19. However, in 2009, a federal minimum wage was set at $7.25 nationwide. Some states and cities have raised their minimum wages to $11.50 per hour. When the minimum wage goes up, the employers also increase their costs on to the consumers in the form of higher prices, or cut costs elsewhere – leading to less full service and be more customer self-service. As a result, fewer hours and jobs are available for less-skilled and less experienced employees.

https://www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/america.htm – stateDetails

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https://www.marketplace.org/2016/07/25/business/after-seven-years-minimum-wage-worth-lot-less

2. The reason why I chose this article is because I am an advocate for higher minimum wage in California. Raising the minimum wage is one of the best tools we have to lift incomes our economy. Two years ago in 2016, Governor Brown sign SB 3, a bill that increases the minimum wage in California to $15 per hour by 2022. The state governor’s decision makes California, the first state in the United States to promise to raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour statewide. However, from doing my research, a new study from economists at the University of California, Irvine and the National Bureau of Economic research find that over the past 30 years, increases in the minimum wage have not reduced poverty rates in disadvantaged neighborhoods. While a few employees who earn a salary increase might benefit from a wage increase, those that lose their job are noticeably worse off.

* Extra credit: This website is for the new study that I put in the paragraph, it is an interesting article that relates to chapter 5 (price control)
https://www.epionline.org/oped/minimum-wage-hikes-a-poor-way-of-lifting-people-out-of-poverty) *

3. These two articles relate to Chapter 5 Price Controls (“What Effects Do Price Floors Have On Economic Activity” pg .160). Most people believe that raising the minimum wage is a simple step that the government can take to improve the standard of living of the low income people. However, what they don’t realize is that business generally wants to keep costs down, so in the long run, they will try to reduce the amount they spend on labor. They might replace workers with machinery, shorten work hours, or even relocate to states that don’t have minimum wage laws.

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