1.5 Assess the risks attached to making judgments based on limited or unrepresentative samples
There are a number of risks which are attached to the making of conclusions. First unrepresentative samples may be misleading. This is because; they may only show one side of the topic under study. Hence, the information obtained from limited and unrepresentative samples will not provide reliable information which is vital in making the reliable findings about a research topic.
Secondly, limited samples are affected by few variables. For example, a study on a small population which is only affected by cholera may not provide sufficient information on a topic relating to the study of all waterborne diseases. More so, a researcher will not be able to make satisfactory wide conclusion about a study topic since the information presented by a limited sample is limited. Lastly, unrepresentative samples put the research work at the risk of christened as one that creates a sense of conflict of interest. This is because, limited samples provide less information which creates a niche for nuanced understanding about a topic of interest.
1.6 Assess the risks attached to generalising research findings
Generalisation of findings is risky because it may be misleading. Generalisation uses a representative idea which may not apply to all. For example, generalisation about certain behaviours in a population may not provide a vivid explanation because the behaviour in question may be affected by variables like age, gender and/or social statuses. Additionally, generalisation creates the risk of unreliability of data and findings. A study which is deemed to be unreliable is not applicable in the context of research.
For example, a generalisation on certain cultural norms of a target population may lead to disagreements within the population under study. Those who do not agree with the findings may render the research findings as untrue which make them unreliable. Lastly, it creates the risk of conflict of interests. Herein, generalisation may be deemed as the idea of the researcher. Therefore, the generalised idea may be perceived as the personal stipulation of the researcher which also makes the validity of research findings questionable.
1.7 Explain different formats and techniques for the presentation of the analysis
• Graphical format. This involves bar and line graphs. It consists of both the independent and dependent variables located on each axis of the graph.
• Pie charts. These show the specific share of each item under study.
• Scorecards. They show the specific rating of a specific item under study.
• Maps, texts and Images. These show the specific location, appearance and meaning of certain aspects regarding to the topic of interest under study.