1. Introduction
South African is faced with many environmental issues today, of which one of those environmental issues is climate change. And I have chosen this type of environmental issue to conduct an assignment about. Firstly to understand this type of environmental issue, climate change is defined as a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onward and attributed largely to increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels. And in my essay I will firstly discuss the causes of this issues in South Africa, then illustrate by means of data what the nature and extent of this issue, also discuss the implementation’s, and provide possible solutions to this issues that south Africans are still facing today.
According to (Wiley J;Sons.2014, 605-606) Climate change is a key concern within South Africa. Mean annual temperatures have increased by at least 1.5 times the observed global average of 0.65 degree Celsius over the past 5 decades and extreme rainfall events have increased in frequency. These changes are likely to continue; the 2013 South African Long Term Adaptation Scenarios and the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 suggest warming relative to 1986-2005 of 3-6 degree Celsius but 2081-2100 in the interior, yet less certain precipitation changes in terms of both direction and magnitude. South Africa is a 7, 4 metric ton developing country and it contributed 42% of total emission of carbon dioxide in Africa.
According to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on climate change, between 1880 and 2012, global temperatures increased by 0.85 degree Celsius. The organisation asserts that sea levels have risen by 19cm from 1901 to 2010 as a result of melting and glacial retreat. ”From cape town to Houston mayors are seeing severe drought, storms, fires and more,” said Antha Williams, head of environmental programmes at Bloomberg Philanthropies and C40 board member. Major South African centres are at risk from the effects of climate change says an international report. Four coastal cities Cape town, Durban, Port Elizabeth and East Landon, and Paarl which is an island, are at the risk of flooding by 2050, says C40 cities Future We Don’t Want report. According to the organisation, which could connects 96 global cities; rising sea levels could have a devastating impact on South Africa as the effects of climate change hits. C40 says that 800 million people, living in 570 coastal cities could be affected by rising sea levels by 2050. (News24:2018).
Climate change can be caused by many factors including us human beings. Climate change should not be understood as a single ’cause’ or a ‘single set of effects’ there are many elements of changing climate: increase in Arctic temperatures, reduced size of icebergs, melting of icecaps and glaciers, reduced permafrost, change in rainfall, reduced biodiversity. New wind patterns, more droughts and heat waves, and more frequent tropical cyclones and other extreme weather event, according to Urry (2011:6).

The greenhouse effect: shortwave radiation from the sun is absorbed by the earth’s surface which, in turn, Greenhouse effect radiates heat at far longer wavelength because of its temperature of around 280*k, compared with around 6000*k for the sun.

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The global climate system is driven by energy from the sun, several gases in the atmosphere act to trap the energy from the sun, thus warming the earth. This are called greenhouse gases and the process is the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have an effect on the global heat balance, since carbon dioxide is virtually transparent to incoming solar radiation but absorbs outgoing terrestrial’s infra-red radiation to incoming that would otherwise escape to space and result in the loss of heat from the lower atmosphere (figure1). This is called the greenhouse effects
Greenhouse gas effect which maintains its higher internal temperature largely because the shelter it offers reduces the turbulent transfers of energy away from the surface rather than because of any radioactive considerations. Thus while the greenhouse effect remains valid and vital.
Global temperatures have risen over the past century by at least 0.7 degree Celsius. This increase appears to be the result of higher levels of greenhouse gases GHGs in the earth’s atmosphere. Such GHGs trap the sun’s rays. As a result of this greenhouse effect, the earth warms.
Climate change poses a significant threat to South Africans water resources, food security, health, infrastructure, as well as its ecosystem services and biodiversity. Considering South Africans high levels of poverty and inequality, these implications bring critical changes for national development.
South African citizens should be concerned about climate change because it may lead to many problems if these issues is not addressed or attended to. The following are the implication that south Africans are at risk of facing if this environmental issue is not giving enough attentions: rising in the sea levels could lead to massive storm surges that could raise water levels by up to 6cm, increased frequency and intensity of the storms and floods, an increase in droughts, ocean acidification, global warming ecosystem changes will affect various species, growing inequality, water, energy and food shortages impacts on industry and areas where people live in and an increase in diseases In business report. People in different provinces in South Africa are faced with the implications of climate change; people in the Western Cape are also facing the threat of long-term drought as a result of climate change (News24, 2018).
As we can note, climate change has many implications and most importantly people in South Africa should be worried about their health as climate change can have various impacts on human health. Climate change is likely to have widespread, diverse, and on the whole negative impacts on human health. The impacts include changes in location and incidence of infectious and diarrhoeal diseases, increases in air and water pollution in many location, increase in risk of heat stress, increases in intensity and frequency of many extreme events, and increased risks of malnutrition and other consequences of poor food quality. In addition, disruption of natural ecosystems could enable the further spread of infectious diseases, and climate change- induced human migration can be injurious to mental and physical health. On the whole, climate change has begun to negatively affect the human health (Lisa et al., 2009:411).
Many crops yield are delicately dependent on a particular mix of temperatures, soil conditions, and rainfall patterns that could be disrupted by global warming. High latitudes region that would become available for agriculture may not provide such favourable conditions. Rescued yields and less-than-needed yield improvements, combined with growing population and higher food prices, could seriously jeopardize the world’s food security (Urry. 2011:5).
Freshwater supplies; global warming would reduce stream flows and increase pressure on groundwater while worsening the pollution discharge into smaller flows. This effect could exacerbate the worlds existing water problems. However it is clear that there are many implication as to regards to climate change and these implications are bought by the causes of climate change so if the causes of this environmental issue are to be ignored or not dealt with, South African citizens may find themselves experiencing these implications or problems.

This research studies that Talent management is important for modern organizations because of the Modern economy system. In this research, the relationship between employee retention and talent management is founded through different test and surveys .The research method is quantitative research method. The data collection and statistical information has been collected from different employees from different places in Karachi included Banks, Multinational companies and universities. the sample size that was used to gather in this research is 100 based on structured questions. The result of hypothesis indicate that is it is insignificant due to the variable used in the surveys were rejected.
Keywords: Employee Retention, Talent Management, Job Security, Incentive, Job Experience, Organizational Trust, Training and Development.
The practical world is evolving at a quick pace and requires different type of people. People who are expert Talent management demand hard work and dedication. Recruiting qualified candidates is not enough, a successful talent management is to have skilled workforce and compete succession planning (Elia, Ghazzawi, Arnaout, 2017).factors having greater impact on retaining talented employees are HR policies and career management as well because in today’s economic world in whcich new generation is entering the HRM demand more strategies and competition (Isfehani, Boustani, 2014).
Talent management is an approach that is widely used throughout the world to lessen the turnover rate in the organizations to keep the best people for the job and The implication of talent management policies and factors effecting employee retention may seem a little difficult but can prove a big hit in any organizations if applied carefully and accordingly.
To identify the role of talent management on human retention and how Job Security, Job Experience, training and coaching, incentives and organizational trust can effect it in the long run in Pakistan.
The main objective of this paper is to find out the importance of talent management on employee retention and whether the aforementioned factors have any or whatsoever effect on it. And if the HR policies regarding talent management is being applied in companies in Pakistan.
The importance of study of this paper is the result calculated of the factors affecting employees retention and HR policies being applied carefully and thoroughly. The result will calculated through statistical and a questionnaire survey conducted from a hundered people living in mostly Karachi, Paksitan.
Talent management refers to the anticipation of required human capital the organization needs at the time then setting a plan to meet those need (Mangusho et al., 2015) Talent management practice within organization is an international human resource strategy that seeks to identify, develop, deploy and retain talented and high potential employees(Murei et al., 2015). According toMohammed (2015), organizations able to attract, develop and retain talented employees then organization will be able to achieve employee engagement, retention and value addition for the success of the organization. Talent management can de describesd as active and dynamic process of developing, determine and prolong talent within the organization.
2.1:The 3 main flows of Talent Management are:
Human resources practices as recruiting, selecting, training, developing, career and succession planning acquires talent management for solving strategic issues
Talented individuals are the key aspect for organizational successful working. Efficient employees are considered as main competition edge. The source of success for leaders and companies consists in the creation of a pool of skilled and motivated people that enables in the long run a phenomenon of recruitment of external talents and a process of knowledge’s development for the existing employees.
The companies using talent management strategies help in driving employee engagement, Corporate Leadership Council study (2011). Activity that goes beyond the corporate boundaries and the positions company offers.

? JOB EXPERIENCE: It is explained as that employees need challenges and experiences to grow, and this is especially true for high-potential employees so that ease can be found for organizations and for employees hired or looking for a new job as well.

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? COACHING: Employees must use knowledge of their strengths and consequent areas where they can improve to be able to develop in the best possible manner by learning something new and pushing the boundaries of learning.

? TRAINING: Management development can be enhanced by foundational managerial education and high-impact leadership development. Most of the time, training is seen as an investment into the employee development. Firms and organizations emphasize to their employees in this way so that they are valued and respected and get rewarded and appreciated with employee retention and loyalty in return.

? JOB SECURITY: The process of actively figuring out crucial roles within the firm, identifying and assessing possible successors, and providing them with the appropriate skills and experience for present and future roles.

? INCENTIVES: An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform their best at what they do. This process is now widely used to motivate employees to creative, more productive and lessen the turnover rate.
According to Dries, N.(2013), “Tell a person they are talented and they become it” Talent management is commonly concerned with the theory that it creates two self-fulfilling prophecies. The first prophecy is Pygmalion effects that the encouragement and support of being associated with talent might lead people to actual increase in their performances. Meaning that after being associated with talent, the evaluation on the said person shows that the performance is partly artifact of self-fulfilling prophecy which should be the clear go-ahead for the to start investing in the resources for their employees instead of looking outside for the help or solution.
The second prophecy is Success Syndrome commonly known as crowned prince syndrome which states ” Tell a person they are talented and, they stop trying” explains that when people are sure that their position in the firm is permanent (senior management), they stop trying or working hard as compared to those who are not assured of their jobs (temporary employees). It has led HR practitioners to belief that it is far more better to hide from people knowing that they are talented.
A final assumption is that “You can’t tell people you don’t consider them talented” meaning talent management policies should not be openly discussed because it leads to employee’s disappointment, frustration and dissatisfaction for not being recognized as talented. Studies show that only one in three organizations disclose the information regarding talent management policies to their employees.
Employee retention refers that all efforts that are done by organization increases the chances of employees to stay in the organization for longer period of time. The top five Employee retention in organization factors included: (Boustani, 2014)

(1) exciting work/challenge
(2) career growth/learning
(3) relationships/working with great staffs and employees
(4) fair pay and
(5) supportive management/great manager and supervisor.
Research shows that the companies that invest in their employee’s best interest have a lower rate of turnover of employee retention. Employees are motivated to be loyal and remain at organizations that provide them with a sense of pride and value. Some of the factors that play an important role in employee retention are career opportunities, organizational justice, work-life balance, potential for growth and development, organization’s image and work environment. (Hafez, AbouelNeel ; Elsaid2, 2017)
The organizations are taking huge steps in attracting and retaining talented employees to boost their business since the quality of manpower is believed to be the most important asset. Where it is considered very difficult for an organization to retain their talent pool but minimizing the number of employee turnover rate is highly possible with proper use of strategies.
The number of reasons for an employee may be:
i. Increased work load
ii. Bosses style
iii. Lack of incentive
iv. Missing clear growth of career
The aforementioned reason for employee turnover may cause a firm following costs ( Elia, Ghazzawi, Arnaout, 2017):
? Recruitment in terms of time and resources to allocate and select a candidate.
? Training in terms of money and time to train them.
? Lost productivity in terms of the time lost while recruiting and training the employees.
The organizations always try hard to manage lower job satisfaction, poor supervision and poor incentives to make sure to avoid turnover because sometimes few turnover can be unavoidable (Mohammed, 2015)

1. The first name given to Brazil by the colonialists was “Terra do Santa Cruz” – “land of the Holy Cross.”
2. In terms of population, Brazil takes the 5th place.
3. Brazil prepares the most delicious coffee drinks.
4. The largest and richest city in Brazil is Sao Paulo.
5. There is no official religion in this country.
6. In Brazil, in each apartment, there are about 3 bathrooms
7. the capital of Brazil, Brasilia was built in just 41 days.
8. Brazil has the most brutal police.
9. No one arrives on time in Brazil.
10. Approximately 1.5 million Japanese lives in Brazil, it is the largest number of people outside Japan.
11. In Brazil, about 15% of the population cannot read and write.
12. Women in Brazil got voting rights in 1946.
13. Brazil was the first country in South America to allow women in armed forces.
14. Brazil holds the 60% of total Amazon Rainforest.
15. There are 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Brazil.
16. Brazil is considered the largest producer of apples.
17. Alone Brazil occupies half of South America’s total landmass.
18. When married, women in Brazil do not change names, but simply combine 2 names.
19. Portuguese ruled Brazil for more than 300 years.
20. The Brazilian national team has won FIFA World Cup 5 times.
21. Almost all cars in Brazil go on biofuel.
22. Brazilians are considered the most talkative people.
23. The national sport of Brazil is football, therefore in all cities of this state, there is at least 1 stadium.
24. Cocoa is considered to be the favorite drink of Brazilian people.
25. Cheese bread is considered a classic breakfast for all Brazilians.
26. In Brazil, there is the largest tropical forest.
27. At night, drivers in Brazil are allowed to ride when the traffic light is red.
28. In Brazil, the crime rate is very high.
29. Brazil has the largest number of species of plant, mammal and freshwater fish in the world.
30. Till 1961, Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil.
31. In ancient times, Brazil was a colonial state.
32. There are about 4,000 airports in Brazil.
33. Traffic Jams in big cities of Brazil is so common and can reach up to waiting for 3-4 hours.
34. Brazilian speak the Portuguese language.
35. In total, about 6% of the country’s population live in slums.
36. The largest stadium in Brazil is Maracana, it has the capacity of more than 78,000 thousand people.
37. Brazil is the member of UNESCO.
38. Here flows the largest river in the world – the Amazon.
39. Only Brazilian athletes participated in all world championships.
40. Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee.
41. Baia do Sancho beach is considered to be the most beautiful beach in Brazil.
42. Every year in Brazil visits 6 million tourists.
43. Brazil carnival lasts for 4 days and it is declared a national holiday.
44. The national dish of Brazil is Feijoada.
45. In Sao Paulo outdoor advertising is ban.
46. Smoking in public is banned in Brazil, even E-cigarettes are banned.
47. Carnival in Rio De Janeiro is the biggest festival of the world.
48. Brazilians are an open and positive people. They like dancing, beer, and football.
49. São Vicente is the oldest city in Brazil.
50. the 40-meter-high statue of Christ in Rio de Janeiro is in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
51. Only in Brazil, there is a law that allows you to reduce your prison sentence for reading books.
52. Jaguar is the national animal of Brazil.
53. In Brazil, 15% of the world’s fresh water is concentrated.
54. Pico da Neblina is the highest mountain in Brazil.
55. There are three time zones in Brazil.
56. The life expectancy of Brazil is 75 years.
57. Brazil has more species of monkeys than any other country.
58. Bororo is the group of people in Brazil who all have the same blood group ‘O’.
59. There are approximately 4 million plants in Brazil.
60. Christmas is considered the main event in Brazil.

1. East Germany started constructing a wall on August 13th, 1961.
2. After the defeat of Germany in World War II, Germany was divided into 4 zones and it was controlled by 4 Allied powers.
3. West Germany was controlled by France, Great Britain, and America.
4. The Soviet Union controlled East Germany.
5. The capital of Germany, Berlin was also divided into East and West Berlin.
6. The main reason behind the construction of Berlin wall was to stop East Germans moving to West German
7. It took only four months to make the Berlin Wall.
8. After construction of Berlin wall, even the subways were divided.
9. Before construction of the wall, the West Germans were allowed to visit East with a permit in advance.
10. In 1961, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev approved the construction of the wall.
11. The east side of the wall was not covered in graffiti but West side was.
12. Despite the construction of the wall, there were several checkpoints that allowed people to visit another side.
13. The Berlin Wall was 155 kilometers long.
14. The wall was about 11 to 13 feet high.
15. At first, the wall was just a barbed wire fence. Then it turned into a concrete wall.
16. The Berlin Wall was thought as the cruelty of Soviets, they had control over the people of East Berlin and their willingness to shoot at people they thought were traitors.
17. The wall was known as ‘Iron Curtain’.
18. The wall literally divided Europe into democracy and communism.
19. Charlie Checkpoint was the most famous crossing point and is still famous for the museum.
20. After the construction of the wall, about 5,000 people tried to escape.
21. It is estimated that 138 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall.
22. Before the construction of the wall, 3.5 million East Germans fled to West Germany.
23. Many segments of the wall are given in different institutions around the world.
24. East Germany adopted the currency of West Germany On July 1st, 1990.
25. The construction was started overnight. In the morning when people woke up there was wire fence dividing the Berlin.
26. In 1979, a Swedish woman married to the Berlin Wall.
27. For two years, starting in 2010, a memorial complex “Berlin Wall” was built.
28. About 28 million euros were invested in the creation of the memorial.
29. In 1963, West Germany tried to destroy the wall with a tank but failed.
30. Athlete Usain Bolt, who set his fantastic world record in Germany, received as a gift a piece of the Berlin Wall weighing.
31. There were 20 bunkers and 302 observatory towers on Berlin Wall.
32. The pieces of Berlin Wall were sold on eBay.
33. If West Berliners want to get rid of anything they used to throw it on the other side of the wall.
34. The wall divided the Berlin for 28 years and a day.
35. In 1989 the border of Hungary was opened which made the route of escape to Austria for East Germans.
36. The last person who died in process of crossing the wall was escaping in the hot air balloon.
37. November 9th, 1989, was the date known for the demolition of Berlin wall.
38. Actual demolition started on June 13th, 1990 and from 9th November 1989 and June 13th, 1990 the wall was guarded.
39. The Berlin Wall was actually two walls. There is an area of 160 yards between two walls and there were watchtowers, guard dog runs, tripwire machine gums and many more.
40. The Soviets added thousands of machine gun inside the Wall to control the people of East from escaping.
41. The demolition of wall started when East German Politburo member Guenther Schabowski, mistakenly announces that we will demolish the wall immediately.
42. David Bowie performed on the West Berlin wall and all the east side people were listening him through wall. He addressed them from the stage: “We convey our best wishes to all our friends on the other side of the Wall!
43. The East Side Graffiti of wall is the largest and most famous of the remaining sections of the Berlin Wall. Now it is an open-air art gallery.
44. In the year 1989, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher requested Soviet President to stop the demolition of Berlin wall.
45. An East German soldier drove the tank to escape the wall in 1963.
46. In the first two years of the wall’s existence, more than 1,300 desperate guards escaped their oppressed lives and duties by fleeing to the west.
47. 98 people were shot or killed when they were trying to escape through wall.
48. The demolition of the wall also ended Cold War.
49. East and West Germany were reunited On October 3, 1990.
50. Present time, two rows of cobblestones are set along the Berlin wall in the Berlin.

1. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COX inhibitors)
the drugs have the following effects:
Anti inflammatory action: they provide symptomatic relief from pain and swelling in chronic joint disease i.e. in osteo-arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. They decrease prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin reduces vasodilation and, indirectly, oedema. However, the inflammatory cells are not directly reduced.
Analgesic action: it reduces headaches by decreasing prostaglandin mediated vasodilation. This is through the reduction of prostaglandin generation making the nociceptive nerve endings less sensitive to inflammatory mediators like bradykinins and 5-hydroxytryptamine.
Antipyretic action: NSAIDs prevent the release of prostaglandins from interleukin-1 in the central nervous system. This reduces the hypothalamic set point for temperature control, thereby reducing fever.
Examples of NSAIDs are:- aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, piroxicam.
Many NSAID’s have different functions and composition but they primarily target fatty acid COX enzymes and thereby inhibiting the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Other functions of NSAID’s in inflammatory effects are:
• Inhibition of vasodilation and oedema to reduce peripheral COX-2-generated prostaglandin synthesis
• Reduce harmful superoxide free radical generation by neutrophils and macrophages
• Uncouple G-protein regulated processes in the cell membrane of inflammatory cells. This reduces their responsiveness to some agonists released by damaged tissue


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