1.1.1 services. Further technological developments have increased

1.1.1 International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) As mentioned by ITU on their website 1, a
definition of adaptive systems was introduced into the Radio Regulations more
than a decade ago. Adaptive systems are defined as being capable of modifying
their parameters, including frequency and power, in order to improve the
quality of reception. Today, such systems are limited to the medium and high
frequency bands, where propagation conditions vary significantly. Regulatory
provisions applicable to adaptive systems prohibit their operation in the bands
used by safety services, as well as by the radio astronomy, radio determination,
amateur and broadcasting services. Further technological developments have
increased the capabilities of adaptive systems. Software plays an important
role in this respect, making it possible to analyze the radio environment and
adjust system characteristics to specific operational situations.

 1.1.2 Federal Communications Commission (FCC) As mentioned by FCC
on their website 2, the cognitive radio is a radio that senses its
operational electromagnetic environment and can dynamically and autonomously
adjust its radio operating parameters to modify system operation, such as
maximize throughput, mitigate interference, facilitate interoperability, access
secondary markets.

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1.1.3 National
Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) as mentioned by
NTIA on their website 3, the cognitive radio system is a radio communication
system that is aware of its environment and internal state and can make 2
decisions about, and adjust, its operating characteristics based on information
and predefined objectives. There is rising demand for data traffic as the
wireless spectrum in various bands are getting congested. A static spectrum
management cannot provide a sufficient spectrum for this growing demand. The
use of CR technology can solve the issue, as intelligent radio devices can
sense the environment and efficiently access the available radio spectrum. This
technology may be helpful in various mobile cellular network.

1.2
Cognitive Radio Characteristics As
mentioned by Nikhil and Vipin Shukla 4, there is scarcity of two basic
resources of communications, i.e., energy and bandwidth, due to increase in
demand of service quality and channel capacity in wireless networks. Therefore,
there is need to focus on how to efficiently utilize these scarce resources.
Cognitive radio technology can effectively utilize these limited resources
because of its two basic characteristics, i.e., cognitive capability and
reconfigurability. Cognitive capability: It enables CR to check, sense, and
collect information such as transmission frequency, type of modulation, power,
and bandwidth from surrounding environment, which ultimately helps secondary
users to have the best available spectrum. Reconfigurability: It is the ability
to change cognitive radio’s operational parameters according to collected
information in order to achieve better performance. 

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