· the audience felt their traditional values being

·      When the play was performed, sets had to accuratelyreflect that of traditional European homes·      In order to do this, the box set was developed tofit a three-dimensional interior·      Three flats formed an open box and acted as thewalls of the house, with the fourth wall removed so that the audience could seeinto the house·      Furniture, such as rugs, chairs, fixtures and otherdécor was selected to decorate the set as a typical house would·      Acting styles also changed, becoming lessexaggerated, with softer speaking and predictable, natural movements·      To prevent the actors from having to yell and toimprove acoustics and visuals, the cylindrical theaters of the past that led tohyperbolic actions so that the message could reach those furthest away becamefan-shaped auditoriums·      This allowed for less exaggeration and often, insmaller theaters, actions could be further toned-down·      One of Ibsen’s stage directions calls for “aroom cluttered with a bric-a-brac and overstuffed chairs’ to link oppressiveroom with the oppressive marriage between Nora and Torvald ·       Throughrealism, and theaters reflecting everyday life, the audience is drawn in andforced to relate messages and themes presented to their society, leading to controversyas the audience felt their traditional values being challenged as opposed tothe values of a hyperbolic, hypothetic society; it was a direct assaultEnglish handout, https://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/spd130et/realism.htm,http://crossref-it.info/articles/518/naturalism-and-realism Loans and Banks·       Torvaldgets a new job managing a savings bank in 19th century Norway·      At this point, the overall number of banks,especially private banks was increasing·      Of the private banks, there were savings andcommercial banks·      “The first savings bank, Christiania Sparebank,was established in 1822, and the first commercial bank, Christiania Bank ogKreditkasse, in 1848″·      Savings banks helped the ordinary people by way ofsafe-guarding their money·      These banks were not involved in excessiveloans, and were in theory a more safe, constant·      They had to send reports the Ministry of Finance,and later the Inspectorate of Savings Banks as they had to follow regulationsto maintain their constant nature·      Typically, small, community-oriented banks·      Savings banks had a maximun interest rate for mortgageloans so they perfrered to deal with other long term loans·      Any loans given would involve small, frequentpayments, even over long terms acting as collateral ·      Commercial banks had limited liability and couldoperate as the saw fit, so inverters invested at their own risk·      They, while being small in size, extended past singlecommunities, and gave more short-term loans, often involving collateral·      Norges Hypotekbank  was the only state owned bank at the time(1852-1903) and mainly dealt with mortgage loans,especially from farmers·      All banks began to loan more after the 1850s,with savings banks providing the most loans·      All of this loaning improved the economy in the1870s and early  80s but later in the 89san economic crisis occurred·      Commercial banks began lending more, and becamemore successful than savings banks, leading to an increase in the number of commercialbanks (48 in 1895 to 82 in 1900)·      The loan Nora takes in ‘A Doll’s House’ is along-term loan from a savings bank, explaining the monthly payments she makes(small sums over a longer period of time)·      Torvald, when he becomes manager, will run asmall savings bank, which suits his character, as he abides by regulations aslong as they don’t threaten him·      It suits his character to work at a more stablebank whose loans follow a set formula of repayment so that corruption isminimized·       http://www.norges-bank.no/globalassets/upload/hms/pdf/hmsi_chapter10.pdf Christmas Celebration in Norway·       Familycentred- with many of the same Western values of joy, warmth and festiveness·      Christmas workshops bring people together to dofestive activities and enjoy company (more modern but same values)·      Baking is also important, and a tradition is tobake ‘seven sorts’ of pastry·      “gingerbread cookies (pepperkaker), ‘goodadvice’ waffles (goro), ginger nuts (ingefærnøtter)” are commonly baked·      Lille Julaften, or ‘Little Christmas Eve’ occurson Dec.23rd and involves a family gathering to prepare for Christmaseve on the 24th, it is common to eat porridge with an almond hiddenamong multiple portions and for the receiver of the almond to get a prize·      Fjøsnisse is a gnome-like creature originatingfrom common folklore and is said to bestow prosperity and luck onto a family ifthey please it, often by leaving a bowl of porridge and Christmas dinnerleftovers out·      If one offends the fjøsnisse, they could experiencemisfortune·      Julaften is Christmas eve, when the mainChristmas celebration occurs·      People often play games, carol around the Christmastree, open presents and spend time with family·      Julebukk occurs between Christmas and New Years,children and adults carol for mandarins and candy or schnapps respectively ·      In A Doll’s House, Nora walks out, leaving herfamily behind during the Christmas period, contrasting the happy,family-centered values of a Norwegian Christmas·      This juxtaposition makes clear the issues withinNora and Torvald’s marriage and family, and the ruined Christmas suits theruined marriage between the two·      http://norwegianarts.org.uk/norwegian-christmas-traditions/·        


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